King of the Gypsies

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Part of a series on
Romani people
Flag of the Romani people

The title King of the Gypsies has been claimed or given over the centuries to many different people. It is both culturally and geographically specific. It may be inherited, acquired by acclamation or action, or simply claimed. The extent of the power associated with the title varied; it might be limited to a small group in a specific place, or many people over large areas. In some cases the claim was clearly a public relations exercise. As the term Gypsy is also used in many different ways the King of the Gypsies may be someone with no connection with the Romani people. In the early 1970s, it was decided, at the First Annual Romani Meeting that the term Gypsy would no-longer be used to describe themselves. They voted for the term Roma to be used.

It has also been suggested that in places where they were persecuted by local authorities the "King of the Gypsies" is an individual, usually of low standing, who places himself in the risky position of an ad hoc liaison between the Romani and the gadje (non-Romani). The arrest of such a "King" limited the harm to the Romani people.[1]

Scotland[edit]

John (Johnnie) Faa[edit]

Johnnie Faa of Dunbar was leader of the 'Egyptians', or Gypsies, in Scotland. Faa was granted a letter under the Privy Seal from King James IV in February 1540, which was renewed in 1553. It was addressed to "oure louit Johnne Faw, lord and erle of Litill Egipt" establishing his authority over all Gypsies in Scotland and calling on all sheriffs in the country to assist him "in executione of justice upoun his company and folkis", who were to "conforme to the lawis of Egipt".

He is resurrected in fiction in S. R. Crockett's The Raiders and in Philip Pullman's trilogy His Dark Materials.

Johnne Wanne[edit]

Son and successor of Johnnie Faa, Johnne Wanne was granted Royal authority over all "Egyptians" in Scotland in May 1540. Records showed that by 1612 the Faa family had extended as far as Shetland. However, the initial tolerance of Gypsies did not last. In 1623 eight leaders of the Gypsies were hanged on the Burgh Muir, six of whom were of the Faa line. In the 1650s they were amongst those transported to Virginia.[2]

Patrick Faa[edit]

Patrick was the first recorded Gypsy King at Kirk Yetholm. Along with seven other Gypsies he was "sentenced to be transported to the Queen's American for life."[3]

William Faa I[edit]

King William I, known as 'Gleed Nickit Wull' because of a twist in the shape of his throat, was born about 1700, and died at Coldingham in 1784, aged around 84. He fathered 24 children by three wives.[4] His death at Colingham is recounted by William Smith, the Baillie at Kelso, who states that "When old Will Faa was upwards of eighty years of age, he called on me in Kelso, in his way to Edinburgh, telling me that he was going to Edinburgh to see the laird... before he died," and also that after successfully completing this visit "he only got the length of Colingham, when he was taken ill and died."[5] Will claimed to be descended from Johnnie Faa, Lord of Little Egypt.[6]

William Faa II[edit]

Will Faa, "King of the Gypsies", died in Kirk Yetholm on 9 October 1847, aged 96. He was the son of William Faa I. William Faa was an innkeeper (owned "The Queen") and footballer who lived at "The Gypsy Palace" off the Green, and entertained visitors there. The Kelso Mail carried his obituary entitled "Death of a Gypsy King", which said he was "always accounted a more respectable character than any of his tribe, and could boast of never having been in gaol during his life." His house continued to be a tourist attraction, and there was reportedly an "Old Palace" on the other side of Kirk Yetholm Green. William died without issue in 1847 when the 'Crown' passed to his sister Esther's husband Charles Blythe (1775-1861). Charles was an educated man who did much to live up to his role. On his death in 1861 there was a tussle between his many children for the right to be monarch. The role went to his daughter Esther Faa Blythe who reigned until 1883 when the gypsy culture was in serious decline. Following a gap of several years in 1898 one of her sons Charles Rutherford was persuaded to accept the office and a ceremonial Gypsy Coronation was held in 1898. By this stage the role was largely an attempt to boost tourism. Charles died in 1902 and the title has not been re-established. An Edinburgh housewife is now thought to be the present 'Queen'.[7][8][9] A lancet and case belonging to William Faa II can be found in the collections of the National Museum Scotland.[10]

