Kings of Rhythm

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The Kings of Rhythm
Also known asJackie Brenston & His Delta Cats, Ike Turner & His Orchestra, The Family Vibes
OriginClarksdale, Mississippi, United States
GenresJump blues, rhythm and blues, rock and roll, funk, soul
Years active1951–2007
LabelsSun, Modern, Sony, Teena, United Artists Records, Sue Records
Associated actsIke & Tina Turner, Ike Turner, The Tophatters, The Family Vibes
Members
  • Leo Dombecki – Keyboards, saxophone
  • Bill Ray – Drums
  • Armando Cepeda – Bass
  • Ryan Montana – Saxophone
  • Seth Blumberg – Guitar
  • Earl Thomas
Past membersJackie Brenston (deceased)
Ike Turner (deceased)
Willie Kizart
Raymond Hill (deceased)
Willie "Bad Boy" Sims
Johnny O'Neal
Eugene Washington
Eugene Fox
Clayton Love
Ernest Lane[1]
Jesse Knight, Jr.
Bonnie Turner
Annie Mae Wilson[2][3]
Jimi Hendrix (deceased)
Mack Johnson
Clifford Solomon[4]
Fred Sample
Billy Preston (deceased)
Edward Burks
Jackie Clark
Warren Dawson,
Mark Landon[5]
Soko Richardson (deceased)
See members section for others

The Kings of Rhythm are an American rhythm and blues and soul group formed in the late 1940s in Clarksdale, Mississippi and led by Ike Turner through to his death in 2007. Turner would retain the name of the band throughout his career, although the group has undergone considerable line-up changes over time.

The group was an offshoot of a large big band ensemble called "The Tophatters." By the late 1940s Turner had renamed this group the "Kings of Rhythm." Their early stage performances consisted largely of covers of popular jukebox hits of the day. [6]

In 1951, Turner and his Kings of Rhythm recorded the song "Rocket 88" (credited to Jackie Brenston and His Delta Cats)," which was an early example of rock and roll. In the 1960s they became the band for the "Ike & Tina Turner Revue."For a few years in the early 1970s they were renamed "The Family Vibes," and released two albums under that name, both produced by, but not featuring Ike Turner.

After the disbanding of the Ike & Tina Turner Revue in 1976, Turner revived the Kings of Rhythm in 2001 and released the album Here And Now. After Turner died in 2007, the band for some time was under the leadership of pianist Ernest Lane (himself a childhood friend of Turner's). The Kings of Rhythm continue to tour with vocalist Earl Thomas.

Career[edit]

Formation: The Tophatters[edit]

In high school, a teenage Ike Turner joined a huge local rhythm ensemble called "The Tophatters", who played dances around Clarksdale, Mississippi, playing big band arrangements from sheet music.[2] Members of the band were taken from Clarksdale musicians, and included Turner's school friends Raymond Hill, Eugene Fox and Clayton Love.[3][7]

At one point the Tophatters had over 30 members, and eventually split into two, with one act who wanted to carry on playing dance band jazz calling themselves "The Dukes of Swing" and the other, led by Turner becoming the "Kings of Rhythm".[8]Rivalry between the two former factions of the Tophatters lasted for some time, with the two staging an open air 'battle-of-the-bands' where they played from atop two flatbed trucks every fortnight.[2]

1940s: Early years[edit]

The Kings of Rhythm had a regular Wednesday night residency at Clarksdale's Harlem Theater. This got them bookings around the Mississippi Delta region. Their early stage performances consisted largely of covers of popular jukebox hits.[9] In March 1951 whilst driving between gigs, the Kings of Rhythm dropped in on a B.B. King club date in Chambers, Mississippi. Turner persuaded King to let the band sit in and play a number with him. King contests this, remembering that it was only Turner who sat in with his band. They were well received and the club owner booked them for a weekend residency, whilst King recommended them to Sam Philips at Sun Studios in Memphis, Tennessee.[2] In the 50s, The Kings received regular airplay from live sessions on Clarksdale radio station WROX-AM, at the behest of DJ Early Wright. The band would sometimes play a session that lasted an hour.[10]

1951: "Rocket 88"[edit]

