List of micronations
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Micronations, sometimes also referred to as model countries and new country projects, are small, self-proclaimed entities that claim to be independent sovereign states but which are not acknowledged as such by any recognised sovereign state, or by any supranational organization. They should not be confused with microstates, which are recognised independent states of a small size, nor should they be confused with unrecognised states, which may have legitimate claim to sovereign state status.:5
Motivations for the creation of micronations include theoretical experimentation, political protest, artistic expression, personal entertainment and the conduct of criminal activity.:4
|Aerican Empire||1987||An eccentric tongue-in-cheek micronation. It claims various terrestrial and interplanetary territories.:102|
|Aeterna Lucina||1978||An Australian micronation founded by a self-proclaimed baron, who claimed properties he owned in New South Wales as its territory. Several associated businessmen were charged in 1990 with land and visa fraud.|
|Akhzivland||1971||A micronation founded in response to the Israeli government demolishing an illegally inhabited house.|
|Aramoana||1980||A small New Zealand community that declared itself independent to protest the building of an aluminium smelter on nearby land.|
|Asgardia||2016||A micronation founded by Igor Ashurbeyli that aims to launch satellites into space in order to found a real nation recognised by the UN. The ultimate aim is to avoid the restrictions of the current space law framework.|
|Atlantium||1981||Based in Australia, it advocates for global governance: specifically, no borders and freedom of movement.|
|Austenasia||2008||A self-declared sovereign state based in the United Kingdom.|
|Avram||1980s||A non-territorial micronation founded by an eccentric self-proclaimed duke, John Rudge, who was later elected to the Tasmanian state parliament.:144|
|British West Florida||2005||A micronation intending to revive the former British colony of the same name.:139|
|Bumbunga||1976||An Australian secessionist micronation located on a farm at Bumbunga, South Australia from 1976. Ceased in 1999, when its founder was deported to the United Kingdom on firearms charges.|
|Celestia||1949||A micronation that comprises the entirety of the universe besides Earth. It was founded on January 1, 1949 by James T. Mangan to stop other countries from claiming outer space land.|
|Christiania||1971||Christiania, also known as Freetown Christiania, is a self-proclaimed autonomous neighbourhood in the Danish capital of Copenhagen. The commune occupies the site of an old barracks and is home to almost 1,000 residents.|
|Conch Republic||1982||Founded by then Mayor of Key West, Florida, Dennis Wardlow, it claims tongue-in-cheek independence from the United States in protest at a checkpoint established by the US Border Patrol.:130|
|Coral Sea Islands||2004||Established as a symbolic political protest by a group of gay rights activists, the Coral Sea Islands is a micronation based in southeast Queensland, Australia.:38|
|Elgaland-Vargaland||1992||A conceptual art project by two Swedish artists, Carl Michael von Hausswolff and Leif Elggren, which defines itself as the borders of all nations.|
|Elleore||1944||A tongue-in-cheek micronation founded by a group of school teachers as a summer camp on the island of Elleore, Denmark.:42|
|EnenKio||1994||Claims Wake Atoll, a U.S. territory north of the Marshall Islands, and has been deemed a scam.|
|Filettino||2011||Created by the mayor of Filettino in protest at the Italian government's austerity measure that reorganised the local government of towns with less than 1,000 residents.|
|Flandrensis||2008||A micronation which claims some territories of Antarctica, founded by Niels Vermeersch.|
|Forvik||2008||An islet in Shetland, Scotland, declared a Crown dependency by Stuart Hill as part of a Shetland secessionist agenda.|
|Fredonia||1826||The Fredonian Rebellion was the first, and short-lived, attempt by Anglo settlers in Texas to secede from Mexico. Led by Haden Edwards, they seized control of the town of Nacogdoches, and declared the Republic of Fredonia. Some historians regard the Fredonian Rebellion as the beginning of the Texas Revolution.|
