Kips Bay, Manhattan

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Kips Bay
Looking north from Stuyvesant Cove Park on the East River to Waterside Plaza in Kips Bay on a drizzly day
Looking north from Stuyvesant Cove Park on the East River to Waterside Plaza in Kips Bay on a drizzly day
Location in New York City
Coordinates: 40°44′28″N 73°58′41″W / 40.741°N 73.978°W / 40.741; -73.978Coordinates: 40°44′28″N 73°58′41″W / 40.741°N 73.978°W / 40.741; -73.978
Country United States
State New York
CityNew York City
Community DistrictManhattan 6[1]
 • Total1.355 km2 (0.5233 sq mi)
 • Total50,742
 • Density37,000/km2 (97,000/sq mi)
 Neighborhood tabulation area; includes Murray Hill
 • White66.6%
 • Asian16.2
 • Hispanic9.9
 • Black4.8
 • Others2.5
 • Median income$99,107
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP Codes
10010, 10016
Area code212, 332, 646, and 917

Kips Bay, or Kip's Bay, is a neighborhood on the east side of the New York City borough of Manhattan. It is roughly bounded by East 34th Street to the north, the East River to the east, East 27th and/or 23rd Streets to the south, and Third Avenue to the west.[5][6][7][8]

Kips Bay is part of Manhattan Community District 6, and its primary ZIP Codes are 10010 and 10016.[1] It is patrolled by the 13th and 17th Precincts of the New York City Police Department.


Three of the four towers of Waterside Plaza on the East River

According to The Encyclopedia of New York City and the New York City Department of City Planning, Kips Bay proper is generally bounded by East 34th Street to the north, the East River to the east, East 27th Street to the south, and Third Avenue to the west.[5][6] City documents have also used New York City census tract 70 (from 29th to 34th Streets, First to Third Avenues) as an approximation for Kips Bay, and referred to tract 66, immediately below it, as "Bellevue South."[9][10][11]

The American Guide Series defines the combined Kip's Bay–Turtle Bay area as running from 27th Street north 59th Street, and from Third Avenue to the East River, excluding the neighborhoods of Beekman Place and Sutton Place.[12]

For its entry on Kips Bay, the American Institute of Architects' AIA Guide to New York City uses the area from 23rd Street north to roughly 38th Street, and from the East River west to just past Second Avenue. In AIA Guide, Kips Bay is adjacent to Tudor City and the United Nations/Turtle Bay area on the north, Murray Hill and Rose Hill on the west, and the Stuyvesant Square area and Peter Cooper Village on the south.[7]

Other popular definitions of the neighborhood, such as that by The New York Times, include 23rd Street to the south, 34th Street to the north, Lexington Avenue to the west, and the East River to the east.[8] To the north is Murray Hill; to the west is Madison Square, NoMad, and/or Rose Hill; and to the south is the Bellevue area or the Gramercy Park neighborhood and Peter Cooper Village.


Colonial settlement[edit]

A 1781 British map depicting Manhattan; Kip's Bay is labeled as "Kepps Bay"

Kips Bay was an inlet of the East River running from what is now 32nd Street to 37th Street. The bay extended into Manhattan Island to just west of what is now First Avenue and had two streams that ran from it. The bay was named after New Netherland Dutch settler Jacobus Hendrickson Kip (1631–1690), son of Hendrick Hendricksen Kip, whose farm ran north of present-day 30th Street along the East River.[13] The bay became reclaimed land, yet "Kips Bay" remains the name of the area. Kip built a large brick and stone house, near the modern intersection of Second Avenue and East 35th Street. The house stood from 1655 to 1851, expanded more than once,[14] and when it was demolished was the last farmhouse from New Amsterdam remaining in Manhattan.[15] Iron figures fixed into the gable-end brickwork commemorated the year of its first construction.[13] Its orchard was famous, and, when first President George Washington was presented with a sip of its Rosa gallica during his first administration (1789-1793), when New York was serving as the first national capital city, it was claimed to have been the first garden to have grown it in the Thirteen Colonies.[16]