Sam Phillips invited the Kings of Rhythm down to Memphis to record at Sun Studios, and the group had to devise an original song at short notice for the session. The saxophonist, Jackie Brenston, suggested a song about the new Rocket 88 Oldsmobile. Turner worked out the arrangement and the piano introduction and the band collaborated on the rest with Brenston on vocals.[2][9] "Rocket 88" came out with the group erroneously credited as Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats, instead of Ike Turner and his Kings of Rhythm featuring Jackie Brenston.[6] The single went on to sell half a million copies, reaching the top of the Billboard R&B charts in June 1951. The success of the record caused divisions within the group, with Brenston believing he was now the star and should front the group, and Turner and Raymond Hill bitter that they had received little recognition or recompense for writing and recording a hit record. Turner and the band were only paid $20 each for the record,[11] with the exception of Brenston who sold the rights to Phillips for $910.[12]

The group's regular singer, Johnny O'Neal, had left prior to the recording of "Rocket 88" to sign a contract with King Records, but Turner still refused to allow Brenston to take over as singer. Following the success of the record, Brenston was convinced he was the star of the group and left to pursue a solo career.[6] This caused the group to fall apart with some members backing Brenston on the road. However Turner held onto the name and soon reformed the Kings of Rhythm with a new line-up.[2]

1952–1954: Sun/Modern Records[edit]

Between 1952 and 1954, Turner became a session musician and production assistant for Sam Philips at Sun Records and the Bihari brothers at Modern/RPM Records. Turner was also a freelance talent scout, and used the Kings of Rhythm as session musicians. They played on many recording for the Biharis Modern, RPM, and Flair labels.[6]

Turner's wife Bonnie Turner was a pianist and vocalist in his new line-up. They released the record, "My Heart Belongs To You" / "Looking for My Baby" from RPM in 1952. The Kings of Rhythm including Bonnie Turner, Raymond Hill, Billy "The Kid" Emerson and Johnny O'Neal recorded for Sun in 1953 and 1954. Some of the recordings remained unissued until Charly Records released of Sun: The Roots Of Rock: Volume 3: Delta Rhythm Kings in 1976.[13] Turner and the Kings of Rhythm last recorded for Sun in 1958 with Tommy Hodge, by then, Phillips had shifted his focus onto rockabilly music and wasn't recording many black musicians anymore.[14]

1955-1959: St. Louis[edit]

In 1955, Turner took the reformed version of Kings of Rhythm north to St. Louis,[15] including Kizart, Sims, O'Neal, Jessie Knight, Jr. and Turner's then wife Annie Mae Wilson on piano and vocals. Around this time, Turner moved over to playing guitar to accommodate Annie Mae, taking lessons from Willie Kizart to improve.

Turner maintained strict discipline over the band, insisting they lived in a large house with him so he could conduct early morning rehearsals at a moment's notice. He would fire anyone he suspected of drinking or taking drugs, and would fine or physically assault band-members if they played a wrong note. He controlled everything from the arrangements down to the suits the band wore onstage. Starting off playing at a club called Kingsbury's in Madison, Illinois, within a year Turner had built up a full gig schedule, establishing his group as one of the most highly rated on the St. Louis club circuit, vying for popularity with their only real competition, Sir John's Trio featuring Chuck Berry. The bands would play all-nighters in St. Louis, then cross the river to the clubs of East St. Louis, Illinois, and continue playing until dawn. In St. Louis for the first time Turner and the band were exposed to a developing white teenage audience who were excited by R&B. Clubs the Kings played in St. Louis included Club Imperial, which was popular with white teenagers, The Dynaflow, The Moonlight Lounge, Club Riviera and the West End Walters. In East St. Louis, the group would play Kingsbury's, Club Manhattan and The Sportsman.

In between live dates, Turner took the band to Cincinnati to record for Federal in 1956 and Chicago for Cobra/Artistic in 1958. He befriended St. Louis R&B fan Bill Stevens, who in 1958 set up the short-lived record label, Stevens, financed by his father Fred. Turner recorded numerous sessions for Stevens with various vocalists and musician lineups of the Kings, of which seven singles were released (these are collected on the Red Lightnin' compilation "Hey Hey - The Legendary Ike Turner and the Kings of Rhythm"/RL0047). None of the Stevens records had wide distribution and the operation ceased after a year.[16][page needed][17] In addition the band appeared on local television shows. They toured the "Chitlin' Circuit" of black southern clubs for many years.