Charles Faa Blythe I[edit]

Charles Faa Blythe was a brother-in-law to William Faa II, and when he died without issue the title of King of the Gypsies was passed to Charles, husband of his sister, Esther. Charles was born in 1775 and died in 1861. He was crowned King, by the local blacksmith, George Gladstone, on 25 October 1847, aged at least 70 years.[11] He was succeeded by his daughter, Esther Faa Blythe, who was born in the early years of the 1800s and died on 12 July 1883.[12]

Charles Faa Blyth II[edit]

Born around 1825, Charles Rutherford (known as Charles Faa Blythe II), was a son to Esther Faa Bythe, the Gypsy Queen. Between the death of Esther Faa Blyth in 1883 and the accession of Charles II in 1898, there was no Gypsy royalty crowned at Kirk Yetholm. His coronation ceremony was really a pageant, with all the locals dressing up for the benefit of the photographers. Many photographs of the occasion still exist.[13]

William (Billy) Marshall[edit]

William (Billy) Marshall (1672-1792) died aged 120, lived in Minnigaff, Kirkcudbrightshire, South West Scotland. Caird of Barullion, King of the Gypsies of the Western Lowlands for 89 years. Served as a soldier at the Battle of the Boyne for William of Orange, Battle of Blenheim. Returned to Scotland where he had an army of 200 followers who ruled the land between Ayr and Dumfries and fought battles at Newton of Ayr, Brig O Doon and Alloway. He was a Protestant, Covenanter, and Leveller. He and his army would champion, the poor, the dispossessed, and steal, disrupt, and organize smuggling activities in cattle, sheep, horses, brandy, whisky, tea, against Jacobites, Landlords, and those that were not locals who were known to him. He was an accomplished craftsman of horn spoons, cups, pots. He is buried in the graveyard at St Cuthbert's Church in Kirkcudbright.[14] 6 February 2018, AJMcC, The Tinkler Gypsies of Galloway, by Andrew McCormick

England[edit]

Leaders identified in Martin Markall[edit]

The short book Martin Markall, Beadle of the Bridewell was published in London in 1610. The author is given as "S.R.", who is usually identified as Samuel Rid the author of The Art of Jugling or Legerdemaine, a later book of rogue literature[15] promised in Martin Markall. The book is of dubious veracity, and large sections are taken from the works of Thomas Dekker,[16] although Frank Aydelotte, who dates the book to 1608, calls it mostly original.[17] It includes what purports to be a list of the leaders of "the regiment of rogues", which echoed the genealogies of prominent families. It will be seen that in reality few had anything to do with Gypsies, but they are indicative of the context in which some of the Kings of the Gypsies were identified.

John Mendall[edit]

aka Jack Cade, aka John Mortimer, who led a rebellion of men from Kent who camped at Blackheath outside London in 1450. After his rebellion a reward was offered for him, and he was captured and killed in Kent.

Bluebeard and Hugh Roberts[edit]

Both soldiers who had served in France. Bluebeard was captured and executed shortly after being made "their captain". Roberts then gathered about 100 "rakehells and vagabonds" in Kent who were joined by 400 "masterless men". Together they joined Jack Cade and entered Southwark. After the end of Cade's rebellion Roberts took to the woods with a small group living by theft, according to set rules of their own. After a year living like this these "Roberdsmen" dispersed throughout England, vowing to meet every three years, and joining other "commotions and rebellions". Roberts also went "roving" and "kept his court" until he was killed in 1461.

Jenkin Cowdiddle[edit]

Was chosen by the remaining "Roberdsmen" at "their wonted place of meeting" "by general assent". He was "a wandering rogue", "much given to swearing, drunkenness and lechery . . . stout of stomach, audacious and fierce". He claimed droit du seigneur, and ordained that all beggars spent their weekly earnings in full every Saturday night. Rid says that he fought with "300 tattered knaves" in the rebellion in the South West of England against Edward IV and was killed at the Battle of Tewkesbury (1471). Unlike Roberts, who may have been a real character, this Cowdiddle seems to have been a complete fiction.