Kips Bay was the site of the Landing at Kip's Bay, an episode of the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783) and part of the New York and New Jersey campaign. About 4,000 British Army troops under General William Howe landed at Kips Bay on September 15, 1776, near what is now the foot of East 33rd Street off the East River from a Royal Navy fleet which had first landed earlier on Staten Island, then Long Island for the pivotal Battle of Brooklyn (also known as the Battle of Long Island) the previous month. Howe's forces defeated about 500 American militiamen stationed at Kips Bay by Washington and commanded by Colonel William Douglas. The American forces immediately retreated, and the British occupied New York Town at the south point of the island soon afterward forcing General Washington to retreat northward to the Harlem River.[17]

Wood frame house and brick carriage house of uncertain age[7][18] at 203 East 29th Street

A single survivor of the late 18th or early 19th century in the neighborhood is the simple vernacular white clapboard house, much rebuilt, at 203 East 29th Street. The house, standing gable-end to the street, is one of a mere handful of wooden houses that remain on Manhattan Island. Its date of construction is unknown[18] but has been variously dated from around 1790[19] to as late as 1870;[7] currently listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the house is privately owned and not open to the public.

South of the Kips Bay Farm stood the substantial Federal-style villa erected facing the East River by Henry A. Coster,[20] in the thirty-acre estate[21] that was purchased in 1835 by Anson Greene Phelps;[22] towards the city, the Bull's Head cattle market fronting the Boston Post Road extended southwards from 27th Street to 23rd Street, affording a distinctly less rural aspect;[23] the villa was removed to make way for row houses in the 1860s and the cattle market was moved farther out of town, to 42nd Street.[24]

Later development[edit]

Broadway Alley is nowhere near Broadway, and the origin of the name is unknown.[25]

The neighborhood has been rebuilt in patches, featuring both new high-rise structures often set back from the street, and a multitude of exposed party walls that were never meant to be seen in public. A nearly forgotten feature is the private alley called Broadway Alley, between 26th and 27th Streets, halfway between Lexington and Third Avenues, reputedly the last unpaved street in Manhattan;[26][27] it is not known what this alley is named after, since it is not near the main Broadway.[25]

In the 1960s and later, four Henry Phipps high-rise apartment complexes were constructed mainly on East 29th Street between First and Second Avenues, and south to East 27th Street. Historically, Phipps had been a partner of steel industrialist Andrew Carnegie. Much earlier in time, by 1940, the Madison Square Boys (and later Girls) Club, which had been located on East 30th Street just east of Second Avenue, built its own facilities on East 29th Street (back-to-back with its older facility). In the 1990s, the Club sold its facility to the Churchill School and Center, and moved its office in the Empire State Building.[28][29]

The North Building of the Kips Bay Towers (I. M. Pei, architect)

There are two large apartment buildings in the neighborhood named Kips Bay Towers, which are part of a 1,112-unit complex completed in 1963 and designed by architect I. M. Pei.[8]

Built on a pier above the East River between East 25th and East 28th Streets is Waterside Plaza, which includes residential towers and the United Nations International School. There were plans to build additional above-water apartments, offices, and a hotel in the 1980s, but environmental concerns and community opposition doomed the project.[30] Today, the waterfront south of Waterside Plaza is Stuyvesant Cove Park. The park includes a small man-made land mass extending out into the East River, which was created from excess cement dumped into the river.[31]


For census purposes, the New York City government classifies Kips Bay as part of a larger neighborhood tabulation area called Murray Hill-Kips Bay.[32] Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Murray Hill-Kips Bay was 50,742, a change of 2,323 (4.6%) from the 48,419 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 334.93 acres (135.54 ha), the neighborhood had a population density of 151.5 inhabitants per acre (97,000/sq mi; 37,400/km2).[2] The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 66.6% (33,818) White, 4.8% (2,423) African American, 0.1% (55) Native American, 16.2% (8,233) Asian, 0% (16) Pacific Islander, 0.4% (181) from other races, and 2% (1,008) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.9% (5,008) of the population.[3]