1960s: The Ike & Tina Turner Revue[edit]

After the addition of his new wife Anna Mae Bullock (Tina Turner) as lead singer, Turner changed the name of the band from The Kings of Rhythm to the Ike & Tina Turner Revue. The creation of the revue was in a large part the birth of the soul revues of the 1960s. The band and Tina were joined on stage by the Ikettes who contributed backing vocals and choreographed dance moves. As backing band to the duo, the band played on many substantial soul hits, including the million sellers "A Fool In Love" (1960) and "It's Gonna Work Out Fine"(1961) both for Sue Records.[2] Also a part of the revue were male singers Stacey Johnson, Vernon Guy, Jimmy Thomas and Bobby John.

In the mid-1960s Jimi Hendrix briefly played backing guitar in the band.[18] Turner fired him because his guitar solos became "so elaborate they overstepped the bounds."[19]

Band members[edit]

1951 Rocket 88 recording band (Jackie Brenston and His Delta Cats)[edit]

1950s – 1960s members[edit]

  • Ike Turner – Piano
  • Jackie Brenston – Saxophone, Vocals
  • Johnny O'Neal – Vocals
  • Willie "Bad Boy" Sims – Drums
  • Raymond Hill – Saxophone
  • Bobby Fields
  • Vernon Guy – Vocals
  • Bob Prindall – Drums
  • Edward Nash
  • Eugene Washington – Drums
  • Eddie Jones – Tenor saxophone
  • Eugene Fox
  • Clifford Solomon[4]
  • Clayton Love – Vocals
  • Carlson Oliver – Vocals
  • Jimmy Thomas – Vocals
  • Bobby John – Vocals
  • Stacy Johnson – Vocals
  • Jimi Hendrix – Guitar[18]
  • Ernest Lane (late 50s – early 60s and 1999–2009)[1]
  • Larry Lynch – Bass[20]
  • Willie Kizart – Guitar
  • C. V. Veal (Ike's cousin)
  • Jesse Knight, Jr. (Ike's nephew) – Bass
  • Sam Rhodes – Bass[21]
  • Herb Sadler – Guitar[21]
  • Bonnie Turner (Ike's ex-wife) – Piano, Vocals[6]
  • Annie Mae Wilson (Ike's ex-wife) – Piano[2][3][6]

Studio lineup for A Black Man's Soul (1969)[edit]

  • Bass – Jesse Knight
  • Drums – Mack Johnson
  • Guitar – Ike Turner
  • Percussion – Teasky Tribble
  • Piano – Fred Sample, Ike Turner, Billy Preston on "Getting Nasty"
  • Saxophone – Washee
  • Trombone – Jesse Heron
  • Vocals – Tina Turner

1970s members[edit]

  • Ike Turner – Guitar, Organ
  • Edward Burks – Trombone
  • Jackie Clark – Guitar
  • Warren Dawson – Bass
  • McKinley Johnson – Trumpet
  • Mark Landon – Guitar[5]
  • John Leland – Bass
  • Mary Reed – Tenor saxophone
  • Jimmy Smith – Tenor saxophone
  • J.D. Reed – Baritone saxophone
  • Soko Richardson – Drums

Current line-up[edit]

  • Paul Smith - Keyboards, Organ
  • Leo Dombecki – Keyboards, Saxophone
  • Bill Ray – Drums
  • Armando Cepeda – Bass
  • Ryan Montana – Saxophone
  • Seth Blumberg – Guitar

Partial discography[edit]

[22][23][6]

Studio albums[edit]

Live albums[edit]

  • 2002: Ike Turner's Kings Of Rhythm – The Resurrection: Live Montreux Jazz Festival, Isabel IS 640202
  • 2006: Ike Turner & The Kings Of Rhythm – Live In Concert, Charly Films CHF-F1014LF [DVD/2CD]

Compilations[edit]