Spising[edit]

Not deterred, the remaining "Roberdsmen" "hie them to their rendezvous . . . and there, with the full consent of the whole company, they chose one Spising to be his successor". Spising is given no first name. He is credited with ordering that all begging wanderers be "stalled as a rogue" by "the Chief Commander then being", paying a fee in beer, though this was excused if his father and grandfather had been rogues. Spising joined the larger rebellion by Thomas Neville, the Bastard of Fauconberg. He led a band attacking Aldgate, and was nearly successful, until parts of his group were trapped by the fall of the portcullis. Spising is reputed to have ruled 11 years before being hanged for a murder in Wombourn, Staffordshire, having escaped the same fate earlier by seeking sanctuary in Westminster Abbey. There is a historical record of a Spising as leader of an Essex contingent of Neville's uprising, but he was executed after it, and his head exhibited on Aldgate.

Puff Dick[edit]

Was the next elected, an expert at cheating with loaded dice, and excelled in "all manner of vice". He repeated Cowdiddle's requirement for thieves and beggars to spend their ill-gotten gains and not save them. Rid says he ruled for 8 years before dying of "the [French] pox and Neapolitan scurf". Like Cowdiddle, Dick seems to have been wholly fictional.

Laurence Crossbiter (aka Long Laurence)[edit]

Laurence Crossbiter was the next elected leader, a serving man aged 50–60. His art was "crossbiting"; theft from the customers of whores. He is also reported to have died "his bowels . . . eaten out with the pox while he was yet alive". Rid described him as cowardly and slavish for failing to come to the aid of the rebel Perkin Warbeck.

Richard Skelton[edit]

Was one of Warbeck's counsellors, "a noted knave". He was next "led to the wonted place of meeting, and there solemnly stalled a rogue and made their general". He is described as formerly having been a tailor in Taunton, Somerset "of proud and haughty disposition", and have "lived in this new government" until 1501. A Skelton was recorded by Sir Francis Bacon as a counsellor to Warbeck, but he says nothing of his activities after the rebellion.

Cock Lorel[edit]

Was elected his successor "by the General Council". Cock Lorel was "the most notorious knave that ever lived" who ruled until 1533. He professed the trade of a tinker to cover his thefts. Rid says that his knaveries are recorded in an old manuscript kept as "Maunders’ Hall", giving the rogue community a similar structure of that of the trade guilds. Cock Lorel was the great mythical leader of Tudor rogues. His name means just that, "cock" being leader, and "lorel" or losel" meaning rascal. He first appears about 1500 in "Cock Lorel's Boat", and is mentioned in Robert Copland's The Highway to the Spitalhouse (1535). He is credited with approving John Awdesley's The Fraternity of Vagabonds, (1561), in which he is given as the creator of the Twenty Five Orders of Knaves, reproduced in Thomas Harman's Warning for Common Cursitors and many other works of rogue literature. There is no record of any real individual on whom he was based. Cock Lorel is credited with having held a meeting with the leader of the Egyptians, Giles Hather, at their base at The Devils Arse Apeak in Derbyshire. Rid claims that at this meeting they devised a new and secret language Thieves' Cant, "to the end that their cozenings, knaveries, and villainies might not so easily be perceived and known".[18]

Giles Hather[edit]

Became head of the regiment or fellowship of Egyptians in the north about 1528. These, Rid says, travelled in groups of more than a hundred men and women, with horses, their faces blacked, and practised legerdemain and fortune telling by palmistry, delighting the common people with their clothes.

Kit Callot[edit]

"the Queen of the Egypties" accompanied Giles Hather, according to Rid. These names were traditional; Hather is mentioned by Thomas Awdesley (1561). "Kit" and "Callot" as names can be traced back to Piers Plowman. Although Tudor government, both local and national, took a close interest in the Egyptians there is no record of the names in their records.

Other leaders[edit]

Boswells[edit]

The Boswells were for centuries one of England's largest and most important Gypsy families. The Boswell clan were a large extended family of Travellers, and in old Nottinghamshire dialect the word bos'll was used as a term for Travellers and Romani in general.

