Kings Cross, London
King's Cross shown within Greater London
|OS grid reference|
|Ceremonial county||Greater London|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|UK Parliament||Holborn and St. Pancras Islington South and Finsbury|
|London Assembly||Barnet and Camden|
King's Cross (also Kings Cross) is an inner city area of London, England, 2.5 miles (4.8 km) north of Charing Cross. It is the location and namesake of King's Cross railway station, one of the major gateways into London from the North.
Formerly a red light district, the area has been regenerated since the mid-1990s with the terminus of the Eurostar rail service at St Pancras International opening in 2007 and the construction of King's Cross Central, a major redevelopment in the north of the area.
The area was previously a village known as Battle Bridge or Battlebridge which was an ancient crossing of the River Fleet. The original name of the bridge was Broad Ford Bridge. The corruption "Battle Bridge" led to a tradition that this was the site of a major battle in AD 60 or 61 between the Romans and the Iceni tribe led by Boudica (also known as Boudicea). The tradition claims support from the writing of Publius Cornelius Tacitus, an ancient Roman historian, who described the place of action between the Romans and Boadicea (Annals 14.31), but without specifying where it was; Thornbury addresses the pros and cons of the identification. Lewis Spence's 1937 book Boadicea – warrior queen of the Britons includes a map showing the supposed positions of the opposing armies. The suggestion that Boudica is buried beneath platform 9 or 10 at King's Cross Station seems to have arisen as urban folklore since the end of World War II. The area had been settled in Roman times, and a camp here, known as The Brill was erroneously attributed to Julius Caesar, who never visited Londinium. The name is commemorated in two streets lying behind King's Cross and St Pancras stations. St Pancras Old Church, also set behind the stations, is said to be one of the oldest Christian sites in Britain.
The current name has its origin in a monument to King George IV which stood in the area from 1830 to 1845. It was built at the crossroads of Gray's Inn Road, Pentonville Road and New Road, which later became Euston Road. It was sixty feet high and topped by an eleven-foot-high statue of the king, and was described by Walter Thornbury as "a ridiculous octagonal structure crowned by an absurd statue". The statue itself, which cost no more than £25, was constructed of bricks and mortar, and finished in a manner that gave it the appearance of stone "at least to the eyes of common spectators". The architect was Stephen Geary, who exhibited a model of "the Kings Cross" at the Royal Academy in 1830. The upper storey was used as a camera obscura while the base in turn housed a police station and a public house. The unpopular building was demolished in 1845, though the area has kept the name of Kings Cross. A structure in the form of a lighthouse was built on top of a building almost on the site about 30 years later. Known locally as the "Lighthouse Building", the structure was popularly thought to be an advertisement for Netten's Oyster Bar on the ground floor, but this seems not to be true. It is a grade II listed building.
King's Cross railway station now stands by the junction where the monument stood and took its name. The station, designed by architect Lewis Cubitt and opened in 1852, succeeded a short-lived earlier station, erected north of the canal in time for the Great Exhibition.
St Pancras railway station, built by the Midland Railway, lies immediately to the west. They both had extensive land ("the railway lands") to house their associated facilities for handling general goods and specialist commodities such as fish, coal, potatoes and grain. The passenger stations on Euston Road far outweighed in public attention the economically more important goods traffic to the north. King's Cross and St Pancras stations, and indeed all London railway stations, made an important contribution to the capital's economy.
Decline and regeneration
After World War II the area declined from being a poor but busy industrial and distribution services district to a partially abandoned post-industrial district. By the 1980s it was notorious for prostitution and drug abuse. This reputation impeded attempts to revive the area, utilising the large amount of land available following the decline of the railway goods yard to the north of the station and the many other vacant premises in the area.
