Kingdom of Tungning

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Kingdom of Tungning
東寧王國
Tang-lêng Ông-kok (Hokkien)
Tûng-nèn Vòng-koet (Hakka)
1661–1683
Flag of Tungning
Flag
  Location of the Kingdom of Tungning, and   settlements
Location of the Kingdom of Tungning, and settlements
CapitalAnping City (present-day Tainan)
Common languagesHokkien, Hakka, Formosan languages
GovernmentMonarchy
Prince of Yanping 
• 1661–1662
Koxinga
• 1662
Zheng Xi (as Lord of Dongdu)
• 1662–1681
Zheng Jing
• 1681
Zheng Kezang (as Regent)
• 1681–1683
Zheng Keshuang
History 
• Established
14 June 1661
• Surrender to the Qing
5 September 1683
Population
• 1664
140,000
• 1683
200,000
CurrencySilver tael (Spanish dollar) and copper cash coin
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Dutch Formosa
Southern Ming
Taiwan under Qing rule
Today part ofRepublic of China (Taiwan)
Tungning
Traditional Chinese東寧
Simplified Chinese东宁
Literal meaningEast Peace
Zheng dynasty
Traditional Chinese鄭氏王朝
Simplified Chinese郑氏王朝
Zheng period of the Ming dynasty
Traditional Chinese明鄭時期
Simplified Chinese明郑时期

The Kingdom of Tungning (Chinese: 東寧王國; pinyin: Dōngníng Wángguó; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tang-lêng Ông-kok), also known as Tywan by the British at the time,[1][2][3][4][5] was a dynastic maritime state that ruled part of southwestern Formosa (Taiwan) and Penghu islands between 1661 and 1683, and regarded as the first predominantly Han Chinese state in Taiwanese history. At its peak the kingdom's maritime power dominated varying extents of coastal regions of southeastern China, and its vast trade network stretched from Japan to Southeast Asia.[6][7][8]

The kingdom was founded by Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong) after seizing control of Taiwan from Dutch rule. Zheng hoped to restore Ming dynastic rule on the Chinese mainland, when the Ming remnants' rump state in southern China was progressively conquered by the Manchu-led Qing dynasty. Zheng dynasts used the newly owned island as part of the loyalist movement. They aimed to reclaim mainland China from the Qing, mainly as a base of military operations, but also to deepen the process of Sinicization on Taiwan[9] in an effort to consolidate the last stronghold of Han Chinese resistance against the invading Manchus.[10][11][12] Until its annexation by the Qing dynasty in 1683, the kingdom was ruled by Koxinga's heirs, the House of Koxinga, and the period of rule is sometimes referred to as the Koxinga dynasty.[10]

Names[edit]

In reference to its reigning house of Koxinga, the Kingdom of Tungning is sometimes known as the Zheng dynasty (Chinese: 鄭氏王朝; pinyin: Zhèngshì Wángcháo; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tēⁿ--sī Ông-tiâu), Zheng clan Kingdom (Chinese: 鄭氏王國; pinyin: Zhèngshì Wángguó; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tēⁿ--sī Ông-kok) or Yanping Kingdom (Chinese: 延平王國; pinyin: Yánpíng Wángguó; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Iân-pêng Ông-kok), named after Koxinga's hereditary title of "Prince of Yanping" (Chinese: 延平郡王; pinyin: Yánpíng jùnwáng) that bestowed by the Yongli emperor of the South Ming.[5] Taiwan was referred to by Koxinga as Tungtu (Chinese: 東都; pinyin: Dōngdū; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tang-to͘).

In Britain, it was known as Tywan (Taiwan),[1][3][4] named after the King's residence at the city of "Tywan" in present-day Tainan.[13][14] The period of rule is sometimes referred to as the Koxinga dynasty.[10]

History[edit]

Capture of Taiwan and establishment of the Kingdom[edit]

Following the defeat of the Ming dynasty in 1644, the Manchu Qing offered several high-ranking Ming officials and military leaders positions in the Qing court in exchange for cessation of resistance activities. Zheng Zhilong, a Ming admiral and father of Koxinga, accepted the Qing offer, but was later arrested and executed for not ceding control of his military forces to the Qing cause when asked to do so. After learning of this whilst pursuing studies overseas, Koxinga pledged to assume his father's position and control of his remaining forces in order to re-establish Ming control of China.[15] With most of China controlled by the Qing, Koxinga discovered the situational strategic advantages provided by a retreat and occupation of Taiwan from the translator Ho-Bin [zh] who was working for the Dutch East India Company.[16] Supplied by Ho-Bin with maps of the island, Koxinga marshalled his forces, estimated at 400 ships and 25,000 soldiers, and seized the Pescadores (also known as Penghu Islands) so as to utilize them as a strategic staging point from which to invade Taiwan, at the time controlled by the Dutch.[15]