Haniel Boswell[edit]

Was the son of Francis Boswell.[19]

Jacob Rewbrey[edit]

"Alias king of the Gypsies", from the St Margaret's Westminster, was tried at the Old Bailey on 28 August 1700 for theft with violence and highway robbery. It was alleged he had robbed "one Rebecca Sellers, near the High way, . . . taking from her 3 Gold-rings, and 9 s. in Money" in January of that year. The Jury found him Guilty of theft, but not Robbery, as "It appeared that he juggled [tricked] her out of it." He was sentenced to Penal transportation.[20]

James Boswell[edit]

Is buried in Rossington, near Doncaster in Yorkshire. Langdale's "Topographical Dictionary of Yorkshire" (1822), says: "In the church yard, was a stone, the two ends of which are now remaining, where was interred the body of James Bosvill the King of the Gypsies, who died January 30, 1708. For a number of years, it was a custom of Gypsies from the south, to visit his tomb annually, and there perform some of their accustomed rites; one of which was to pour a flagon of ale upon the grave." This is similar to the ritual of "stalling the rogue" mentioned by Thomas Harman and in The Beggars Bush and by Bampfylde Moore Carew.

A tradition was reported of annual visits to the grave of Charles Boswell near Doncaster for more than 100 years into the 1820s, including a rite of pouring a flagon of hot ale into the tomb. This may be same person.[21][22][23] the grave is situated by the main door leading to the church, shaded by a dark oak tree. It is now covered in moss, but is still readable. The words "King Of The Gypsies" will lie there for ever more, whereas the mystery of the black cat is still unsolved. – information on the grave by A. Needham – P. Needham, of St. Michaels church.

Henry Boswell[edit]

"King of the Gypsies" died in 1760 at the age of 90 and was buried at Ickleford near Hitchin, Hertfordshire at the church of St. Catherine, as were his wife and granddaughter. Royal National and Commercial Directory and Topography of Herts, Pigot & Co., London, 1839[24]

Edmund Mashiter[edit]

aka "Old Honey", died in Bolton, Lancashire in 1811 aged 90. He was reported to have been "justly entitled the King of Beggars", having been on the road for 70 years. He was reported to have been the son of a schoolmaster, and well educated, but to have taken to the road by choice, and maintained a wandering life until he became bedridden. [25]

Henry Boswell[edit]

The "King of the Gypsies" died in 1824 Stamford, Lincolnshire.[26][27]

Louis Boswell[edit]

Louis Boswell was buried at Eastwood church, Southend-on-Sea in 1835. In the Burial Register he is described as a "Traveller aged 42" – "This man known as the King of the Gypsies was interred in the presence of a vast concourse of spectators".[28]

Non Boswells[edit]

Unknown, Calne[edit]

In the churchyard of St Mary's parish church, Calne, Wiltshire, a tomb commemorating an unknown King of the Gypsies is set in the wall.[29]

Harry Burton[edit]

Described as "King of the Gypsies", died in the Workhouse in Wincanton, Somerset aged 94 in 1847.[30]

Matty Cooper[edit]

Taught the Romani language in the 1870s to Charles Godfrey Leland (1824–1903), the American folklorist and founder of the Gypsy Lore Society. Leland claimed Cooper was the King of the Gypsies in England.[31]

Xavier Petulengro/ Smith[edit]

Was described as the King of the Gypsies, in an account of a Romani wedding at Baildon in Yorkshire in 1937 between his son Leon Petulengro/ Smith and Illeana Smith both of Colchester Essex. According to the caption of a photograph Xavier Petulengro cut the hands of the couple to mingle their blood during the ceremony. After their wedding the couple went north to Blackpool. During the war Leon was in the RAF and Ileana (Eileen) was a staff car driver for ICI. The marriage was dissolved in 1947 in Nottingham. Baildon was a famous fair and meeting place for Gypsies. Petulengro/ Smith was well known as a broadcaster on Gypsy subjects. His son Leon Petulengro/ Smith wrote for the "Woman's Own" magazine.[32]

Gilderoy Scamp[edit]

Born in Orpington, Kent early 20th century. Lived in Folkestone, Kent.[33]

Louis Welch[edit]

Louis Welch of Darlington was described by British media as the "King of the Gypsies", a title given to the best bare-knuckled boxer in the Romanichal - mainly from the UK, and France community, following an alleged attack by six knife-wielding men, possibly from a rival band of travellers, in Cumbria. He refused to give evidence against his attackers, saying it was "against the travellers' code of honour", and a retrial was ordered after the jury failed to reach a verdict.[34][35][36]

