Kingscote, South Australia

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Kingscote
South Australia
Dauncey St Kingscote.jpg
Dauncey Street
Kingscote is located in South Australia
Kingscote
Kingscote
Coordinates 35°39′11″S 137°38′03″E / 35.65306°S 137.63417°E / -35.65306; 137.63417Coordinates: 35°39′11″S 137°38′03″E / 35.65306°S 137.63417°E / -35.65306; 137.63417
Population 1763 (including Brownlow KI) (2011 census)[1]
Established 1836
Postcode(s) 5223
LGA(s) Kangaroo Island Council
State electorate(s) Finniss[2]
Federal Division(s) Mayo[3]
Mean max temp Mean min temp Annual rainfall
19.1 °C
66 °F
11.6 °C
53 °F
484 mm
19.1 in
Localities around Kingscote:
Wisanger Nepean Bay Nepean Bay
Wisanger Kingscote Nepean Bay
Menzies Cygnet River
Brownlow KI
Nepean Bay
Footnotes Climate[4]
Adjoining localities[5]

Kingscote is the largest town on Kangaroo Island, an island off the south coast of South Australia. Kingscote is South Australia's oldest European settlement.[6] At the 2011 census, Kingscote had a population of 1,763.[1] It is a well-established tourist centre and the administrative and communications centre. It is home to a colony of the smallest penguins in the world, the little penguin.

History[edit]

The South Australia Company established its colony at Kingscote at Reeves Point on 27 July 1836, as South Australia's first official European settlement, the first settlers having arrived on the Duke of York.[7] It was later suggested that Kingscote could serve as the capital of South Australia, but the island's resources were insufficient to support such a large community; the South Australia Company moved almost six months later to Adelaide after sending surveyors to find a better site.

The history of the area is displayed in the museum in Hope Cottage, to the north of the town. Hope Cottage was one of the three earliest houses built in Kingscote, circa 1850, with the adjoining cottages of Faith and Charity. (Faith has been subsequently demolished.)

The Old Mulberry Tree at Reeves Point was planted in 1836 and still bears fruit. Reeves Point has been placed on the Australian Heritage Places List.[8]

The current town of Kingscote is now immediately to the south of the original Kingscote settlement at Reeves Point in the area originally known as Queenscliffe (the origin of the name of the Queenscliffe Hotel in Dauncey Street).[9]

State heritage places[edit]

Kingscote contains the following places which are listed on the South Australian Heritage Register:

Facilities[edit]

Kingscote has a school offering years 1 to 12, a hospital, supermarket, post office and government offices. It is the administrative centre for the Kangaroo Island Council, whose offices have recently undergone a significant upgrade.

There is an extensive wharf and jetty, formerly used by the roll-on, roll-off vessels, Troubridge and Island Seaway.

Kingscote has a tidal swimming pool, plus a sports centre and adjoining oval and netball courts.

The Aurora Ozone Seafront Hotel, with its mermaid statue, is a well-known landmark on the Kingscote foreshore, having opened in 1907.

Little Penguin colony[edit]

In 2007, the Kingscote colony of Little penguins' population was 868 adults and fell to 706 in 2010.[15] In 2011, it was believed to be either declining or stable.[16] In 2012, the population fell to 300 adults according to DEWNR figures.[15] In 2013, the Kingscote colony of little penguins had dropped to 20 birds, according to tour operator John Ayliffe.[17] Official 2013 census figures were greater, estimating 154 breeding adults, down 48 per cent from the previous year and 82 per cent since the population peak in 2007.[18]

Increasing populations of New Zealand fur seals are believed to be a factor in the decline. Other predators of penguins on Kangaroo Island include rats, dogs, cats, goannas and sea eagles. Since the 1990s, penguin tour operators have improved the nesting habitat in the visitation area at Kingscote, through vegetation, habitat protection and constructing boardwalks for tourists.[16] Disease and declining fish stocks have also been blamed for declines in Little penguin numbers.[15]

Other colonies in South Australia have experienced dramatic declines since the 1990s. The nearest examples of colonies in decline are found in Encounter Bay (Granite Island, Wright Island and West Island) and at Penneshaw on Kangaroo Island.[17]

Accounts of little penguins at Kingcote exist from the 1930s.[19]

The Spit[edit]

Historically, Little penguins have also been observed in burrows on The Spit which lays across the mouth of Bay of Shoals. Observations of penguins at this location were published in 1888,[20] 1911,[21] 1915,[22] 1934[23] and 1938.[24] A child visiting in 1947 found at least six penguin burrows.[25] The species did not appear in the list of birds observed at Busby Islet Conservation Park (part of The Spit) which was published in 1987.[26]

Climate[edit]

Kingscote has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csb), where most of the rain falls in the winter months.[27]