Koxinga receiving the Dutch surrender on 1 February 1662

In 1661, Koxinga's fleet forced an entry to Lakjemuyse [zh] and made landing around Fort Provintia. In less than a year, he captured Fort Provintia and besieged Fort Zeelandia; with no external help coming, Frederick Coyett, the Dutch governor negotiated a treaty,[17] where the Dutch surrendered the fortress and left all the goods and property of the Dutch East India Company behind. In return, most Dutch officials, soldiers and civilians were allowed to leave with their personal belongings and supplies and return to Batavia (present-day Jakarta, Indonesia), ending the 38 years of Dutch colonial rule on Taiwan. Koxinga did, however, detain some Dutch "women, children, and priests" as prisoners.[18] He then proceeded on a tour of inspection with a contingent of nearly 100,000 soldiers to "see with his own eyes the extent and condition of his new domain."[19]

Realizing that developing his forces in Taiwan into a large enough threat to unseat the Qing would not be achieved in the short term, Koxinga began transforming Taiwan into a practically proper, albeit preferably temporary, seat of power for the Southern Ming loyalist movement. Replacing the Dutch system of government previously used in Taiwan, Koxinga instituted a Ming-style administration, the first Chinese governance in Taiwan. This system of government was divided into six departments: civil service, revenue, rites, war, punishment, and public works.[15] Great care was taken to symbolise support for the Ming legitimacy, an example being the use of the term guan instead of bu to name departments, since the latter is reserved for central government, whereas Taiwan was to be a regional office of the rightful Ming rule of China.[20] Zheng Jing dutifully complied with the prescribed procedures for Ming officials by regularly presenting reports and paying tribute to the absent Ming emperor.[21] Formosa (Taiwan) was also renamed by Koxinga as Tungtu, though this name was later changed by his son, Zheng Jing, to Tungning.[22]

Development[edit]

Chihkan Tower stands at the site of Fort Provintia, which became Koxinga's office after he took over the former Dutch post

The most immediate problem Koxinga faced after the successful invasion of Taiwan was a severe shortage of food. It is estimated that prior to Koxinga's invasion the population of Taiwan was no greater than 100,000 people, yet the initial Zheng army with family and retainers that settled in Taiwan is estimated to be 30,000 at minimum.[15] To address the food shortage, Koxinga instituted a tuntian policy in which soldiers served the dual role of farmer when not assigned active duty in a guard battalion. No effort was spared to ensure the successful implementation of this policy to develop Taiwan into a self-sufficient island, and a series of land and taxation policies were established to encourage the expansion and cultivation of fertile lands for increased food production capabilities.[20]

Lands held by the Dutch were immediately reclaimed and ownership distributed amongst Koxinga's trusted staff and relatives to be rented out to peasant farmers, whilst properly developing other farmlands in the south and the claiming, clearing, and cultivating of Aborigine lands to the east was also aggressively pursued.[15] To further encourage expansion into new farmlands, a policy of varying taxation was implemented wherein fertile land newly claimed for the Zheng regime would be taxed at a much lower rate than those reclaimed from the Dutch, considered "official land".[20]

Koxinga, at one point, declared his intention to conquer the Philippines in retaliation for the Spanish mistreatment of the Chinese settlers there.[23] His originally stated intentions for conquering Taiwan from the Dutch also included the desire to protect Chinese settlers in Taiwan from maltreatment by the Dutch.[24]

Following the death of Koxinga in 1662 due to malaria, his son Zheng Jing took over the Zheng regime, leading the remaining 7,000 Ming loyalist troops to Taiwan.[15]

Differing from Koxinga, it seems Jing attempted to reconcile peacefully with the Qing by travelling to Peking and bidding for Taiwan to become an autonomous state, but refusing to accept the conditions of compulsory Manchu hairstyle and regular tributes of currency and soldiers. In response to raids by Zheng Jing and in an effort to starve out the forces in Taiwan, the Qing decreed to relocate all of the southern coastal towns and ports that had been the targets of raids by the Zheng fleet and thus provided supplies for the resistance. This to a large extent backfired and from 1662 to 1664 six major waves of immigration occurred from these areas to Taiwan due to the severe hardships incurred from this relocation policy. In a move to take advantage of this Qing misstep, Zheng Jing promoted immigration to Taiwan by promising the opportunity for free eastern land cultivation and ownership for peasants in exchange for compulsory military service by all males in case the island should need to be defended against Qing invaders. About 1,000 previous Ming government officials moved to Taiwan fleeing Qing persecution.[20]