Wales[edit]

Abram Wood[edit]

Abram Wood was the head of a family of Welsh gypsies in the 1700s. They were musicians, and spoke an old Romani dialect.[37]

Norway[edit]

Karoli family[edit]

In the 1980s, Polykarp Karoli began styling himself "King of all Gypsies in Norway".[38]

In 1990, while most of the family was serving prison time, Polykarp's grandson Martin Erik Karoli proclaimed himself "King of One Million Gypsies", claiming to be slated for a hundreds of years old crowning ceremony in Central Europe.[39] After Polykarp's death in 2001, his two sons publicly rivalled for the title "King of All Gypsies in The World", estimating 478 million subjects throughout the world and citing various ancient ceremonies and royal registries.[40]

Italy[edit]

Scaramuccia[edit]

This "King of the Gypsies" is suggested as a possible model for "A Grotesque Head" of the sketches of human physiognomy by Leonardo da Vinci, dated to (c.1503-07). Giorgio Vasari reported that Leonardo had done a drawing of "the Gypsy Captain Scaramuccia" which Vasari possessed, but it is not known what happened to it.[41]

Romania[edit]

Iulian Rădulescu[edit]

In 1993, Iulian Rădulescu proclaimed himself "Emperor of the Roma Everywhere".[42]

Florin Cioabă[edit]

Florin Cioabă acquired the title "King of the Roma Everywhere" in 1997 from his father Ioan Cioabă who had claimed the title in 1992. Reports in 2003 that Cioabă, a Pentecostal Minister, had married off his own daughter at the age of 12 (or 14) caused uproar in the western media. The UN Economic and Social Council visited him in 1999 when preparing a report on Racism and Intolerance and described him as devoting himself to economic activity to support community projects, and exerting "moral authority" and having "some influence" as a councillor.[43][44][45] He died on August 18, 2013 after suffering a heart attack while on holiday in Antalya, Turkey.[46] He was succeeded as King by his son Dorin Cioabă.[47]

John Kyle[edit]

In 2003, according to a decree issued by Emperor Iulian, John Kyle was proclaimed "International King of the Roma".[48]

Hungary[edit]

Tamás Bolgár[edit]

He was named as voivode of the "Pharaoh's People" in 1496. He seems to have led a group of metalworkers, as he was supplying the Bishop of Pécs with cannonballs. He was almost certainly the same person granted privileges by the King of Poland and Lithuania in 1501, who also recognised the privileges of Wasili as leader of the "Cyhany"[49]

Poland[edit]

Matiasz Korolewicz[edit]

Was conferred the title "King of the Gypsies" by the Polish Royal Chancery in 1652, after the death of Janczy who had previously served as the head of the Roma. Later Kings of the Gypsies seem to have been appointed from the aristocracy.[50]

Janusz Kwiek[edit]

Was crowned as Janos I, King of the Gypsies, before thousands of people in 1937. He announced his intention to petition Benito Mussolini for land for a Romani settlement in East Africa.[51]

Bulgaria[edit]

Shibilis[edit]

The Gypsy King is associated with mythical powers of being able to part water with his sword, a spade, and his head, after it had been cut off, according to tales collected in 1981.[52]

United States of America[edit]

M. H. Frank[edit]

Who had lived in Meridian, Mississippi, was chosen as King after Emil Mitchell's death in 1942.[53][54][55][56][57]

Elijah George[edit]

Described as king of the Gypsies at the time of the massive search for Elsie Paroubek. Mr. George was contacted in Argyle, Wisconsin, and taken to Joliet, Illinois for questioning; but he knew nothing and was released.[58]

Unidentified Romany[edit]

In 1953, Anaïs Nin underwent surgery for ovarian cancer in a Los Angeles hospital. In her diary, she mentions that "the King of the Gypsies was having surgery at the same time" and that approximately six hundred members of his tribe were camped in or near the hospital in accordance with their law: "no amount of hospital discipline would drive them away". She spoke with several members of the band, and identified them as Romani people.[59]