The entirety of Community District 6, which comprises Kips Bay and East Midtown, had 53,120 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 84.8 years.[33]:2, 20 This is higher than the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods.[34]:53 (PDF p. 84)[35] Most inhabitants are adults: a plurality (45%) are between the ages of 25–44, while 22% are between 45–64, and 13% are 65 or older. The ratio of youth and college-aged residents was lower, at 7% and 12% respectively.[33]:2

As of 2017, the median household income in Community District 6 was $112,383,[36] though the median income in Kips Bay individually was $99,107.[4] In 2018, an estimated 10% of Kips Bay and East Midtown residents lived in poverty, compared to 14% in all of Manhattan and 20% in all of New York City. One in twenty-five residents (4%) were unemployed, compared to 7% in Manhattan and 9% in New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 42% in Kips Bay and East Midtown, compared to the boroughwide and citywide rates of 45% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018, Kips Bay and East Midtown are considered to be high-income relative to the rest of the city and not gentrifying.[33]:7


Within Kips Bay, the area along First Avenue is dominated by the institutional buildings of New York University, including Tisch Hospital, NYU College of Dentistry, NYU School of Medicine, and Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine; Bellevue Hospital Center teaching hospital, including Hunter College's Brookdale Health Sciences Center and the Alexandria Center for the Life Sciences; and the Manhattan VA Hospital for the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Further north on First Avenue, in Murray Hill between East 37th and East 38th Streets, is the former Kips Bay Brewing Company, originally constructed in 1895 and now occupied by offices.[37]

Many businesses in the neighborhood use the neighborhood's name: e.g. Kips Bay Cinemas, Kips Bay Cleaners, Kips Bay Endoscopy Center and the Kips Bay branch of the New York Public Library.

The view from the Kips Bay Mall on Second Avenue

Since 1965,[6] the area has had a commercial strip mall on Second Avenue between East 30th and 32nd Streets, set back from the street by a driveway running parallel to Second Avenue. This group of stores is referred to as "Kips Bay Plaza" and consists of an AMC/Loews movie theater, a Staples office supply store, a TD Bank, N.A., a Crunch Fitness center, a 24-hour Rite Aid pharmacy and a 44,000 sq ft (4,100 m2) Fairway Market located below ground.[38]

Police and crime[edit]

Kips Bay is patrolled by two precincts of the NYPD.[39] The 13th Precinct is located at 230 East 21st Street and serves the part of the neighborhood south of 30th Street,[40] while the 17th Precinct is located at 167 East 51st Street and serves the part of the neighborhood north of 30th Street.[41] The 13th and 17th Precincts ranked 57th safest out of 69 patrol areas for per-capita crime in 2010. The high per-capita crime rate is attributed to the precincts' high number of property crimes.[42] As of 2018, with a non-fatal assault rate of 35 per 100,000 people, Kips Bay and East Midtown's rate of violent crimes per capita is less than that of the city as a whole. The incarceration rate of 180 per 100,000 people is lower than that of the city as a whole.[33]:8

The 13th Precinct has a lower crime rate than in the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 80.7% between 1990 and 2018. The precinct reported 2 murders, 18 rapes, 152 robberies, 174 felony assaults, 195 burglaries, 1,376 grand larcenies, and 37 grand larcenies auto in 2018.[43] The 17th Precinct also has a lower crime rate than in the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 80.7% between 1990 and 2018. The precinct reported 0 murders, 13 rapes, 63 robberies, 91 felony assaults, 80 burglaries, 748 grand larcenies, and 26 grand larcenies auto in 2018.[44]

Fire safety[edit]

Kips Bay is served by the New York City Fire Department (FDNY)'s Engine Co. 16/Ladder Co. 7 fire station, located at 234 East 29th Street.[45][46]


The Smilow Research Building of New York University Medical Center
The original Bellevue Psychiatric Hospital building

