Tsardom of Vidin
|Tsardom of Vidin|
The Tsardom of Vidin
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
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The Tsardom of Vidin (Bulgarian: Видинско царство, Vidinsko Tsarstvo) was a medieval Bulgarian state centred in the city of Vidin. In 1257 the local lord Rostislav Mikhailovich was crowned as Tsar of Bulgaria in Tarnovo, but soon withdrew to Vidin. In 1356, Bulgarian tsar Ivan Alexander isolated Vidin from the Bulgarian monarchy and appointed his son Ivan Stratsimir (1356–1396) as absolute ruler of the domain of Vidin.
In 1365, the state was occupied by Hungarian crusaders, but the occupation was short-lived. Although the initial campaign was not entirely successful because the Hungarians seized the city back, the ensuing negotiations between the Kingdom of Hungary and Ivan Alexander's allies, Vladislav I Vlaicu and Dobrotitsa, the despot of the semi-independent Dobrujan Principality of Karvuna, led to the return of the city to Bulgarian possession. It is thought that Ivan Sratsimir was reinstalled as the region's ruler in the autumn of 1369. In 1393 the whole of Bulgaria, along with the rest of the surrounding region, fell to the Ottoman Empire. This brought an end to Bulgaria's medieval state empire. Vidin was now the only region controlled by the indigenous Bulgarian population and not the invading Ottoman Turks.
The Ottomans went on to conquer the despotates of Dobruja, Prilep and Velbazhd as well. Vidin's independence did not last long. In 1396, Stratsimir contributed soldiers to assist the Christian nations' bid to overturn the Ottoman Empire. Following defeat at the hands of the Ottomans outside the city of Nicopolis, Vidin finally fell under the sphere of the Ottomans led by Bayezid I.
Princes and Tsars of Vidin
- Shishman, prince (1280 — 1308), the founder of Shishman dynasty
- Michael I, prince (1308 — 1323), son of prince Shishman, elected to tsar of Bulgaria and uses the name Michael III.
- Belaur, prince (1323 — 1337), brother of prince Michael I.
- Mishael II, prince (1337 — 1356), son of prince Michael I
- Sratsimir, tsar (1356 — 1365), son of Bulgarian tsar Ivan Alexander
- Hungarian rule (1365 — 1369).
- Sratsimir, tsar (1369 — 1396) second reign
- Constantine II, tsar (1396 — 1422)
- Ottoman rule
- A Concise History Of Bulgaria, Cambridge Concise Histories, R. J. Crampton, Cambridge University Press, 2005, ISBN 0521616379, p. 28.
- The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest, John Van Antwerp Fine, University of Michigan Press, 1994, ISBN 0472082604, pp. 423-425.
- Fine, Jr., John V.A. (1987). The Late Medieval Balkans. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08260-4.
- Pavlov, Plamen. Car Konstantin II Asen — poslednijat vladetel na srednovekovna Bǎlgarija (in Bulgarian). LiterNet.