Zheng Jing also recruited his early tutor, Chen Yonghua, and passed to him most official government affairs. This saw the establishment of many important developmental policies for Taiwan in education, agriculture, trade, industry and finance, in addition to a tax system almost as harsh as that of the Dutch colonials.[15]

Taiwan soon saw the establishment of Chinese language schools for both the Chinese and indigenous populations and a concerted effort to break Dutch and Indigenous religious, language, and other cultural influences, and promotion of Chinese socio-cultural hegemony along with further expansion of towns and farmland into the south and east.[20] This was realised in the eventual closure of all European and therefore Christian schools and churches in Taiwan, the opening of Confucian temples and the institution of the Confucian civil service exams to coincide with the implemented Confucian education system. Chen Yong-hua is credited for the introduction of new agricultural techniques, such as water-storage for annual dry periods and the deliberate cultivation of sugar cane as a cash crop for trade with the Europeans, in addition to the cooperative unit machinery for mass refining of sugar. The island became more economically self-sufficient with Chen's introduction of mass salt drying by evaporation, creating much higher quality salt than by rock deposits which were found to be very rare in Taiwan.[20]

The Dutch had previously maintained a monopoly of trade of certain goods with the Aboriginal tribes across Taiwan, and this monopoly of trade was not only maintained under the Zheng regime, but was actively turned into a quota-tribute system of exploitation of the native tribes to aid in international trade.[20]

Trade with the British occurred from 1670 through until the end of the Zheng regime, though for the most part limited because of the Zheng monopoly on sugar cane and deer hide, as well as the inability of the British to match the price of East Asian goods for resale. Throughout its existence, Tungning was subject to the Qing sea ban (haijin), limiting its trade with mainland China to smugglers. Aside from the British, Zheng major trade occurred with the Japanese and Dutch, though evidence of trade with many Asian countries exists.[20]

Zheng Jing's navy defeated a combined Qing-Dutch fleet commanded by Han Banner general Ma Degong in 1664 and Ma was killed in the battle. The Dutch looted relics and killed monks after attacking a Buddhist complex at Putuoshan on the Zhoushan islands in 1665.[25]

Zheng Jing's navy executed thirty four Dutch sailors and drowned eight Dutch sailors after ambushing, looting and sinking the Dutch fluyt ship Cuylenburg in 1672 on northeastern Taiwan. Only twenty one Dutch sailors escaped to Japan. The ship was going from Nagasaki to Batavia on a trade mission.[26]

On a constant war footing, and denied maritime trade by the hostile Dutch-Qing alliance, the Kingdom of Tungning intensively exploited these lands to feed their vast army. This resulted in a number of brutally suppressed rebellions by the indigenous population and a gradual weakening of the competing Kingdom of Middag.[27]

A series of major conflicts between the Kingdom of Tungning and the Saisiyat people left the Saisiyat decimated and with much of their land in the hands of the Kingdom. The details of the conflicts remain mysterious however historians agree that the outcome was negative for the Saisiyat.[28]

Collapse[edit]

Following the death of Zheng Jing in 1681, the lack of an official heir meant rule of Taiwan would pass to his illegitimate son. This caused great division in the government and military powers, resulting in an exceptionally destructive struggle for the succession. Seizing the advantage presented by the infighting, the Qing dispatched their navy with Shi Lang at its head, destroying the Zheng fleet led by Liu Guoxuan at the Penghu Islands. In 1683, after the Battle of Penghu, Qing troops landed in Taiwan, Zheng Keshuang gave in to the Qing dynasty's demand for surrender after being convinced by the "surrender" faction led by Feng Xifan and Liu Guoxuan. His kingdom was incorporated into the Qing dynasty as part of Fujian province, ending more than two decades of rule by the Zheng family.[29]

Zheng Keshuang was taken to Beijing, where he was ennobled by the Qing emperor as Duke of Hanjun (漢軍公); together with his family and leading officers, he was also inducted into the Eight Banners. Junior members of the House of Koxinga acquired the hereditary style of Sia (舍).[30] The Qing sent the 17 Ming princes still living on Taiwan back to mainland China where they spent the rest of their lives.[31]