As of 2018, preterm births and births to teenage mothers in Kips Bay and East Midtown are lower than the city average. In Kips Bay and East Midtown, there were 78 preterm births per 1,000 live births (compared to 87 per 1,000 citywide), and 1.5 births to teenage mothers per 1,000 live births (compared to 19.3 per 1,000 citywide), though the teenage birth rate was based on a small sample size.[33]:11 Kips Bay and East Midtown have a low population of residents who are uninsured. In 2018, this population of uninsured residents was estimated to be 3%, less than the citywide rate of 12%, though this was based on a small sample size.[33]:14

The concentration of fine particulate matter, the deadliest type of air pollutant, in Kips Bay and East Midtown is 0.0102 milligrams per cubic metre (1.02×10−8 oz/cu ft), more than the city average.[33]:9 Twelve percent of Kips Bay and East Midtown residents are smokers, which is less than the city average of 14% of residents being smokers.[33]:13 In Kips Bay and East Midtown, 10% of residents are obese, 5% are diabetic, and 18% have high blood pressure—compared to the citywide averages of 24%, 11%, and 28% respectively.[33]:16 In addition, 7% of children are obese, compared to the citywide average of 20%.[33]:12

Ninety-one percent of residents eat some fruits and vegetables every day, which is higher than the city's average of 87%. In 2018, 90% of residents described their health as "good," "very good," or "excellent," more than the city's average of 78%.[33]:13 For every supermarket in Kips Bay and East Midtown, there are 7 bodegas.[33]:10

The Bellevue Hospital Center and NYU Langone Medical Center are located in Kips Bay, as is the Manhattan campus of VA New York Harbor Healthcare System. In addition, In addition, Beth Israel Medical Center is located in Stuyvesant Town.[47][48]

Post offices and ZIP Codes[edit]

Kips Bay is located in two primary ZIP Codes. The area south of 26th Street is located in 10010, while the area north of 26th Street is in 10016.[49] The United States Postal Service operates three post offices in Kips Bay:


Kips Bay and East Midtown generally have a higher rate of college-educated residents than the rest of the city as of 2018. A majority of residents age 25 and older (82%) have a college education or higher, while 3% have less than a high school education and 15% are high school graduates or have some college education. By contrast, 64% of Manhattan residents and 43% of city residents have a college education or higher.[33]:6 The percentage of Kips Bay and East Midtown students excelling in math rose from 61% in 2000 to 80% in 2011, and reading achievement increased from 66% to 68% during the same time period.[52]

Kips Bay and East Midtown's rate of elementary school student absenteeism is lower than the rest of New York City. In Kips Bay and East Midtown, 8% of elementary school students missed twenty or more days per school year, less than the citywide average of 20%.[33]:6[34]:24 (PDF p. 55) Additionally, 91% of high school students in Kips Bay and East Midtown graduate on time, more than the citywide average of 75%.[33]:6


The New York City Department of Education operates the following public schools in Kips Bay:[53]

  • PS 116 Mary Lindley Murray (grades PK-6) – the area's zoned elementary school[54]
  • American Sign Language and English School (grades PK-8) – provides American Sign Language immersion education for deaf and hearing children[55]

Students in grades 6-8 are zoned to IS 104 Simon Baruch School in Gramercy Park.[56]

In addition, the United Nations International School is located in Waterside, just east of Kips Bay.[53]


The New York Public Library's Epiphany branch on East 23rd Street

The New York Public Library (NYPL) operates two branches in the neighborhood:

  • The Epiphany branch is located at 228 East 23rd Street. The Epiphany branch opened in 1887 and moved to its current structure, a two-story Carnegie library, in 1907. It was renovated from 1982 to 1984.[57]
  • The Kips Bay branch is located at 446 Third Avenue. The one-story branch opened in 1972 as a replacement for the St. Gabriel's and Nathan Straus branches.[58]


The nearest New York City Subway stations are the 23rd Street and 28th Street stations at Park Avenue South, served by the 6 and <6>​ trains. The Second Avenue Subway is expected to eventually expand there.[59] New York City Bus routes include the M9, M15, M15 SBS, M23 SBS, and M34A SBS.[60]

