Kiras Bangun

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Kiras Bangun (1852 – October 22, 1942), also known as Garamata is a national hero of Indonesia.


Bangun was born in the village of Batu Karang (modern day Karo Regency, North Sumatra), Dutch East Indies, in 1852.[1] He was nicknamed Garamata (Red Eyes). As a youth, he wandered from urung (village) to another urung in order to maintain the norms, customs and cultures of Karo.[2]

In 1905, Bangun fought the Dutch in Southeast Aceh and Dairi with guerrilla tactics. However, the Dutch that used oportuniteit beginsel, made him out of hiding and exiled him to Riung.[3] In 1909, he was released, though he was still under Dutch's control.[4] From 1919 to 1926, helped by two of his sons, he led the rebellion in Tanah Karo. They were exiled to Cipinang, whilst he continued his struggle against the Dutch in humanities.[5]

Bangun died on 22 October 1942 in Batu Karang.[5]


  1. ^ Sudarmanto 2007, p. 398
  2. ^ Ajisaka 2008, p. 233
  3. ^ Sudarmanto 2007, p. 400
  4. ^ Sudarmanto 2007, pp. 400–401
  5. ^ a b Sudarmanto 2007, p. 401