The Kipchaks, also known as Qipchaq or Polovtsians, were a Turkic nomadic people and confederation that existed in the Middle Ages, inhabiting parts of the Eurasian Steppe. First mentioned in the 8th century as part of the Second Turkic Khaganate, they most likely inhabited the Altai region from where they expanded over the following centuries, first as part of the Kimek Khanate and later as part of a confederation with the Cumans. There were groups of Kipchaks in the Pontic–Caspian steppe, Syr Darya and Siberia. The Cuman–Kipchak confederation was conquered by the Mongols in the early 13th century.
The Kipchaks interpreted their name as meaning "hollow tree" (Middle Turkic: kuv ağaç); according to them, inside a hollow tree, their original human ancestress gave birth to her son. Németh points to the Siberian qıpčaq "angry, quick-tempered" attested only in the Siberian Sağay dialect. Klyashtorny links Kipchak to qovı, qovuq "unfortunate, unlucky"; yet Golden sees a better match in qıv "good fortune" and adjectival suffix -čāq. Regardless, Golden notes that the ethnonym's original form and etymology "remain a matter of contention and speculation".
Their name appears occasionally transliterated in other languages, such as Arabic: قفجاق, romanized: Qifjāq; Persian: قبچاق, romanized: Qabčāq/Qabcâq; Georgian: ყივჩაღები; Turkish: Kıpçak; Crimean Tatar: Kıpçaq, Karachay-Balkar: Къыпчакъ, romanized: Qıpçaq; Uzbek: Qipchoq, Қипчоқ/قىپچاق; Uyghur: قىپچاق/Қипчақ; Kazakh: Қыпшақ, romanized: Qypşaq; Kumyk: Къыпчакъ, romanized: Qıpçaq; Kyrgyz: Кыпчак, romanized: Qıpçaq; Nogai: Кыпчак; Romanian: Copceac; and Chinese: 欽察 ~ 欽叉 ~ 可弗叉 ~ 克鼻稍 Qīnchá ~ Qīnchā ~ Kěfúchā ~ Kèbíshāo. Other English transliteration include Kypchaks and Qipchaks.
The Russian "Polovtsy" (Russian: Половецкие пляски, tr. Polovetskie plyaski) was the name given to the Kipchaks and Cumans by the Rus' people - hence the Polovtsian Dances at the end of act 2 of Alexander Borodin's opera Prince Igor.
In the Kipchak steppe, a complex ethnic assimilation and consolidation process took place between the 11th and 13th centuries. The western Kipchak tribes absorbed people of Oghuz, Pecheneg, ancient Bashkir, Bulgar and other origin; the eastern Kipchak merged with the Oghuz-Kimek, Karluk, Kara-Khitai and others. They were all identified by the ethnonym Kipchak.
According to Xu Qianxue's later edition of Sima Guang's Zizhi Tongjian, Kipchaks possessed "blue-green eyes and red hair". According to Ukrainian anthropologists, Kipchaks had phenotypical characteristics of Caucasians and Mongoloids, namely a broad flat face and protruding nose. Researcher E. P. Alekseeva drew attention to the fact that European Kipchak stone images have both Mongoloid and Caucasoid faces. However, in her opinion, most Kipchaks, who settled in Georgia in the first half of the 12th century, were predominantly Caucasoid with some admixture of Mongoloid traits. They were already joined by Cumans. In the course of the Turkic expansion they migrated into Siberia and further into the Trans-Volga region.