|Freedonia||1997||The Principality of Freedonia was a micronation based on libertarian principles.|
|Frestonia||1977||Residents of Freston Road in west London staged a "secession" from the United Kingdom as Frestonia. The residents were squatters, many of whom eventually set up a housing co-op in negotiation with Notting Hill Housing Trust, and included artists, musicians, writers, actors and activists.|
|Ganienkeh||1974||The 1970s saw a number of highly publicized confrontations between the U.S. government and Native Americans, such as the Oglala Lakotas' standoff at Wounded Knee and the Alcatraz occupation. Another clash occurred at Moss Lake in upstate New York. After the federal Indian Claims Commission refused to consider compensation to the Mohawk Nation, saying that its jurisdiction only covered western tribes, a group of Mohawk activists declared 600 acres near Moss Lake the sovereign Mohawk territory of Ganienkeh, and further laid claim to all of northeastern New York. After a firefight between the Mohawks and local vigilantes, the state government started eviction proceedings. When the federal courts refused to hear the matter, Assistant State Attorney General Mario Cuomo was dispatched to negotiate a settlement. In May 1977, the Mohawks accepted a smaller land grant and the crisis was ended.|
|Glacier Republic||2014||Founded by Greenpeace activists in a disputed border region of the Andes between Chile and Argentina, for the purpose of drawing attention to Chile's lack of environmental protection for glaciers.|
|Global Country of World Peace||2000||"A country without borders for peace loving people everywhere" created by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, with capitals at MERU, Holland and Maharishi Vedic City, Iowa. Tony Nader was appointed leader by the Maharishi.|
|Hajdučka Republika||2002||A protest project (based on Vran mountain, in Blidinje Nature Park, Bosnia and Herzegovina) started by a local because of inefficiency of problems with the local electricity supply.|
|Kingdom of Hay-on-Wye||1977||Was founded in 1977 by Richard Booth in what he describes as "a sincere attempt to "shake off the bureaucratic grip of a central government which showed little or no practical interest in re-vitalizing the clearly decaying market town." This declaration was regarded as a means of strengthening internal power, emphasizing support for local produce and local employment."|
|Republic of Hout Bay||mid-1980s||A tongue-in-cheek micronation created to promote tourism in Hout Bay, a suburb of Cape Town, South Africa. Local business and the Hout Bay Lions and Rotary clubs sold official-looking passports to raise money for charities. There are urban legends that people were able to convince immigration officers around the world to stamp these passports.|
|Humanity||1878||A former micronation, occupying the Spratly Islands, which merged into the Republic of Morac-Songhrati-Meads in September 1963.|
|Hutt River||1970||A large farming area in Western Australia that unilaterally seceded from the Commonwealth and declared itself to be a sovereign nation. It was known as the Hutt River Province until 2007.:22|
|Icaria||1912||Icaria is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean. Tensions in the region were high during the early twentieth century. The Ottomans were in retreat everywhere, the newly independent nations of the Balkans were united against them, and Italy had in 1911 declared war, seizing Libya. In 1912, the Italians swept the Aegean of Ottoman warships and seized Rhodes. The inhabitants of Icaria took advantage of the war to declare themselves independent on 12 July 1912. The Balkan alliance declared war in July, reducing the Ottoman holdings in Europe to a tiny foothold. The island was annexed to quickly annexed by Greece that November.|
|Republic of Jamtland||1963||A Swedish province, formerly a part of Norway|
|Kugelmugel||1984||A ball-shaped house, located in the Vienna Prater, and formed after a dispute with authorities over building permits.:82–83|