  • 1976: Sun: The Roots Of Rock: Volume 3: Delta Rhythm Kings (Charly CR 30103)
  • 1976: Ike Turner's Kings Of Rhythm – I'm Tore Up (Red Lightnin' RL0016)
  • 1984: The Legendary Ike Turner and The Kings of Rhythm – Hey Hey (Red Lightnin' RL0047)
  • 1990: Ike Turner's Kings Of Rhythm – Cobra Sessions 1958 (P-Vine PCD-2161)
  • 2001: The Kings Of Rhythm Featuring Ike Turner – The Sun Sessions (Varèse Sarabande 302 066 232 2)
  • 2004: Ike Turner And The Kings Of Rhythm – King Cobra: The Chicago Sessions (Fuel 2000 302 061 390 2)
  • 2017: Ike Turner And The Kings Of Rhythm – She Made My Blood Run Cold (Southern Routes SR-CD-3502)

Singles[edit]

  • 1951: "Heartbroken and Worried" / "I'm Lonesome Baby" (Chess 1459) – Ike Turner And His Kings of Rhythm,
  • 1952: "My Heart Belongs To You" / "Looking for My Baby"(RPM 362) – Bonnie and Ike Turner With Orchestra Acc.
  • 1954: "Sinners Dream" / "Stay At Home" (Checker 792) – Eugene Fox
  • 1954: "Wicked Little Baby" / "Why Don't You Believe In Me" (Modern 929) – Clayton Love
  • 1954: "The Snuggle"/ "Bourbon Street Jump" (Sun 204) – Raymond Hill
  • 1954: "Baby Please" / "Gypsy Blues" (Flair 1037) – Matt Cockrell
  • 1954: "The Drean (Part 1)" / "The Dream (Part 2) (RPM 420) – The Fox
  • 1956: "As Long As I Have You" / "I Wanna Make Love To You" (RPM 446) – The Trojans
  • 1956: "What Am I To Do" / "I'll Die In Love With You" (Federal 12267) – The Rockers
  • 1956: "My Baby's Tops" / "Flaming Tops" (Federal 12284) – The Gardenias
  • 1956: "Do Right Baby" / "No Coming Back" (Federal 12282) – Billy Gayles With Ike Turner's Kings Of Rhythm
  • 1956: "I'm Tore Up" / "If I Never Had Known You" (Federal 12265) – Billy Gayles With Ike Turner's Kings Of Rhythm
  • 1957: "Much Later" / "The Mistreater" (Federal 12291) – Jackie Brenston With Ike Turner's Kings Of Rhythm
  • 1957: "What Can It Be" / "Gonna Wait For My Chance" (Federal 12283) – Jackie Brenston With Ike Turner's Kings Of Rhythm
  • 1957: "Do You Mean It" / "She Made My Blood Run Cold" (Federal 12297) – Ike Turner And His Orchestra
  • 1958: "Boxtop" / "Chalypso Love Cry" (Tune Town 501) – Ike Turner, Carlson Oliver, Little Ann
  • 1959: "Box Top" / "Walking Down The Aisle" (Cobra 5033) – Ike Turner's Kings of Rhythm
  • 1959: "(I Know) You Don't Love Me" / "Down & Out" (Artistic 1504) – Ike Turner's Kings of Rhythm, vocal by Tommy Hodge
  • 1961: "Crackerjack" / "Gettin' Late" (Crackerjack 4000) – Ike Turner's Kings of Rhythm
  • 1962: "Prancing" / "It's Gonna Work Out Fine" (Sue 760) – Ike & Tina's Kings of Rhythm
  • 1962: "Drifting" / "Love You Baby" (Kent 45x378) – Ike Turner And His Orchestra, vocal by Bobby "Blue" Bland
  • 1963: "Lonely Soldier" / "The Bad Man" (Sony 111) – Bobby John
  • 1963: "Remove My Doubts" / "Don't Believe 'Em" (Sony 113) – Stacy Johnson
  • 1963: "What's That You've Got" / "Need My Help" (Sony 114) – Ernest Lane
  • 1964: "Anything - To Make It With You" / "Walking Down The Isle" (Sonja 2007) – Vernon Guy
  • 1965: "The New Breed (Pt. 1)" / "The New Breed (Pt. 2)" (Sue 138) – Ike Turner & His Kings of Rhythm
  • 1968: "You Got What You Wanted" / "Too Hot To Hold" (Pompeii 66682) – Tina Turner With Ike Turner & The Kings of Rhythm
  • 1972: "Bootie Lip" / "Soppin' Molasses" (United Artists 50901) – Ike Turner Presents The Family Vibes
  • 1973: "El Burrito" / "Garbage Man" (United Artists XW278) – Ike Turner Presents The Family Vibes

