Twipra Kingdom

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Kingdom of Tripura
Part of History of Tripura
Kings of Tripura
Dhanya Manikya1463-1515
Dharma Manikya II1714-1733
Vijay Manikya II1743-1760
Krishna Manikya1760-1761
Rajdhar Manikya1783-1804
Ramgana Manikya1804-1809
Durga Manikya1809-1813
Kashi Chandra1826-1830
Krishna Kishore1830-1849
Ishan Chandra1849-1862
Bir Chandra1862-1896
Radha Kishore1896-1909
Birendra Kishore1909-1923
Bir Bikram Kishore1923–1947
Kirit Bikram Kishore1947-1949
Kirit Pradyot Deb Barman1978-till now
Tripura monarchy data
Manikya dynasty (Royal family)
Agartala (Capital of the kingdom)
Ujjayanta Palace (Royal residence)
Neermahal (Royal residence)
Rajmala (Royal chronicle)
Tripura Buranji (Chronicle)

Twipra Kingdom (Sanskrit: Tripura, Anglicized: Tippera) was one of the largest historical kingdoms of the Twipra people in the North-east India.

The Twipra Kingdom was established around the confluence of the Brahmaputra river (Twima[clarification needed]) with the Meghna and Surma rivers in today's Central Bangladesh area. The capital was called Khorongma (Kholongma) and was along the Meghna river in the Sylhet Division of present-day Bangladesh.


The present political areas which were part of the Tipra Kingdom are:

The Tipra Kingdom in all its various ages comprised the areas with the borders:

  1. Khasi Hills in the North
  2. Manipur Hills in the North-East
  3. Arakan Hills of Burma in the East
  4. The Bay of Bengal to the South
  5. The Brahmaputra river to the West


Early history[edit]

A list of legendary Tripuri kings is given in the Rajmala chronicle,a 15th-century chronicle in Bengali verse written by the court pandits of Dharma Manikya (r. 1431). The chronicle traces the king's ancestry to the mythological Lunar Dynasty. In the 8th century, the Kingdom shifted its capital eastwards along the Surma river in Sylhet near present Kailasahar town of North Tripura.[citation needed]

The religion of the Tipra had 14 deities known as "Chibrwi Mwtai" (in Kokborok language) and is still preserved in the Chibrwi Mwtai nok in Old Agartala, which is maintained by the Tipra priests known as Chontai/Ochai's, who oversee the festivals of the Kharchi and Ker according to traditions. It was similar to the Chinese folk religions.

Islamic Era[edit]

The earliest historical records concerning the Twipra kingdom concern the 13th century, when it first came under pressure from the Islamic conquests in India. This is also the time of origin of the Manikya Dynasty, started when Ratna Fa adopted the title Manikya, which was held by all Kings of Tripura until the death of Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya in 1947. Ratna Fa shifted the capital to Rangamati on the banks of the river Gumti, now in South Tripura.

Tripura was one of the states that pushed back successive waves of invasions from Turks, Ethiopian Muslims, Afghans, and Mughals. On many occasions, Tripurans also pushed back Burmese and Arakanese invasions from the East. The Hill territories of Tripura, comprising present day Tripura state, Sylhet hills of Assam state, Cachar hills of Assam state, Mizoram state, and Chittagong Hill Tracts, remained free and independent before the British takeover. The plains of Tripura, however, fell to the attacks from Mughals. The plains territories comprise today's South East Dhaka and Comilla areas. While the plains areas were thus Islamized, the Hills of Tripura served as a continuous bulwark against penetration to the East. The Tripura Hill Kings were major sponsors of Hindu traditions and customs. In the modern age they are remembered as one of the longest and most stable dynasties from the Indian East.

Dhanya Manikya (r. 1463 to 1515) expanded Twipra's territorial domain well into Eastern Bengal. Rangamati was renamed Udaipur after Udai Manikya. The kingdom flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries, Kings such as Govinda Manikya putting up a defense against the pressure of the Muslim kingdoms to the west, until the final conquest of the plains areas by a renegade Tripuri prince backed by Mughal governors of Eastern Bengal plains. After this, plains Twipra was a Mughal client kingdom, with the Mughal rulers taking influence on the appointment of its kings. However, the Mughals could never penetrate the Hill territories to the East.The plains,on the other hand were Islamized through conversion of the Bengali people living there.[citation not found]

British India[edit]

In British India, the kings retained an estate in British India, known as Tippera district or Chakla Roshnabad (now the greater Comilla region of Bangladesh), in addition to the independent area known as Hill Tippera, the present-day state of Tripura. Bir Chandra Manikya (1862–1896) modelled his administration on the pattern of British India, and enacted reforms including the formation of Agartala Municipal Corporation. The last king was Kirit Bikram Kishore, son of Bir Bikram Kishore Debbarma, who ruled for two years, 1947–1949. In 1949, Tripura became part of the Republic of India. The Tripuri "heir apparent" is Kirat Pradyot Kishore Manikya Debbarma]] (born 1978), the son of the last king, who is sometimes given the courtesy title of "Maharaja".

See also[edit]



  • Bhattacharjee, J B (1994), "Pre-colonial Political Structure of Barak Valley", in Sangma, Milton S (ed.), Essays on North-east India: Presented in Memory of Professor V. Venkata Rao, New Delhi: Indus Publishing Company, pp. 61–85
  • Tripura Buranji 17th Century Ahom Chronicle.
  • Progressive Tripura, 1930
  • Rajmala, royal chronicle of Tripura Kings.
  • Hill Tippera – History The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 13, p. 118.

External links[edit]