|Ladonia||1980||A micronation created by Swedish artist Lars Vilks as the home to sculptures created by him in the Kullaberg nature reserve in north-west Skåne.:136|
|Lagoan Isles||2005||The creation of a self-styled Grand Duke Louis, who claims that three tiny islands in a Portsmouth pond are not owned by the local council, and so has declared them an independent state.:86|
|Liberland||2015||Claims an uninhabited parcel of disputed land on the western bank of the Danube, between Croatia and Serbia. It was created by Czech politician and activist Vít Jedlička.|
|Lovely||2004||A nation created by comedian Danny Wallace as part of his BBC series, How to Start Your Own Country.|
|Marlborough||1993||A short lived micronation in Australia whose creator declared his farm an independent country to try to avoid eviction after bankruptcy. He was evicted less than a week later by police, was later prosecuted and has since abandoned any claim of independence.|
|Melchizedek||1986||The Dominion of Melchizedek (DoM) is a micronation known largely for facilitating large scale banking fraud in many parts of the world.|
|Minerva||1973||An attempt to build an artificial island and form a new libertarian country. The new land was located on Minerva Reef, south of Fiji, but the island was seized and annexed by Tonga shortly afterward.:14|
|Molossia||1999||A micronation founded by Kevin Baugh, occupying his semi-rural residential acreage in Nevada. It is run humorously as a dictatorial banana-republic.|
|Morac-Songhrati-Meads||1959||A micronation that claims to occupy the Spratly Islands. The territory is under de facto military control by China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam, since the discovery of oil in 1968.|
|M'Simbati||1959||An eccentric Englishman attempted to declare independent a square mile of territory he inhabited on the coast of Tanganyika which he had purchased in 1924. The flag consisted of red, blue and yellow vertical stripes with a small Union Flag in the canton|
|Murrawarri Republic||2013||A micronation that is the traditional homeland of an aboriginal nation. It declared its independence from Australia.|
|Naminara Republic||2006||An island in the Han River in Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, South Korea. Issues its own passport, currency, phone cards. Part of the movie Winter Sonata was filmed here.|
|Neue Slowenische Kunst||1991|
|New Utopia||1990s||A proposed micronation based on libertarian principles to be built on platforms in the Caribbean Sea. It was founded by American entrepreneur Lazarus Long. The project's status as of 2006 is in question.:15|
|North Dumpling||1986||An island in Fishers Island, Southold, New York declared independent after its owner Dean Kamen was denied permission to build a wind turbine on the island.|
|Nova Roma||1998||An international organ of Roman revivalists who claim to be a modern Roman nation and have the administrative structure of the ancient Roman Republic. Nova Roma explicitly states that they aren't a micronation but a "civitas" or "res publica"; their organ, however, fits all the requirements for being classified as such.|
|Nutopia||1973||Introduced as a "conceptual nation" by John Lennon and Yoko Ono on April Fools' Day, Nutopia has no land, no borders and no passports or visas; anyone declaring their awareness of Nutopia's existence was allowed to join. It was founded partly as a way to satirize Lennon's immigration troubles at the time.|
|Other World Kingdom||1996||An absolute monarchy/matriarchy with strong BDSM themes, in which women rule over all men. It is located in the Czech Republic.|
|Outer Baldonia||c. 1950||A micronation on Outer Bald Tusket Island, Nova Scotia, used for seasonal fishing. It had an eccentric constitution and women were banned from the island.|
|Republic of Parva Domus||1878||A self-declared centenary micronation surrounded by Uruguay that functions since 1878 as a social and recreational association that mimics the functioning of a real country. Since its foundation it has had over 800,000 different naturalized citizens.
It is one of the first micronations in history and the oldest still functioning.