The Kipchaks were first unambiguously mentioned in Persian geographer ibn Khordadbeh's Book of Roads and Kingdoms as a northernly Turkic tribe, after Toquz Oghuz, Karluks, Kimeks, Oghuz, J.f.r (either corrupted from Jikil or representing Majfar for Majğar), Pechenegs, Türgesh, Aðkiš, and before Yenisei Kirghiz Kipchaks possibly appeared in the 8th-century Moyun Chur inscription as Türk-Qïbchaq, mentioned as having been part of the Turkic Khaganate for fifty years; even so, this attestation is uncertain as damages on the inscription leave only -čq (𐰲𐰴) (*-čaq or čiq) readable. It is unclear if the Kipchaks could be identified with, according to Klyashtorny, the [Al]tï Sir in the Orkhon inscriptions (薛延陀; pinyin: Xuè-Yántuó), or with the Juéyuèshī (厥越失) in Chinese sources; however, Zuev (2002) identified 厥越失 Juéyuèshī (< MC *kiwat-jiwat-siet) with toponym Kürüshi in the Ezhim river valley in Tuva Depression. The relationship between the Kipchaks and Cumans is unclear.
While part of the Turkic Khaganate, they most likely inhabited the Altai region. When the Khaganate collapsed, they became part of the Kimek confederation, with which they expanded to the Irtysh, Ishim and Tobol rivers. They then appeared in Islamic sources. In the 9th century Ibn Khordadbeh indicated that they held autonomy within the Kimek confederation. They entered the Kimek in the 8th- or beginning of 9th century, and were one of seven original tribes. In the 10th-century Hudud al-'Alam it is said that the Kimek appointed the Kipchak king. The Kimek confederation, probably spearheaded by the Kipchaks, moved into Oghuz lands, and Sighnaq in Syr Darya became the Kipchak urban centre. Kipchak remnants remained in Siberia, while others pushed westwards in the Qun migration. As a result, three Kipchak groups emerged:
- Kipchaks of the Pontic–Caspian steppe.
- Kipchaks of the Syr Darya, associated with the Khwarazmian dynasty.
- Kipchaks of Siberia, later composing the Siberian Tatars.
The early 11th century saw a massive Turkic nomadic migration towards the Islamic world. The first waves were recorded in the Kara-Khanid Khanate in 1017–18. It is unknown whether the Cumans conquered the Kipchaks or were simply the leaders of the Kipchak–Turkic tribes. By the 12th century, the two separate confederations of Cumans and Kipchaks merged.
The Mongols defeated the Alans after convincing the Kipchaks to desert them through pointing at their likeness in language and culture. Nonetheless, the Kipchaks were defeated next. Under khan Köten, Kipchaks fled to the Grand Principality of Kiev (the Ruthenians), where the Kipchaks had several marriage relations, one of which was Köten's son-in-law Mstislav Mstislavich of Galicia. The Ruthenians and Kipchaks forged an alliance against the Mongols, and met at the Dnieper to locate them. After an eight-day pursuit, they met at the Kalka River (1223). The Kipchaks, who were horse archers like the Mongols, served as the vanguard and scouts. The Mongols, who appeared to retreat, tricked the Ruthenian–Kipchak force into a trap after suddenly emerging behind the hills and surrounding them. The fleeing Kipchaks were closely pursued, and the Ruthenian camp was massacred.
The nomadic Kipchaks were the main targets of the Mongols when they crossed the Volga in 1236. The defeated Kipchaks mainly entered the Mongol ranks, while others fled westward. Köten led 40,000 families into Hungary, where King Bela IV granted them refuge in return for their Christianization. The refugee Kipchaks fled Hungary after Köten was murdered.
Kipchaks and Cumans spoke a Turkic language (Kipchak language, Cuman language) whose most important surviving record is the Codex Cumanicus, a late 13th-century dictionary of words in Kipchak, Cuman, and Latin. The presence in Egypt of Turkic-speaking Mamluks also stimulated the compilation of Kipchak/Cuman-Arabic dictionaries and grammars that are important in the study of several old Turkic languages.
When members of the Armenian diaspora moved from the Crimean peninsula to the Polish-Ukrainian borderland, at the end of the 13th century, they brought Kipchak, their adopted Turkic language, with them. During the 16th and the 17th centuries, the Turkic language among the Armenian communities of the Kipchak people was Armeno-Kipchak. They were settled in the Lviv and Kamianets-Podilskyi areas of what is now Ukraine.