Kips Bay is served by NYC Ferry's Lower East Side route, which stops at Stuyvesant Cove Park near 23rd Street.[61] The service started operating on August 29, 2018.[62][63] The East 34th Street Ferry Landing is also located nearby.[64]


  1. ^ a b "NYC Planning | Community Profiles". New York City Department of City Planning. Retrieved March 18, 2019.
  2. ^ a b c Table PL-P5 NTA: Total Population and Persons Per Acre - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, February 2012. Accessed June 16, 2016.
  3. ^ a b Table PL-P3A NTA: Total Population by Mutually Exclusive Race and Hispanic Origin - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, March 29, 2011. Accessed June 14, 2016.
  4. ^ a b "Kips Bay neighborhood in New York". Retrieved March 18, 2019.
  5. ^ a b Chapter 9: Neighborhood Character
  6. ^ a b c Jackson, Kenneth T., ed. (2010). The Encyclopedia of New York City (2nd ed.). New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 3270. ISBN 978-0-300-11465-2.
  7. ^ a b c d White, Norval & Willensky, Elliot (2000). AIA Guide to New York City (4th ed.). New York: Three Rivers Press. ISBN 978-0-8129-3107-5.
  8. ^ a b c Cohen, Joyce (April 11, 1999). "If You're Thinking of Living In Kips Bay". The New York Times. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
  9. ^ Stuyvesant Cove 197-a Plan, spring 1997
  10. ^ See also NYC NEIGHBORHOODS for "Kips Bay" and "Bellevue Area"
  11. ^ See also Draft Scoping Document for an Environmental Impact Statement for DSNY East 25th Street Manhattan Districts 6/6A/8 Garage for "Bellevue area"
  12. ^ Federal Writers' Project (1939). "New York City Guide". New York: Random House. pp. 182–84, 192–93, 208–12. ISBN 978-1-60354-055-1. (Reprinted by Scholarly Press, 1976; often referred to as WPA Guide to New York City.)
  13. ^ a b Post, John J. (1894). Abstract of Title of Kip's Bay Farm in the city of New York: with all known maps relating thereto, together with the water grants on the East River adjoining said farm, and releases from the city on the Eastern Post Road... also, the early history of the Kip family. New York: S. Victor Constant.
  14. ^ "Early New York - Panorama Of Ancient East River Homes". Old And Sold. Retrieved January 9, 2010. It was a large double structure, with three windows on one side of the door and two on the other, and with an ample wing besides. It was built of brick imported from Holland, and a stone coat of arms of the Kip family projected over the doorway. It was the oldest house on the island when it was demolished in 1851, and Thirty-fifth Street and Second Avenue now pass over its site and give no sign of its existence and story.
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  16. ^ "Few Landmarks Around Kip's Bay". The New York Times. November 28, 1913. Retrieved July 12, 2009.
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  19. ^ Robinson, George (December 7, 2003). "F.Y.I." The New York Times. Retrieved January 22, 2010.
  20. ^ The engraved illustration in Mrs Martha Joanna Lamb and Mrs Burton Harrison, History of the City of New York: its origin, rise and progress, vol. 3 p. 522, though called "more of a Grecian type of architecture", shows characteristic Federal architecture in its balustraded roofline, its half-oval fanlight in the central pediment, and the widely spaced slender columns of the portico; see also Eliza Greatorex drawing (New York Public Library).
  21. ^ "Early New York: Panorama of ancient East River homes" 1893.
  22. ^ Burrows, Edwin G.; Wallace, Mike (1999). Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 460. ISBN 0-19-514049-4.
  23. ^ "After leaving Twenty-seventh Street and Third Avenue the traveller was in the country. There was no other settlement until Yorkville was reached, nearly two miles beyond. Scattered farm-houses, distant villas, green fields, and bits of woodland made up the landscape." recalled the writer of "Old Days In Yorkville and Harlem", 1893, recalling the route up Third Avenue in the 1850s
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  25. ^ a b Moscow, Henry (1978). The Street Book: An Encyclopedia of Manhattan's Street Names and Their Origins. New York: Hagstrom Company. ISBN 978-0-8232-1275-0., p. 31
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  28. ^ Sutton, Imre (2008). Back to E. 29th Street: Where Fact and Fiction Revisit Kips Bay, N.Y. Fullerton: Americo Publications. hdl:1813/11665.