Venezuela[edit]

Angelo Vallerugo III[edit]

Since 1998, Angelo Vallerugo III has been accepted by the Venezuelan gypsy community as their one and only king.[60]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Human Rights Brief Human Rights Brief". Wcl.american.edu. Retrieved 2017-01-03. 
  2. ^ "Gypsy Folk Tales Index". Sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2017-01-03. 
  3. ^ Anonymous (September 1817). "NOTICES CONCERNING THE SCOTTISH GYPSIES". Edinburgh Monthly Magazine. 1 (September): 616. 
  4. ^ "Will Faa, The Faa Family, Famous Gypsies". www.scottishgypsies.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-07-21. 
  5. ^ Scott, Walter (1833). The Waverley Anecdotes: Illustrative of the Incidents, Characters, and Scenery, Described in the Novels and Romances, of Sir Walter Scott. London: J. Cochrane and J. McCrone. pp. 217–218. 
  6. ^ "Will Faa, The Faa Family, Famous Gypsies". www.scottishgypsies.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-07-21. 
  7. ^ "The Gypsy Palace, Kirk Yetholm, Scotland". Discovertheborders.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-03. 
  8. ^ "The Scottish Gypsies of Scotland". Scottishgypsies.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-03. 
  9. ^ ‘’Journal Gypsy Lore Soc.’’ 3rd ser.ii 370-1 quoted in ‘’English Genealogy’’ A. R. Wagner
  10. ^ "Case, lancet". National Museums Scotland. Retrieved 2018-07-21. 
  11. ^ "Charles Blyth I, The Faa Family, Famous Gypsies". www.scottishgypsies.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-07-21. 
  12. ^ "Esther Faa Blythe, The Faa Family, Famous Gypsies". www.scottishgypsies.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-07-21. 
  13. ^ "Charles Faa Blyth II, The Faa Family, Famous Gypsies". www.scottishgypsies.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-07-21. 
  14. ^ "Billy Marshall - the Scottish King of the Gypsies". BBC. Archived from the original on 14 December 2004. Retrieved 23 June 2017. 
  15. ^ "Gypsies in England". Notes and Queries. London: George Bell. Eleventh (287): 326. April 28, 1855. 
  16. ^ Mayall, David (Oct 9, 2003). Gypsy Identities 1500-2000: From Egipcyans and Moon-men to the Ethnic Romany. Routledge. p. 69. 
  17. ^ Aydelotte, Frank (2013). Elizabethan Rogues and Vagabonds (5th ed.). Routledge. p. unnumbered. 
  18. ^ Rid, Samuel (1610). Martin Markall, the Beadle of Bridewell. as quoted in Reynolds, Bryan (Apr 1, 2003). Becoming Criminal: Transversal Performance and Cultural Dissidence in Early Modern England (Google eBook). JHU Press. p. unnumbered. 
  19. ^ "The Romani Line - Boswell, Sherriff & Hodgkins or Hodgkinson". Garenewing.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-03. 
  20. ^ Old Bailey Proceedings Online (accessed 28 January 2018), Trial of Jacob Rewbrey. (t17000828-63, 28 August 1700).
  21. ^ "Doncaster News and Features: Bizarre Doncaster: Ghosts and Hauntings, on Donny Online". Donny.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-03. 
  22. ^ Brian Vesey-Fitzgerald Gypsies of Britain, The Country Book Club, 1951, quoting Edward Miller History and Antiquities of Doncaster
  23. ^ John Wainwright, History and Antiquities of Doncaster and Consborough, Sheffield, Basil Blackwell., 1829
  24. ^ "GENUKI - Ickleford". Web.archive.org. 11 October 2006. Archived from the original on 11 October 2006. Retrieved 8 October 2017. 
  25. ^ The Gentleman's Magazine, 1 March 1811.
  26. ^ Rutland & Stamford Mercury 15 October 1824 p3 column 1
  27. ^ "Gypsies | Lincolnshire County Council". Lincolnshire.gov.uk. 2012-06-07. Retrieved 2017-01-03. 