The Kipchaks practiced Shamanism. Muslim conversion occurred near Islamic centres. Some Kipchaks and Cumans were known to have converted to Christianity around the 11th century, at the suggestion of the Georgians, as they allied in their conflicts against the Muslims. A great number were baptized at the request of Georgian King David IV, who also married a daughter of Kipchak Khan Otrok. From 1120, there was a Kipchak national Christian church and an important clergy. Following the Mongol conquest, Islam rose in popularity among the Kipchaks of the Golden Horde.
The confederation or tribal union which Kipchaks entered in the 8th- or beginning of 9th century as one of seven original tribes is known in historiography as that of the Kimek (or Kimäk). Turkic inscriptions do not mention the state with that name. 10th-century Hudud al-'Alam mentions the "country of Kīmāk", ruled by a khagan (king) who has eleven lieutenants that hold hereditary fiefs. Furthermore, Andar Az Khifchāq is mentioned as a country (nāḥiyat) of the Kīmāk, 'of which inhabitants resemble the Ghūz in some customs'.
In the 9th century Ibn Khordadbeh indicated that they held autonomy within the Kimek confederation. They entered the Kimek in the 8th- or beginning of 9th century, and were one of seven original tribes. In the 10th-century Hudud al-'Alam it is said that the Kimek appointed the Kipchak king.
A genetic study published in Nature in May 2018 examined the remains of two Kipchak males buried between ca. 1000 AD and 1200 AD. One male was found to the a carrier of the paternal haplogroup C and the maternal haplogroup F1b1b, and displayed "increased East Asian ancestry". The other male was found to be a carrier of the maternal haplogroup D4 and displayed "pronounced European ancestry".
Kipchak peoples and languages
The modern Northwestern branch of the Turkic language is often referred to as the Kipchak branch. The languages in this branch are mostly considered to be descendants of the Kipchak language, and the people who speak them may likewise be referred to as Kipchak peoples. Some of the groups traditionally included are the Karachays, Siberian Tatars, Nogays, Bashkirs, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Volga Tatars, and Crimean Tatars. There is also a village named Kipchak in Crimea. Qypshaq, which is a development of "Kipchak" in the Kazakh language, is one of the constituent tribes of the Middle Horde confederation of the Kazakh people. The name Kipchak also occurs as a surname in Kazakhstan. Some of the descendants of the Kipchaks are the Bashkirian clan Qipsaq.
- Kipchak confederations
- Ayyub Khan (fl. 1117), Kipchak leader.
- Bačman (fl. 1229–36), Kipchak leader in the Lower Volga.
- Qačir-üküle (fl. 1236), Kipchak leader in the Lower Volga.
- Köten (fl. 1223–39), Kipchak leader.
- Kipchak ancestry
- Al-Mansur Qalawun, Mamluk sultan of Egypt (r. 1279–1290)
- Baibars, Mamluk sultan of Egypt (r. 1260–1277)
- Faris ad-Din Aktai, Mamluk Emir
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kipchaks.|
|History of the Turkic peoples pre–14th century|
|Khazar Khaganate 618–1048|
|Kangar union 659–750|
|Turk Shahi 665-850|
|Türgesh Khaganate 699–766|
|Kimek confederation 743–1035|
|Uyghur Khaganate 744–840|
|Oghuz Yabgu State 750–1055|
|Karluk Yabgu State 756–940|
|Kara-Khanid Khanate 840–1212|
|Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom 848–1036|
|Pecheneg Khanates 860–1091|
|Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186|
|Seljuk Empire 1037–1194|
|Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231|
|Kerait Khanate 11th century–13th century|
|Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526|
|Qarlughid Kingdom 1224–1266|
|Golden Horde 1240s–1502|
|Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) 1250–1517|
- Clauson, Gerard (1972). An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-13th Century Turkish. Oxford University Press. p. 581.
- Julian Baldick, Animal and Shaman: Ancient Religions of Central Asia, p.55.