Relatively cheap rents and a central London location made the area attractive to artists and designers and both Antony Gormley and Thomas Heatherwick established studios in the area. In late 1980s, a group of musicians, mechanics, and squatters from Hammersmith called Mutoid Waste Company moved into Battlebridge Road warehouse. They built huge industrial sculptures out of scrap metal and held raves. In 1989 they were evicted by police. In 1992, the Community Creation Trust took over the disused coach repair depot and built it into the largest Ecology Centre in Europe with ecohousing for homeless youngsters, The Last Platform Cafe, London Ecology Centre (after its demise in Covent Garden), offices and workshops, gardens and ponds. It was destroyed to make a car park for the Channel Tunnel Regeneration. Bagley's Warehouse was a nightclub venue in the 1990s warehouse rave scene on the site of Goods Yard behind Kings Cross stations, now part of the redevelopment area known as the Coal Drops adjacent to Granary Square.
In the 1990s the government established the King's Cross Partnership to fund regeneration projects, and the commencement of work on High Speed 1 in 2000 provided a major impetus for other projects. Within a few years much of the "socially undesirable" behaviour had moved on, and new projects such as offices and hotels had begun to open. The area has also been for many years home to a number of trades union head offices (including the NUJ, RMT, UNISON, NUT, Community and UCU).
The area has increasingly become home to cultural establishments. The London Canal Museum opened in 1992, and in 1997 a new home for the British Library opened next to St Pancras Station. There was a small theatre, the Courtyard. However, this closed in late 2006 as a result of the gentrification of the area caused by a number of regeneration projects there, in this case, Regent's Quarter, across the boundary in Islington. The Gagosian Gallery moved their main London premises to the area in 2004. The London Sinfonietta and the Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment are based in King's Place, on Battlebridge Basin next to the Regent's Canal. King's Place is also the home of The Guardian and The Observer newspapers, and of the UK Drug Policy Commission.
The area is expected[by whom?] to remain a major focus of redevelopment through the first two decades of the 21st century. The London terminus of the Eurostar international rail service moved to St Pancras station in November 2007. The station's redevelopment led to the demolition of several buildings, including the Gasworks. Following the opening of the new high speed line to the station, redevelopment of the land between the two major stations and the old Kings Cross railwaylands to the rear has commenced, with outline planning permission granted for the whole site. Detailed planning applications for each part of the site are being made on a rolling programme basis. The site is now called King's Cross Central and is one of the largest construction projects in Greater London in the first quarter of the 21st century.
In popular culture
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For readers of Harry Potter, King's Cross is where the schoolboy hero boards the train for Hogwarts. The railway station has capitalised on tourist interest by putting up a sign for the fictional "Platform 9 3⁄4" described in the books, and burying a luggage trolley half into the wall. Film adaptations have used platforms 4 and 5 for some scenes.
King's Cross and its surrounding streets were also the setting for the 1955 Ealing comedy, The Ladykillers and Mike Leigh's High Hopes (1988). Anthony Minghella's 2006 film Breaking and Entering is also set in King's Cross.
"Vale Royal", an epic poem in 700 triads by Aidan Andrew Dun probes into this zone of London, Vale Royal was launched at the Albert Hall in 1995. A triad of Dun's, excerpted from another poem, "The Brill" has been installed at the western end of Granary Square in a small grove of trees beside the new Central Saint Martins. It reads: 'Kings Cross, dense with angels and histories, there are cities beneath your pavements, cities behind your skies. Let me see!'
The British pop music duo Pet Shop Boys recorded a song featured on their 1987 album Actually named "King's Cross": the melancholy track discusses the hopelessness of the AIDS epidemic during that time and uses the Kings Cross area as the "backdrop" of the story, trading on the area's associations with drug use and prostitution. Tracey Thorn covered the song in 2007. Songwriter David Gedge also wrote a song called "King's Cross" while recording under the name Cinerama.
London King's Cross and London St Pancras are the principal National Rail services in the district. St Pancras is also the Eurostar terminus for international services to Paris and Brussels. Euston station is half a mile to the west.
In the beginning of 2010 Chinese authorities announced a bold plan to link Chinese high speed national railway directly to London King's Cross international railway station. This would allow passengers to reach London from Beijing in just two days.