  28. ^ "King of Gypsies Edward Boswell". Rromani djib. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  29. ^ "Calne". Wiltshire Gazette and Herald. Retrieved 18 March 2016. 
  30. ^ "Wincanton". Web.archive.org. 5 April 2005. Archived from the original on 5 April 2005. Retrieved 8 October 2017. 
  31. ^ "Leland, Charles Godfrey". Themystica.com. 1903-03-20. Retrieved 2017-01-03. 
  32. ^ "Stock photo and image search by Science & Society Picture Library". Scienceandsociety.co.uk. 2008-04-23. Retrieved 2017-01-03. 
  33. ^ Gilderoy Scamp – King of the Gypsies, Linda Hayward, Rromani Routes Volume 4 No 7 June 2000
  34. ^ "Retrial over 'King of Gypsies' boxer attack in Cumbria". BBC. 2010-03-05. 
  35. ^ "'King of the Gypsies' injured in knife attack | Metro News". Metro.co.uk. 2009-05-27. Retrieved 2017-01-03. 
  36. ^ "Ignore whims of King of the Gipsies". The Northern Echo. 2010-02-24. 
  37. ^ "Facts About Wales & the Welsh: Welsh gypsies were the last to speak Romani in Europe". Wales on Britannia. Retrieved 23 June 2017. 
  38. ^ Aftenposten 1989.12.27: Sigøynerkongen tatt i København
  39. ^ "Retriever". Web.retriever-info.com. Retrieved 2017-01-03. 
  40. ^ VG 2001.08.11: Jeg er den nye kongen!
  41. ^ "Christ Church, Oxford University". Chch.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-03. 
  42. ^ ro:Iulian Rădulescu
  43. ^ "MAR - Data - Chronology for Roma in Romania". Web.archive.org. 28 August 2004. Archived from the original on 28 August 2004. Retrieved 8 October 2017. 
  44. ^ "Development in Action - The thorny issues surrounding the practice of child marriage – cultural tradition or economic necessity?". Developmentinaction.org. 26 December 2004. Archived from the original on 26 December 2004. Retrieved 8 October 2017. 
  45. ^ "Open Society Foundations" (PDF). Soros.org. 2016-11-22. Retrieved 2017-01-03. 
  46. ^ Childs, David (22 August 2013). "Obituary: Florin Cioaba: Activist and 'King of the Rroma'". The Independent. London: The Independent. Retrieved 27 September 2013. 
  47. ^ Sara Winston; Martin Krupik (5 July 2014). "An Audience With the 'King of the Gypsies'". Vice.com. Retrieved 26 May 2015. 
  48. ^ "La Mânăstirea Curtea de Argeş s-au sfinţit doar podoabele specifice rromilor". Curierul Naţional (in Romanian). September 3, 2003. 
  49. ^ "Záróra". Web.archive.org. 31 December 2007. Archived from the original on 31 December 2007. Retrieved 8 October 2017. 
  50. ^ "Visitor anti-robot validation". Romanothan.ro. Retrieved 2017-01-03. 
  51. ^ "layout". Web.archive.org. 27 September 2007. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 8 October 2017. 
  52. ^ Kolev, Deyan; Teodora Krumova (January 14, 2002). "ROMA IN BULGARIA AND THEIR FOLKLORE". Protecting and Popularizing Roma Culture in Central Bulgaria. Archived from the original on May 29, 2005. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
  53. ^ Meridian Dispatch 7th February1915
  54. ^ Meridian Star 5 August 1960
  55. ^ "Emil Mitchel Family". Sciway3.net. Retrieved 2017-01-03. 
  56. ^ "Free Moors and "Turks" in South Carolina". Foclark.tripod.com. Retrieved 2017-01-03. 
  57. ^ "Emil Mitchel Family". Foclark.tripod.com. Retrieved 2017-01-03. 
  58. ^ "Archives: Chicago Tribune - CANAL YIELDS UP BODY OF MISSING ELSIE PAROUBEK". Pqasb.pqarchiver.com. 1911-05-09. Retrieved 2017-01-03. 
  59. ^ Anaïs Nin, Diary Of Anaïs Nin Volume 5 1947-1955: Vol. 5 (1947-1955), p. 106-107.
  60. ^ Caceres, Jorge (1987). "Gypsys In Venezuela", 3rd ed., Santillana