Troops who specialized at fighting with rattan shields and swords, Tengpaiying (藤牌營), were recommended to the Kangxi Emperor. Kangxi was impressed by a demonstration of their techniques and ordered 500 of them to reinforce the siege of Albazin against the Russians, under Ho Yu, a former Koxinga follower, and Lin Hsing-chu, a former General of Wu. Attacking from the water using only the rattan shields and swords, these troops cut down Russian forces traveling by rafts on the river, without suffering a single casualty.[32][33][34][35]

Rulers[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Title(s) Reign
(Lunar calendar)
1 The Portrait of Koxinga.jpg Koxinga
(Zheng Chenggong)

鄭成功
Zhèng Chénggōng (Mandarin)
Tēⁿ Sêng-kong (Hokkien)
Chhang Sṳ̀n-kûng (Hakka)
(1624–1662)
Prince of Yanping (延平王)
Prince Wu of Chao (潮武王)
14 June 1661
Yongli 15-5-18
23 June 1662
Yongli 16-5-8
2 Flag of Ming Cheng.svg Zheng Xi
鄭襲
Zhèng Xí (Mandarin)
Tēⁿ Si̍p (Hokkien)
Chhang Si̍p (Hakka)
(1625–?)
Protector (護理) 23 June 1662
Yongli 16-5-8
November 1662
Yongli 17
3 鄭經.jpg Zheng Jing
鄭經
Zhèng Jīng (Mandarin)
Tēⁿ Keng (Hokkien)
Chhang Kîn (Hakka)
(1642–1681)
Prince of Yanping (延平王)
Prince Wen of Chao (潮文王)
November 1662
Yongli 17
17 March 1681
Yongli 35-1-28
4 Flag of Ming Cheng.svg Zheng Kezang
鄭克𡒉
Zhèng Kèzāng (Mandarin)
Tēⁿ Khek-chong (Hokkien)
Chhang Khiet-chong (Hakka)
(1662–1681)
Prince Regent (監國) 17 March 1681
Yongli 35-1-28
19 March 1681
Yongli 35-1-30
5 鄭克塽畫像.jpg Zheng Keshuang
鄭克塽
Zhèng Kèshuǎng (Mandarin)
Tēⁿ Khek-sóng (Hokkien)
Chhang Khiet-sóng (Hakka)
(1670–1707)
Prince of Yanping (延平王)
Duke Hanjun (漢軍公)
19 March 1681
Yongli 35-1-30
5 September 1683
Yongli 37-8-13

Reigning family[edit]

Adoption
Zheng Zhilong
Prince of Yanping
Zheng Chenggong
(KOXINGA)
Tagawa ShichizaemonZheng DuZheng EnZheng YinZheng XiZheng Mo
Zheng JingZheng CongZheng MingZheng RuiZheng ZhiZheng KuanZheng YuZheng WenZheng RouZheng FaZheng GangZheng ShouZheng WeiZheng FuZheng YanZheng ZuanwuZheng Zuanwei
Niru
Zheng KezangZheng KeshuangZheng KexueZheng KejunZheng KebaZheng KemuZheng KeqiZheng KeqiaoZheng KetanZheng KezhangZheng KepeiZheng KechongZheng KezhuangZheng BingmoZheng KeguiZheng BingchengZheng BingxunZheng KexiZheng WenZheng BaoZheng YuZheng KunZheng JiZheng Zhong
Zheng AnfuZheng AnluZheng AnkangZheng AnjiZheng AndianZheng AndeZheng YanZheng YiZheng QiZheng AnxiZheng AnqingZheng AnxiangZheng AnguoZheng AnrongZheng AnhuaXialingBailingShunlingYonglingChanglingQingling
Zheng ShijunZheng XianjiZheng XianshengZheng FuZheng BengZheng AiZheng XianZheng PinZheng WengZheng MingZheng RuiZheng XingZheng ShengZheng JiaZheng GuanZheng PinZheng QiZheng TuZheng DianZheng LinZheng Qi
Zheng BinZheng MinZheng ChangZheng JinZheng GuiZheng SongZheng BoZheng JiZheng BangxunZheng BangruiZheng BangningZheng WenkuiZheng WenbiZheng Wen'yingZheng WenfangZheng WenguangZheng WenzhongZheng WenquanZheng Wen'wuZheng WenlianZheng WenminZheng Wenhan
Zheng JizongZheng ChengzongZheng Cheng'enZheng Cheng'yaoZheng ChenggangZheng ChengxuLiubuQingluQingfuQing'yuQingxiangShuangdingQingpuQingmaoYingpuShanpuQingxi
RuishanTushanDeshanRongshanDeyinDeyuSonghaiDeshouChang'enShi'enFu'enSongtai
YufangYuhaiYuchenEnrongEnfuEnluEnhouEnbaoEnlianXingshengYulinYuchengYushanYufuYuhaiYushengYuliangRunquan
Zheng YiZheng ZeChongxuErkang
Zheng JichangShuzengShuyueShuwang