- Golden, Peter B. (1992). An Introduction to the History of the Turkic People. Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden. p. 271
- Golden, Peter, B. The Turkic world of Mahmud al-Kashgari, p. 522
- Agajanov 1992, p. 74.
- Zizhi Tongjian Houbian, Vol. 141 f.21a "欽察部去中國三萬餘里夏夜極短日蹔没輙出土産良馬富者以萬計俗祍金革勇猛剛烈青目赤髪" tr. "The Kipchak tribe is situated at a distance of over 30,000 li from China. In summer, the evening is extremely short; the sun temporarily sets then immediately rises. Their soil produces good horses, numerous riches, vulgar clothings, gold, and leather. By nature, they are courageous, fierce, and firm. They are blue-green-eyed and red-haired"
- Lee & Kuang (2017) "A Comparative Analysis of Chinese Historical Sources and Y-DNA Studies with Regard to the Early and Medieval Turkic Peoples", Inner Asia 19. p. 206-207 of 197-239
- Carl Waldman; Catherine Mason (2006). Encyclopedia of European Peoples. Infobase Publishing. pp. 475–. ISBN 978-1-4381-2918-1.
- Golden, Peter B. "Qıpčaq" in Turcology and Linguistics. Éva Ágnes Csató Festschrift Ed. Nurettin Demir. 2014. p. 186
- Golden 1990, p. 278.
- Moyun Chur inscriptions "Note 207" at Türik Bitig
- Golden 1990, p. 271.
- Klyashtorny 2005, p. 243.
- Ergin 1980, p. 33, 52.
- Du You, Tongdian, vol. 199 ""自厥越失、拔悉彌、駮馬、結骨、火燖、觸木昆諸國皆臣之" tr. "Many states such as Jueyueshi, Basmyls, Boma, Kirghizes, Khwarazmians, and Chumukun, etc. all submitted themselves (to Duolu Qaghan)."
- Zuev 2002, p. 236.
- Agajanov 1992, p. 69.
- Golden 1990, pp. 278–279.
- Golden 1990, p. 279.
- Vásáry 2005, p. 6. sfn error: no target: CITEREFVásáry2005 (help)
- May 2016, p. 96. sfn error: no target: CITEREFMay2016 (help)
- May 2016, p. 103. sfn error: no target: CITEREFMay2016 (help)
- An Armeno-Kipchak Chronicle on the Polish-Turkish Wars in 1620-1621, Robert Dankoff, p. 388
- Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, p. 85, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland
- May 2016, p. 221. sfn error: no target: CITEREFMay2016 (help)
- (Roux 1997, p. 242)
- Islamic Civilization Archived 2008-05-12 at the Wayback Machine
- Central Asiatic Journal. O. Harrassowitz. 1998.
- Hudud al-'Alam, ch. 18
- Damgaard et al. 2018, Supplementary Table 2, Rows 20, 105.
- Damgaard et al. 2018, Supplementary Table 9, Row 14.
- Damgaard et al. 2018, Supplementary Table 8, Row 75.
- Damgaard et al. 2018, p. 4.
- Damgaard et al. 2018, Supplementary Table 8, Row 44.
- Муратов Б.А., Суюнов Р.Р. ДНК-генеалогия башкирских родов из сако-динлинской подветви R1a+Z2123//Суюнов Р.Р. Гены наших предков (2-е издание). Том 3, серия «Этногеномика и ДНК-генеалогия», ЭИ Проект «Суюн». Vila do Conde, Lidergraf, 2014, — 250 c., илл., Португалия (Portugal), С.15-77
- Agajanov, S. G. (1992). "The States of the Oghuz, the Kimek and the Kipchak". History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Volume IV: The Age of Achievement AD 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 61–76. ISBN 978-81-208-1595-7.
- Damgaard, P. B.; et al. (May 9, 2018). "137 ancient human genomes from across the Eurasian steppes". Nature. Nature Research. 557 (7705): 369–373. doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0094-2. PMID 29743675. S2CID 13670282. Retrieved April 11, 2020.
