Kirkuk Governorate

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Kirkuk Governorate

محافظة كركوك
پارێزگای کەرکووک
Kerkük ili
Location of Kirkuk Governorate
Coordinates: 35°22′N 44°8′E / 35.367°N 44.133°E / 35.367; 44.133Coordinates: 35°22′N 44°8′E / 35.367°N 44.133°E / 35.367; 44.133
Country Iraq
CapitalKirkuk
Area
 • Total9,679 km2 (3,737 sq mi)
Population
 (2018)
 • Total1,597,876
HDI (2017)0.677[1]
medium

Kirkuk Governorate (Arabic: محافظة كركوكMuḥāfaẓat Karkūk, Kurdish: پارێزگای کەرکووکParêzgay Kerkûk, Syriac: ܟܪܟ ܣܠܘܟKarḵ Sloḵ, Turkish: Kerkük ili) or Kirkuk Province is a governorate in northern Iraq. The governorate has an area of 9,679 square kilometres (3,737 sq mi). In 2017 the estimated population was 1,259,561 people.[2] The provincial capital is the city of Kirkuk. It is divided into four districts.

From 1976 to 2006, it was named At-Ta'mim Governorate, which means "Nationalization" and refers to the national ownership of the regional oil and natural gas reserves. Prior to 1976 it had been named Kirkuk Governorate. In 2006,[citation needed] the name "Kirkuk Governorate" was restored.

Governorate government[edit]

Districts of Kirkuk Governorate

Districts[edit]

District Total population, 2006
Dibis 34,254
Daquq 40,237
Hawija 450,267
Kirkuk 402,249

Demographics[edit]

Kirkuk Governorate borders were altered;[when?] the Kurdish dominated districts were added to Erbil and Sulaymaniya Governorates. the Arab districts were added to Kirkuk province. Turkmen villages were added to Diyala and Saladin Governorates.[5]

Due to the Arabization policies of the Ba'ath party the number of Arabs in official censuses increased fivefold within 40 years, however the most reliable data indicative of the ethnic breakdown of the governorate are those of the 1957 census.[6] The number of Kurds remained relatively constant from 1957 until 1977, decrease in their numbers coincides with the Arabization process in the 1990s.[7] The Turkmens were seriously affected by the Ba'ath changing Kirkuk borders their percentage fell from 21% to 7%.

Starting from 1977, 2,000 Christians (Assyrians) were registered as Arabs. From the end of the Gulf War to 1999, about 11,000 Kurdish families were deported from Kirkuk.[8][9] Since the 2003 invasion of Iraq, 100,000 Kurds have settled in the city of Kirkuk[10] and these numbers are steadily increasing.

Census results for Kirkuk Governorate[6]
Mother tongue 1957 Percentage 1977 Percentage 1997 Percentage
Arabic 109,620 28% 218,755 45% 544,596 72%
Kurdish 187,593 48% 184,875 38% 155,861 21%
Turkish 83,371 21% 80,347 17% 50,099 7%
Syriac 1,605 0.4% N/A N/A N/A N/A
Hebrew 123 0.003% N/A N/A N/A N/A
Other 6,545 1.77% N/A N/A N/A N/A
Total 388,829 483,977 752,745

A report by the International Crisis Group points out that figures from 1977 and 1997 censuses "are all considered highly problematic, due to suspicions of regime manipulation" because Iraqi citizens were only allowed to indicate belonging to either the Arab or Kurdish ethnic groups;[11] consequently, this skewed the number of other ethnic minorities, such as Iraq's third largest ethnic group – the Iraqi Turkmen.[11]

2018 election results[edit]

The following is the results of the 2018 Iraqi parliamentary election in the Kirkuk governorate. Election results are often used to estimate the demographics of the region. However, Iraqi citizens do not necessary vote for parties based on its ethnic affiliation.

Party Total vote[12] Percentage Seats
Patriotic Union of Kurdistan 183,283 37.8% 6
Arab Alliance of Kirkuk 84,102 17.4% 3
Turkman Front of Kirkuk 79,694 16.4% 3
Victory Coalition 24,328 5% 0
Conquest Alliance 18,427 3.8% 0
National Coalition 14,979 3.1% 0
Nishtiman coalition
Movement for Change
Coalition for Democracy and Justice
Kurdistan Islamic Group
14,118 2.9% 0
New Generation Movement 13,096 2.7% 0
Chaldean Coalition
Reserved Christian Seat
4,864 1% 1
Kurdistan Islamic Group 4,631 1% 0
Chaldean Syriac Assyrian Popular Council 3,810 0.8% 0
Others 39,286 8.1% 0
Total 484,618 100% 12(+1)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  2. ^ Central Organization for Statistics and Information Technology, Iraq
  3. ^ https://www.thenational.ae/world/mena/iraqi-forces-seize-kirkuk-from-kurdish-fighters-1.667553
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-28. Retrieved 2011-03-30. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ Dagher, Sam (25 April 2008). "Can the U.N. avert a Kirkuk border war?". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved August 2, 2012.
  6. ^ a b Anderson, Liam D.; Stansfield, Gareth R. V. (2009), Crisis in Kirkuk: The Ethnopolitics of Conflict and Compromise, University of Pennsylvania Press, p. 43, ISBN 0-8122-4176-2
  7. ^ Anderson, Liam D.; Stansfield, Gareth R. V. (2009), Crisis in Kirkuk: The Ethnopolitics of Conflict and Compromise, University of Pennsylvania Press, p. 44, ISBN 0-8122-4176-2
  8. ^ "An ancient tragedy". The Economist. 20 February 1999. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  9. ^ https://www.britannica.com/topic/Kurd#ref966597
  10. ^ http://www.themilitant.com/2005/6912/691204.html
  11. ^ a b "Turkey and the Iraqi Kurds: Conflict or Cooperation?" (PDF). International Crisis Group. 2008. p. 16. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
  12. ^ "IHEC results - Kirkuk" (PDF) (in Arabic). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 May 2018. Retrieved 22 May 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)

External links[edit]