See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Invitation from the "King of Tywan"". nmth.gov.tw. National Museum of Taiwan History. Retrieved 9 July 2021.
  2. ^ The select committee of the house of Lords (5 June 1829), "Tywan on Formosa", Report relative to the trade with the East Indies and China, The Bavarian State Library, pp. 392–396.
  3. ^ a b "The British-Zheng trading agreement". nmth.gov.tw. National Museum of Taiwan History. Retrieved 9 July 2021.
  4. ^ a b Young-tsu Wong (2017), "The Antagonism Across the Taiwan Strait", China's Conquest of Taiwan in the Seventeenth Century: Victory at Full Moon, Springer, p. 116, ISBN 978-9811022487, On 10 September 1670 the British East India Company and Zheng Jing (the second monarch of the kingdom), whom the Englishmen addressed as "King of Tywan," concluded a trade agreement, which went into effect in the following year. Thereafter, the company sent Simon Delboe to Taiwan as its chief representative and John Dacus as his reputy. The commercial tie lasted until the fall of Taiwan in 1684... Ellis Crisp, who had commanded the first English fleet to visit Taiwan, reported that Zheng Jing had endeavored "to make Tywan [Taiwan] a place of great trade".
  5. ^ a b Kang, Peter (2016), "Koxinga and his maritime regime in the popular historical writings of post-Cold War Taiwan", in Andrade, Tonio; Hang, Xing (eds.), Sea Rovers, Silver, and Samurai: Maritime East Asia in Global History, 1550–1700, University of Hawaii Press, pp. 335–352, ISBN 978-0-8248-5276-4. pp. 347–348.
  6. ^ Xing Hang (2017), Conflict and commerce in maritime East Asia: The zheng family and the shaping of the modern world, c.1620–1720, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1-107-12184-3.
  7. ^ Xing Hang (2017), Conflict and commerce in maritime East Asia: The zheng family and the shaping of the modern world, c.1620-1720 (PDF), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1-107-12184-3.
  8. ^ James K. Chin (2014), "A Hokkien Maritime Empire in the East and South China Seas, 1620–83", A Hokkien Maritime Empire in the East and South China Seas, 1620– 83, Palgrave Macmillan, London, pp. 93–112, doi:10.1057/9781137352866_5, ISBN 978-1-137-35286-6.
  9. ^ Young-tsu Wong (2017), "The Antagonism Across the Taiwan Strait", China's Conquest of Taiwan in the Seventeenth Century: Victory at Full Moon, Springer, pp. 114–115, ISBN 978-9811022487.
  10. ^ a b c "Historical and Legal Aspects of the International Status of Taiwan (Formosa)" by Ng Yuzin Chiautong, published on August 28, 1971, WUFI
  11. ^ Hang, Xing (2016). "Contradictory Contingencies: The Seventeenth-Century Zheng Family and Contested Cross-Strait Legacies". American Journal of Chinese Studies. American Journal of Chinese Studies 23. 23: 173–182. JSTOR 44289147. Retrieved 9 July 2021. Despite vast political differences, scholars in mainland China and Taiwan position the two men (Zheng Chenggong and Zheng Jing) along a continuum ranging from loyalists of the ethnically Han Ming dynasty (1368–1662) determined to recover the mainland from the Manchu Qing (1644–1911) to founders of an independent maritime state.
  12. ^ Kerr, George H. (11 April 1945). "Formosa: Island Frontier". Far Eastern Survey. 14 (7): 80–85. doi:10.2307/3023088. JSTOR 3023088.
  13. ^ The select committee of the house of Lords (5 June 1829), "Tywan on Formosa", Report relative to the trade with the East Indies and China, The Bavarian State Library, pp. 392–396, The letter written from the Court to the King of Formosa, dated London, 6th September 1671, "May it please your Majesty, By advice from our agents and Council of Bantam, we understand that, upon your Majesty's Encouragement, they had made a Beginning of Trade in your City of Tywan, and had been kindly received by your Majesty there... To that purpose we have now sent out several ships, with cargoes in part from hence, cloths, stuffs, lead, and other commodities, and have appointed to be ladened at Bantam, calicoes and other Indian goods, severally for sale at your City of Tywan, with orders to take in exchange sugars,skins, and other commodities.