  29. ^ Harris, Irving (2009). Madison Square Memoir: The Magic and History of Madison Square Boys and Girls Club.
  30. ^ Stamler, Bernard (October 26, 1997). "Park to Grow on the Ashes of the Riverwalk Plan". The New York Times. Retrieved July 12, 2009.
  31. ^ Kinetz, Erika (January 13, 2002). "Rock Outcropping or Rubble? No One's Neutral on Old Cement". The New York Times. Retrieved July 12, 2009.
  32. ^ New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, February 2012. Accessed June 16, 2016.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Stuyvesant Town and Turtle Bay (Including Beekman Place, Gramercy Park, Murray Hill, Stuyvesant Town, Sutton Place, Tudor City and Turtle Bay)" (PDF). NYC Health. 2018. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
  34. ^ a b "2016-2018 Community Health Assessment and Community Health Improvement Plan: Take Care New York 2020" (PDF). New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. 2016. Retrieved September 8, 2017.
  35. ^ "New Yorkers are living longer, happier and healthier lives". New York Post. June 4, 2017. Retrieved March 1, 2019.
  36. ^ "NYC-Manhattan Community District 6--Murray Hill, Gramercy & Stuyvesant Town PUMA, NY". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  37. ^ White, Norval & Willensky, Elliot (2000). AIA Guide to New York City (4th ed.). New York: Three Rivers Press. ISBN 978-0-8129-3107-5., p.219
  38. ^ Hughes, C.J. (February 9, 2004). "Choosing the Proximity of the Middle". The New York Times. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
  39. ^ "Find Your Precinct and Sector - NYPD". Retrieved March 3, 2019.
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  41. ^ "NYPD – 17th Precinct". New York City Police Department. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
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  44. ^ "17th Precinct CompStat Report" (PDF). New York City Police Department. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
  45. ^ "Engine Company 16/Ladder Company 7". Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  46. ^ "FDNY Firehouse Listing – Location of Firehouses and companies". NYC Open Data; Socrata. New York City Fire Department. September 10, 2018. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  47. ^ "Manhattan Hospital Listings". New York Hospitals. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
  48. ^ "Best Hospitals in New York, N.Y." US News & World Report. July 26, 2011. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
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  50. ^ "Location Details: Murray Hill". Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  51. ^ "Location Details: Madison Square". Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  52. ^ "Stuyvesant Town/Turtle Bay – MN 06" (PDF). Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy. 2011. Retrieved October 5, 2016.
  53. ^ a b "Gramercy New York School Ratings and Reviews". Zillow. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
  54. ^ "P.S. 116 Mary Lindley Murray". New York City Department of Education. December 19, 2018. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
  55. ^ "The 47 American Sign Language & English Lower School". New York City Department of Education. December 19, 2018. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
  56. ^ "J.H.S. 104 Simon Baruch". New York City Department of Education. December 19, 2018. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
  57. ^ "About the Epiphany Library". The New York Public Library. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
  58. ^ "About the Kips Bay Library". The New York Public Library. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
  59. ^
  60. ^ "Manhattan Bus Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. July 2019. Retrieved December 1, 2020.
  61. ^ DNAinfoNewYork. "Proposed Routes for NYC's Expanded Ferry Service". Scribd. Retrieved September 22, 2016.
  62. ^ Berger, Paul (August 29, 2018). "NYC Ferry Begins Lower East Side Service". WSJ. Retrieved August 29, 2018.
  63. ^ Bagcal, Jenna (August 29, 2018). "Newly launched NYC Ferry route takes riders from Long Island City to the Lower East Side in 30 minutes". Retrieved August 29, 2018.
  64. ^

External links[edit]