- Camden Town Hall
- The British Library
- Camley Street Natural Park
- London Canal Museum
- House of Illustration
- St Pancras Old Church
- King's Place
- Charles Dickens Museum
- The Foundling Museum
- Guildhall Art Gallery
- Gagosian Gallery
- British Postal Museum and Archive
- Gasholder No. 8 
- Royal Mail Mount Pleasant Sorting Office
- "King's Cross is made up of the King's Cross ward in the London Borough of Camden and 7 Output Areas in the Caledonian ward in the London Borough of Islington". Ukcensusdata.com. Retrieved 2016-09-29.
- Highbury, Upper Holloway and King's Cross, Old and New London: Volume 2 (1878), pp. 273–279. Retrieved 15 May 2009.
- Walter Thornbury (1878). "Highbury, Upper Holloway and King's Cross". Old and New London: Volume 2. British History Online. pp. 273–279. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
- Museum of London - Learning on Line (2009-03-01). "Boudica and King's Cross Station". Web.archive.org. Retrieved 2016-09-29.
- Caesar's Camp at Pancras called the Brill (British Library). Bl.uk (30 November 2003). Retrieved on 2013-07-30.
- Mills, A. D. (2001). A dictionary of London place names. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192801066.
- "The Architectural Magazine, conducted by J.C. Loudon F.L.S. &c. Vol. III. Nos. XXIII. to XXX.". The Gentleman's Magazine. 6 (new series): 627–8. 1836. quoting The Architectural Magazine
- Walter H. Godfrey and W. McB. Marcham (editors) (1952). "Euston Road". Survey of London: volume 24: The parish of St Pancras part 4: King’s Cross Neighbourhood. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- Algernon Graves (1905). The Royal Academy: A Complete Dictionary of Contributors from its Foundations in 1769 to 1904. 4. London: Henry Graves. p. 220.
- Greater London Industrial Archaeology Society newsletter, February 2000. Glias.org.uk (27 December 1999). Retrieved on 2013-07-30.
- ''Listed building details'', Camden Council. Mycamden.camden.gov.uk. Retrieved on 30 July 2013.
- Moore, Rowan (12 October 2014). "All hail the new King's Cross – but can other developers repeat the trick?" – via The Guardian.
- "History « Mutate Britain". Mutatebritain.com. 2010-08-04. Retrieved 2016-09-29.
- Mutoid Must Remain (2014-02-21). "Mutoid Must Remain". Meeting Benches. Retrieved 2016-09-29.
- "Home-King's Cross Partnership: London Development Agency". Web.archive.org. 2009-06-05. Retrieved 2016-09-29.
- "The Regents Canal History". Canalmuseum.org.uk. Retrieved 2016-09-29.
- "About Larry Gagosian - Gagosian". Gagosian.com. Retrieved 2016-09-29.
- Built in the 1860s and rebuilt in the 1880s, the gasholders (of unique linked triplet design) were still in use until 1999. Several gasholders (the site was originally a gasworks) that had dominated the area behind station for over a century have been taken down during the building works and placed in storage, and it is intended that they should be re-erected but converted to other use, possibly for housing.
- "King's Cross Development Forum". Kxdf.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2016-09-29.
- "Harry Potter's London". Visitlondon.com. Retrieved 2016-09-29.
- Shoard, Catherine (7 December 2011). "My favourite film: The Ladykillers" – via The Guardian.
- "News". Film London. 2006-11-28. Retrieved 2016-09-29.
- "Here Comes Everybody: The Story of The Pogues, By James Fearnley". Independent.co.uk. 28 April 2012. Retrieved 2016-09-29.
- "Official site". House of Illustration. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
- "Gasholder Park London | Nearby hotels, shops and restaurants". LondonTown.com. 2014-12-16. Retrieved 2016-09-29.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kings Cross.|
- Official site of King's Cross development
- Local directory
- Local tourist attractions summary
- The original King's Cross monument (Victorian London)
- King's Cross Development Brief
- King's Cross Development Forum,a group providing the community response to developments
- Local newsletter
- Experimental documentary centred around King's Cross