  14. ^ Kerr, George H. (11 April 1945). "Formosa: Island Frontier". Far Eastern Survey. 14 (7): 81. doi:10.2307/3023088. JSTOR 3023088.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g Lin, A.; Keating, J. (2008). Island in the Stream : A Quick Case Study of Taiwan's Complex History (4th ed.). Taipei: SMC Pub. ISBN 9789576387050. Archived from the original on 2016-08-17. Retrieved 2016-10-06.
  16. ^ Andrade, Tonio (2005). "Chapter 11: The Fall of Dutch Taiwan". How Taiwan Became Chinese: Dutch, Spanish, and Han Colonization in the Seventeenth Century. Columbia University Press.
  17. ^ "Koxinga-Dutch Treaty (1662)" Appendix 1 to Bullard, Monte R. (unpub.) Strait Talk: Avoiding a Nuclear War Between the U.S. and China over Taiwan. Monterey Institute of International Studies Archived 2007-07-14 at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ Davidson (1903), p. 49.
  19. ^ Davidson (1903), p. 50.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h Wills, John E., Jr. (2006). "The Seventeenth-century Transformation: Taiwan under the Dutch and the Cheng Regime". In Rubinstein, Murray A. (ed.). Taiwan: A New History. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 84–106. ISBN 9780765614957.
  21. ^ John Robert Shepherd (1993). Statecraft and Political Economy on the Taiwan Frontier, 1600–1800. Stanford University Press. pp. 469–470. ISBN 0804720665.
  22. ^ Lin & Keating (2008), p. 13.
  23. ^ Foccardi, Gabriele (1986). The last warrior: the life of Cheng Chʻeng-kung, the lord of the "Terrace Bay" : a study on the Tʻai-wan wai-chih by Chiang Jih-sheng (1704). O. Harrassowitz. p. 97.
  24. ^ Huang Dianquan (1957). "Yongli 15.3". Haiji jiyao. Taipei: Haidong shufang. pp. 22–49.
  25. ^ Hang, Xing (2016). Conflict and Commerce in Maritime East Asia: The Zheng Family and the Shaping of the Modern World, c. 1620–1720. Cambridge University Press. p. 154. ISBN 978-1316453841.
  26. ^ Hang, Xing (2016). Conflict and Commerce in Maritime East Asia: The Zheng Family and the Shaping of the Modern World, c.1620–1720. Cambridge University Press. p. 190. ISBN 978-1316453841.
  27. ^ Wang, Hsing'an (2009). "Quataong". Encyclopedia of Taiwan.
  28. ^ Cheung, Han (22 November 2020). "Taiwan in Time: The ceremony that endured the times". www.taipeitimes.com. Taipei Times. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  29. ^ Copper, John F. (2000). Historical Dictionary of Taiwan (Republic of China) (2nd ed.). Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press. p. 10. ISBN 9780810836655. OL 39088M.
  30. ^ "Min Hakka Language Archives". Min Hakka Language Archives. Academic Sinica. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
  31. ^ Jonathan Manthorpe (15 December 2008). Forbidden Nation: A History of Taiwan. St. Martin's Press. pp. 108–. ISBN 978-0-230-61424-6.
  32. ^ Jonathan D. Spence (1991). The Search for Modern China. Norton. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-393-30780-1.
  33. ^ R. G. Grant (2005). Battle: A Visual Journey Through 5,000 Years of Combat. DK Pub. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-7566-1360-0.
  34. ^ Louise Lux (1998). The Unsullied Dynasty & the Kʻang-hsi Emperor. Mark One Printing. p. 270.
  35. ^ Mark Mancall (1971). Russia and China: their diplomatic relations to 1728. Harvard University Press. p. 338. ISBN 9780674781153.

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Koxinga at Wikimedia Commons
Preceded by
Dutch Formosa
1624–1662
History of Taiwan
Kingdom of Tungning

1661–1683
Succeeded by

Coordinates: 23°06′16″N 120°12′29″E / 23.10444°N 120.20806°E / 23.10444; 120.20806