Climate data for Kingscote
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 40.6
(105.1)
41.0
(105.8)
35.8
(96.4)
31.0
(87.8)
24.7
(76.5)
22.4
(72.3)
22.0
(71.6)
23.0
(73.4)
27.5
(81.5)
37.3
(99.1)
39.4
(102.9)
38.8
(101.8)
41.0
(105.8)
Average high °C (°F) 23.7
(74.7)
23.5
(74.3)
22.2
(72)
19.8
(67.6)
17.5
(63.5)
15.4
(59.7)
14.6
(58.3)
15.0
(59)
16.5
(61.7)
18.5
(65.3)
20.5
(68.9)
22.3
(72.1)
19.1
(66.4)
Average low °C (°F) 14.9
(58.8)
15.4
(59.7)
14.3
(57.7)
12.5
(54.5)
10.8
(51.4)
9.3
(48.7)
8.4
(47.1)
8.3
(46.9)
9.1
(48.4)
10.3
(50.5)
12.0
(53.6)
13.6
(56.5)
11.6
(52.9)
Record low °C (°F) 8.3
(46.9)
8.9
(48)
6.1
(43)
5.6
(42.1)
2.8
(37)
−1.1
(30)
2.1
(35.8)
2.0
(35.6)
1.6
(34.9)
2.2
(36)
4.7
(40.5)
6.1
(43)
−1.1
(30)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 14.7
(0.579)
17.0
(0.669)
18.4
(0.724)
35.1
(1.382)
58.6
(2.307)
72.5
(2.854)
77.7
(3.059)
65.2
(2.567)
47.4
(1.866)
37.1
(1.461)
23.0
(0.906)
19.2
(0.756)
483.6
(19.039)
Average precipitation days 3.6 3.5 5.0 8.7 12.8 15.7 18.1 16.8 12.9 10.0 6.7 5.3 119.1
Source: [4]


Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Australian Bureau of Statistics (31 October 2012). "Kingscote (Urban Centre and Localities)". 2011 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 30 May 2016. 
  2. ^ "District of Finniss Background Profile". ELECTORAL COMMISSION SA. Retrieved 2 August 2015. 
  3. ^ "Federal electoral division of Mayo, boundary gazetted 16 December 2011" (PDF). Australian Electoral Commission. Retrieved 2 August 2015. 
  4. ^ a b "Climate statistics for Kingscote". Australian Government, Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 
  5. ^ "Search result for "Kingscote (Locality Bounded)" (Record no SA0036764) with the following layers selected - "Suburbs and Localities", “”Government Towns” and "Place names (gazetteer)"". Property Location Browser. Government of South Australia. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  6. ^ Kingscote, South Australia Travelmate, Accessed 25 August 2007
  7. ^ Kangaroo Island Council - Welcome
  8. ^ "Reeves Point Settlement Site (listing RNE15625)". Australia Heritage Places Inventory. Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. Retrieved 2007-07-17. 
  9. ^ ""WHAT'S IN A NAME.".". The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1889 - 1931) (Adelaide, SA: National Library of Australia). 16 April 1902. p. 4. Retrieved 9 December 2011. 
  10. ^ "Dwelling ('Hope Cottage')". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  11. ^ "'The Bluff' Cottage (formerly 'Reeves' Cottage, 'Seaview Farm')". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  12. ^ "Combined Shop/Dwelling (originally Barrett's Store)". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  13. ^ "Reeves Point Settlement Site (site of the first official settlement in the Colony), including cemetery, well and mulberry tree". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  14. ^ "Old Government Quarry". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  15. ^ a b c Black, Shauna "Local politics blamed for penguin inaction" The Islander, Kangaroo Island, South Australia (2013-06-06). Retrieved 2014-02-07.
  16. ^ a b Wiebken, A. S. "Conservation management priorities for little penguin populations in Gulf St Vincent" Adelaide & Mount Lofty Ranges Natural Resource Management Board / SARDI, South Australia (2011-06). Retrieved 2014-02-06.
  17. ^ a b Austin, Nigel "Kangaroo Island little penguins at giant risk as colony drops to 20" The Advertiser, South Australia (2013-07-29). Retrieved 2014-02-06.
  18. ^ "Penguin populations dropping". The Islander (Kangaroo Island, South Australia). 2014-07-24. Retrieved 2014-07-26. 
  19. ^ "PENGUINS ARE WORTH £5 EACH.". The Kangaroo Island Courier. 24 November 1934. p. 2. Retrieved 2015-07-05. 
  20. ^ "Field Naturalists' Cruise to Kangaroo Island." South Australian Weekly Chronicle, South Australia (1888-04-14). Retrieved 2014-03-12.
  21. ^ Canyon "KANGAROO ISLAND. PICTURESQUE AND PRODUCTIVE." Chronicle, South Australia (1911-12-02). Retrieved 2014-02-26.
  22. ^ "Bird Life on Kangaroo Island.". The Kangaroo Island Courier. 26 June 1915. p. 6. Retrieved 2015-07-05. 
  23. ^ "A Trip to Kangaroo Island" Burra Record, South Australia (1934-01-17). Retrieved 2014-02-26.
  24. ^ George, Elisabeth "LIFE and LETTERS" The West Australian, Western Australia (1938-04-30). Retrieved 2014-02-26.
  25. ^ Shoppee, Rosemary (1946-12-27). "Five Stars Club for Young Catholics - PENGUINS, SEAGULLS & COCKLES". Retrieved 2015-01-31. 
  26. ^ Conservation parks of Kangaroo Island management plan Parks & Wildlife Service, Department of Environment & Planning, South Australia (1987-12). ISBN 0 7243 8983 0
  27. ^ Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1642. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606.  (direct: Final Revised Paper)

External links[edit]