Uncredited recordings[edit]

  • 1951: "Rocket 88" / "Come Back To Where You Belong" (Chess 1458) – recorded at Sam Phillips' studio in Memphis, Tennessee, on March 3 or 5, 1951 by Ike Turner and his band, The Kings of Rhythm (with his saxophonist and occasional singer Jackie Brenston, being credited on the record's label [Jackie Brenston and His Delta Cats] as the writer/performer).
  • 1951: "My Real Gone Rocket" / "Tuckered Out" (Chess 1469) – credited as Jackie Brenston and His Delta Cats

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Lane, Ernest. "Ernest Lane biography". Ernest Lane official website. Ernest Lane. Retrieved 5 October 2011.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Collis, John (2003). Ike Turner- King of Rhythm. London: The Do Not Press. pp. 70–76. ISBN 978-1-904316-24-4.
  3. ^ a b c "Mississippi Blues Trail-Ike Turner". Mississippi Blues Trail. Mississippi Blues Commission. Retrieved 1 October 2011.
  4. ^ a b Kiersh, Ed (August 1985). "Ike's Story". Spin. 1 (4): 36–43. Retrieved 5 October 2011.
  5. ^ a b Unterberger, Richie (Summer 2007). "The Rage Inside the Machine". Ugly Things (#25): 27, 28. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Turner, Ike (1999). Takin' Back My Name: The Confessions of Ike Turner. Cawthorne, Nigel. London: Virgin. ISBN 9781852278502. OCLC 43321298.
  7. ^ "Ike Turner's Kings Of Rhythm – I'm Tore Up". Discogs. discogs. Retrieved 1 October 2011.
  8. ^ Romanowski, Patricia (2001). Ike and Tina Turner Biography. Simon & Schuster. p. 1136. ISBN 978-0-7432-0120-9.
  9. ^ a b Pareles, Jon (December 13, 2007). "Ike Turner, musician and songwriter in duo with Tina Turner, dies at 76". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
  10. ^ Martin, Douglas (17 December 1999). "Early Wright, 84, Disc Jockey Who Made the Delta Blue, Dies". New York Times. Retrieved 2 October 2011.
  11. ^ "Ike Turner." Unsung. Exec. Prod. Frank Sinton, Arthur Smith, Kent Weed, and Mark Rowland. Nar. Gary Anthony Williams. TV One, 17. Dec. 2012. Television.
  12. ^ Turner, Tina. (1986). I, Tina: My Life Story. Loder, Kurt (1st ed.). New York: Morrow. ISBN 9780688059491. OCLC 13069211.
  13. ^ "Various – Sun: The Roots Of Rock: Volume 3: Delta Rhythm Kings". Discogs.
  14. ^ "1958 Sun Sessions 1". 706 Union Avenue Sessions.
  15. ^ Ward, Ed. "Ike Turner". Encyclopædia Britannica- black history. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 1 October 2011.
  16. ^ Collis, John (2003). Ike Turner- King of Rhythm. London: The Do Not Press. ISBN 978-1-904316-24-4.
  17. ^ Palmer, Robert (1992). Present tense: rock & roll and culture. Duke University, U.S.A.: Duke University Press. pp. 32–36. ISBN 978-0-8223-1265-9.
  18. ^ a b Roby, Steven (2012). Hendrix on Hendrix: Interviews and Encounters. Chicago Review Press. pp. 20, 139. ISBN 978-1613743249.
  19. ^ Wellington, Darryl Lorenzo (August 2, 2005). "Flashy, raucous, sad: the Jimi Hendrix experience". The Christian Science monitor.
  20. ^ "RIP". www.stlmusicyesterdays.com.
  21. ^ a b Vernon, Paul (1999). African-American blues, rhythm and blues, gospel and zydeco on film and video, 1926-1997. Ashgate. OCLC 903418900.
  22. ^ "Ike Turner's Kings Of Rhythm". Discogs.
  23. ^ "Ike Turner Discography". 45cat.