|Perloja||1918||Established in the aftermath of World War I, the Republic of Perloja had its own court, police, prison, currency (Perloja litas), and an army of 300 men.|
|Peščenica||1990s||Peščenica is a satirical-parodical project of a dictator-ruled republic by famous Croatian maverick traveller Željko Malnar. It is located in Zagreb, Croatia.|
|Ploiești||1870||A two-day protest against the Romanian monarchy. The plotters occupied the firehouse, the telegraph station and the post office in Ploiești on the evening of 8 August 1870. The chief of police and the prefect were arrested. On the evening of 9 August, soldiers from Bucharest arrived at the Ploieşti train station and arrested the new "administration", most of whom declared that they were not actually revolting, thinking it was just a party. Thirty-six of the leaders of the movement were accused of "revolt against the government". The trials of the civilians who took part in the revolt were eventually moved to Târgovişte and, on 17 October 1870, were found not guilty.|
|Pontinha||2007||The Principality of Pontinha is a seceding micronation on an islet, which is physically joined to Madeira island, Portugal. King Carlos I of Portugal had sold the islet on October 9, 1903 to the Blandy family of Madeira, who were involved in Madeira wine. The money was needed by the king to develop the port of Funchal. It was purchased by the art teacher Renato de Barros in 2000 for £19,500 from the Blandy family. Self-titled Renato Barros I communicated on November 30, 2007, confirming the independence of the island from Portugal, which first occurred in 1903.|
|Poyais||1822||It was invented by Scottish adventurer and South American independence hero Gregor MacGregor in the early 19th century. On the basis of a land grant made to him by the Anglophile native king of the Mosquito people in what is present-day Honduras, MacGregor wove one of history's most elaborate hoaxes, managing to charm the highest levels of London's political and financial establishment with tales of the bucolic, resource-rich country he claimed to rule as a benevolent sovereign prince, or "Cazique", when he arrived in the UK in 1822.|
|Rainbow Creek||1979||Founded by a farmer who "seceded" from Victoria State, Australia, over damage to farmlands caused by flooding he claimed was exacerbated due to incompetence of the state government water management agency.:145|
|Redonda||1865||A small uninhabited island in the Caribbean sea, now legally part of Antigua and Barbuda. In 1865, a citizen of Montserrat was supposedly permitted by Queen Victoria to claim the title of King of Redonda, as long as he did not incite any revolt against colonial authority.:108|
|Repubblica di Sbarre Centrali||1970||A self-proclaimed republic by people from Sbarre district in Reggio city (southern Italy) during the Reggio revolt. This micronation disappeared after the end of the revolt.|
|Reunion||1997||A micronation founded by Brazilian law students as a political simulation. Reunion has a very active political system. It has issued passports, minted coins and is considered one of the most important Lusophone micronations. The micronation has been portrayed by the media of dozens of countries, and has been the star of a front-page article of Reunion Island newspaper, which used It to trace a parallel between its independence and the idea of having independence from France.|
|Romanov Empire||2011||The Imperial Throne was founded by Russian businessman Anton Bakov as the "Russian Empire". By its constitution, it is a federal constitutional monarchy and the successor of the Empire founded by Peter I.|
|Rose Island||1968||An attempt to create a sovereign state on an offshore platform in international waters near the Italian city of Rimini. It was completed, but shortly afterward seized by the Italian government and destroyed with explosives.|
|Saugeais||1947||An officially sanctioned tongue-in-cheek micronation located in eastern France, in the département of Doubs.:122–124|
|Sealand||1967||A World War II military facility consisting of a man-made structure located off the English coast that was occupied and declared to be an independent state by Paddy Roy Bates.:8–13|
|Seborga||1963||A town in the Italian region of Liguria that claims never to have been a part of the modern Italian state.:55|
|Sedang||1888||Micronational entity established in the latter part of the 19th century by a French adventurer, Charles-Marie David de Mayréna, in part of what is present-day Vietnam.|
|Talossa||1979||A micronation founded as a bedroom kingdom by Milwaukee, Wisconsin (USA) resident Robert Ben Madison. Madison claims to have coined the term "micronation".[nb 1]:101|