- Ergin, Muharrem (1980). Orhun Abideleri (in Turkish). İstanbul: Boğaziçi Yayınları.
- Golden, Peter B. (1990). "The peoples of the south Russian steppes". In Sinor, Denis (ed.). The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 256–284. ISBN 978-0-521-24304-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Golden, Peter B. (1992). An Introduction to the History of the Turkic People. Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden.
- Grousset, René (1970). The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-1304-1.
- Howorth, Henry Hoyle (2008) . History of the Mongols from the 9th to the 19th Century, Part 2: The So-Called Tartars of Russia and Central Asia. Cosimo, Inc. ISBN 978-1-60520-134-4.
- Klyashtorny, Sergey (2005). "The Polovcian Problems (II): Qipčaqs, Comans, and Polovcians". Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. Szeged, Hungary: Akadémiai Kiadó. 58 (3): 243–248. doi:10.1556/AOrient.58.2005.5.2. JSTOR 23658648.
- Timothy May (7 November 2016). The Mongol Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia [2 volumes]: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 221–. ISBN 978-1-61069-340-0.
- Hildinger, Erik. Warriors of the Steppe: Military History of Central Asia, 500 BC To 1700 AD. Da Capo Press, 1997.
- Galip Güner (2013), Kıpçak Türkçesi Grameri, Kesit Yayınları, İstanbul.
- Mustafa Argunşah, Galip Güner (2015), Codex Cumanicus, Kesit Yayınları, İstanbul.
- Roux, Jean-Paul (1997), L'Asie Centrale, Histoire et Civilization, Librairie Arthème-Fayard, ISBN 978-2-213-59894-9
- Zuev, Yury (2002). Rannie tyurki: ocherki istorii i ideologii (in Russian). Almaty: Daik Press.
- "Kipchak" Encyclopædia Britannica, Academic Edition. 2006.
- "Polovtsi" The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05.
- Boswell, A. Bruce. "The Kipchak Turks." The Slavonic Review 6.16 (1927): 68-85.
- Golden, Peter B. (2009). "QEPČĀQ". Encyclopaedia Iranica.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Győrfi, Dávid. "Khwarezmian: Mapping the Kipchak component of Pre-Chagatai Turkic." Acta Orientalia 67.4 (2014): 383-406.
- Shanijazov, K. "Early Elements in the Ethnogenesis of the Uzbeks." The Nomadic Alternative: Modes and Models of Interaction in the African-Asian Deserts and Steppes (1978): 147.
- Ushntskiy, Vasiliy V. "KIPCHAK COMPONENT IN THE SAKHA ETHNOGENESIS." VESTNIK TOMSKOGO GOSUDARSTVENNOGO UNIVERSITETA-ISTORIYA 3 (2015): 97-101.
- Mukhajanova, T. N., and A. M. Asetilla. "KIPCHAK" ETHNONYM AND THE HISTORY OF ITS ORIGIN." International Scientific and Practical Conference World science. Vol. 3. No. 12. ROST, 2016.
- Baski, Imre. "On the ethnic names of the Cumans of Hungary." Kinship in the Altaic World. Proccedings of the 48th PIAC (2006): 43-54.
- Róna-Tas, András. "The reconstruction of Proto-Turkic and the genetic question." (1998).
- Biro, M. B. "The «Kipchaks» in the Georgian Martyrdom of David and Constantin." Annales. Sectio linguistics 4 (1973).
- Kadyrbaev, Aleksandr. "Turks (Uighurs, Kipchaks and Kanglis) in the history of the Mongols." Acta Orientalia 58.3 (2005): 249-253.
- Halperin, Charles J. "The Kipchak Connection: The Ilkhans, the Mamluks and Ayn Jalut." Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 63.2 (2000): 229-245.
- Eckmann, János. "The Mamluk-Kipchak Literature." Central Asiatic Journal (1963): 304-319.
- Csáki, E. (2006). Middle Mongolian loan words in Volga Kipchak languages. Turcologica, Bd. 67. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. ISBN 3-447-05381-X
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kipchaks.|