|Trinidad||1893||The Principality of Trinidad was declared in 1893, when the American James Harden-Hickey claimed the uninhabited island Trindade and Martim Vaz in the South Atlantic and declared himself as James I, Prince of Trinidad. In July 1895, the British tried to take possession of this strategic position in the Atlantic, basing their claim on the 1700 visit by English astronomer Edmund Halley. However, Brazilian diplomatic efforts, pressed a successful claim to Brazilian sovereignty, based on the island's discovery in 1502 by Portuguese navigators. Harden-Hickey fell into deep depression and committed suicide on 9 February 1898.|
|Užupis||1997||Užupis is a neighborhood largely located in the Old Town of Vilnius, Lithuania. In 1997, the residents of the area declared a Republic of Užupis, with its own flag, currency, president, and constitution.|
|Vikesland||2005||A micronation located in Manitoba, Canada that was founded for the purposes of a TV documentary about micronations. It claims two properties in and near the town of Brandon.:90–93|
|Wallachia||1997||A tongue-in-cheek micronation founded in 1997 as an "elaborate practical joke", located is in the northeast corner of the Czech Republic.|
|Waveland||1997||In 1997, the environmentalist organisation Greenpeace occupied the islet of Rockall for a short time, calling it Waveland, to protest against oil exploration. Greenpeace declared the island to be a "new Global State" and offered citizenship to anyone willing to take their pledge of allegiance.|
|Wendland||1980||A German anti-nuclear protest in the Wendland, reoccupied by thousands of policemen after a few weeks.|
|Whangamomona||1989||A tongue-in-cheek micronation created as a tourism booster, and based in the rural New Zealand town of the same name. Past elected presidents have included a goat.:34–37|
|Wirtland||2008||Wirtland is an experiment into legitimacy and self-sustainability of a country without its own soil, which transcends national borders without breaching or lessening the sovereignty of any involved.|
|Wy||2004||Established by Paul Delprat during a dispute with the local council of Mosman municipality in Sydney over the construction of a driveway to his property.|
|Sovereign Yidindji Government||2014||A micronation that is the traditional homeland of an aboriginal nation. It declared its independence from Australia.|
|Zaqistan||2005||A small tract of land in Box Elder County, a remote part of Utah, on which its owner has built monuments. It has also issued passports.|
- Flags of micronations
- List of micronation currencies
- Micronations: The Lonely Planet Guide to Home-Made Nations
- How to Start Your Own Country
- Ryan, John; Dunford, George; Sellars, Simon (2006). Micronations. Lonely Planet. ISBN 1-74104-730-7.
- Dean, Anabel (20 June 1989). "Bleyer's Honours Outlined". The Sydney Morning Herald. p. 7.
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- "Space oddity: Group claims to have created nation in space". ScienceInsider. 12 October 2016.
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- "Danny Robins' Indie Travel Guide – The World Smallest Countries". BBC. 16 September 2010.
- "'Isn't it every little boy's dream, to control everybody?'". The Daily Telegraph (Sydney). 14 April 2017.
- "Christiania, one of Europe's most famous communes, faces last stand". the Guardian. 28 April 2011.
- "Wake Island Claimed By Marshall Islanders". The Cameron Herald. 8 February 1973. p. 2.
- "The Kingdom of Enen Kio". Quatloos!.
- "Italian town Filettino declares independence". BBC News. 3 September 2011.
- "New micronation faces birthing pains". USA Today. 20 May 2015.
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- http://www.richardkingofhay.com/history-of-the-hay-peerage.html | History of the Hay Peerage
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- "The Fraud of the Prince of Poyais on the London Stock Exchange" (PDF). Global Financial Data.
- it:File:Repubblica di sbarre centrali.jpg
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- Imperial Throne (Sovereign Nation), gazeta.babr.ru; accessed 30 November 2015.(in Russian)
- Imperial Throne (Sovereign Nation); accessed 30 November 2015.(in Russian)
- The Kingdom of Sedang
- "It's Good to Be King". Wired. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
- SchNews issue 131 Archived 12 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine., Justice?, Brighton, 22 August 1997; see also SchNEWS Annual, Justice?, Brighton, 1998, ISBN 0-9529748-1-9
- "The Anti-Nuclear "Free Republic of Wendland". German History Docs. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
- Fox 45 Morning News, Wirtland on FOX News, Fox 45 Morning News (USA), 20 January 2009.
- "Prince of Wy Paul Delprat loses driveway court battle". Daily Telegraph. 17 July 2013.
- "New Yorker Zaq Landsberg Creates His Own Country Called Zaqistan in Remote Utah Desert – But He Doesn't Live There". People. 27 October 2015.