Kirtland Formation

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Kirtland Formation
Stratigraphic range: Campanian (typically Kirtlandian)
75–73 Ma
Kirtland Formation Outcrops Near Coal Creek by Nick Longrich.jpg
TypeGeological formation
Sub-unitsHunter Wash, Farmington and De-na-zin Members
UnderliesOjo Alamo Formation
OverliesFruitland Formation
Thickness594 m (1,949 ft)
Lithology
PrimarySandstone
OtherShale, mudstone, conglomerate
Location
Coordinates36°42′N 108°12′W / 36.7°N 108.2°W / 36.7; -108.2Coordinates: 36°42′N 108°12′W / 36.7°N 108.2°W / 36.7; -108.2
Approximate paleocoordinates42°36′N 76°18′W / 42.6°N 76.3°W / 42.6; -76.3
Region New Mexico
Country USA
ExtentSan Juan Basin
Type section
Named forKirtland Post Office
Named byC.M. Bauer
Year defined1916
Kirtland Formation is located in the United States
Kirtland Formation
Kirtland Formation (the United States)
Kirtland Formation is located in New Mexico
Kirtland Formation
Kirtland Formation (New Mexico)

The Kirtland Formation (originally the Kirtland Shale) is a sedimentary geological formation.[1]

Description[edit]

The Kirtland Formation is the product of alluvial muds and overbank sand deposits from the many channels draining the coastal plain that existed on the inland seashore of North America, in the late Cretaceous period. It overlies the Fruitland Formation. It is found in the San Juan Basin in the states of New Mexico and Colorado, in the United States of America.

The base of the Kirtland Formation and its lowest sub-unit, the Hunter Wash member, has been dated to 75.02 ± 0.13 Ma.[2] Together with the upper part of the underlying Fruitland Formation, this contains fossils representing the Hunter Wash local fauna. The border between the Hunter Wash member and overlying Farmington member dates to approximately 74 million years ago. The top of the Farmington member and bottom of the overlying De-na-zin member has been radiometrically dated to 73.37 ± 0.28 Ma ago. The top of the De-na-zin member, which contains the Willow Wash local fauna, has been dated to 73.04 ± 0.25 Ma ago.[1]

Overlying the De-na-zin member is a unit called the Naashoibito member This has often been considered to be part of the Kirtland formation, but more recently has been transferred back to the overlying Ojo Alamo Formation, which it had originally been part of.[1]

History of investigation[edit]

The formation was named by C.M. Bauer in 1916 for exposures near the Kirtland Post Office.[3]

Stratigraphy[edit]

Upper Cretaceous stratigraphy of the San Juan Basin

Vertebrate paleofauna[edit]

Crurotarsans[edit]

Crurotarsans of the Kirtland Formation
Genus Species Location Member Abundance Notes Images

Brachychampsa[4]

B. montana[4]

Member of the Willow Wash local fauna.[4]

Denazinosuchus[4]

D. kirtlandicus[4]

Member of the Willow Wash local fauna.[4]

Leidyosuchus[5]

Indeterminate[5]

Member of the Willow Wash local fauna.[4]

Ornithischians[edit]

Ornithischians reported from the Kirtland Formation
Genus Species Location Member Material Notes Images

Ahshislepelta[6]

A. minor[6]

Incomplete postcranial skeleton[6]

Anasazisaurus[7]

A. horneri[7]

"Partial skull."[7]

Kritosaurus[8]

K. navajovius[8]

Member of the Willow Wash local fauna.[4]

Naashoibitosaurus[8]

N.ostromi[8]

"Partial skull."[9]

Member of the Willow Wash local fauna.[4]

Nodocephalosaurus[8]

N. kirtlandensis[8]

"Partial skull."[10]

Member of the Willow Wash local fauna.[4]

Parasaurolophus[8]

P. tubicen[8]

"Disarticulated, associated skull and postcraniua, pertaining to at least [three] individuals."[11]

Member of the Willow Wash local fauna.[4]

Pentaceratops[8]

P. fenestratus[8]

P. sternbergi[8]

More common in the lower part of the formation.[12]

Member of the Willow Wash local fauna.[4]

Sphaerotholus[4]

S. goodwini[4]

Member of the Willow Wash local fauna.[4]

Stegoceras[13]

S. novomexicanum[13]

"SMP VP-2790, incomplete parietal"[13]

Also found in the upper Fruitland Formation.

Titanoceratops

T. ouranos

  • Hunter Wash

Member of the Willow Wash local fauna.

Ziapelta[14]

Z. sanjuanensis

Complete skull lacking the lower jaws, first two cervical half rings.[14]

Pterosaurs[edit]

Pterosaurs of the Kirtland Formation
Genus Species Location Member Abundance Notes

Navajodactylus[15]

N. boerei[15]

Partial phalanx and ulna fragment[15]

Hunter Wash Member[15]

Saurischians[edit]

Saurischians of the Kirtland Formation
Genus Species Location Member Abundance Notes Images

Alamosaurus[16]

A. sanjuanensis[16]

Erroneously identified as a member of the Willow Wash fauna, specimens actually from the Naashoibito member of the Ojo Alamo Formation[17]

Aublysodon[18]

A. mirandus[18]

Remains once attributed to the dubious tooth genus Aublysodon (and later Daspletosaurus)[18] are now referred to Bistahieversor, although these remains (OMNH 10131) may possibly have come from the Fruitland Formation.[19]

Bistahieversor[20]

B. sealeyi[20]

Daspletosaurus[18]

Unnamed[18]

Remains formerly referred to an unidentified or undescribed species of Daspletosaurus were originally attributed to the dubious tooth genus Aublysodon.[18] These remains were later reclassified as belonging to the new genus Bistahieversor. Some of these remains (OMNH 10131), however, may have originated in the Fruitland Formation.[19]

Ornithomimus[8]

O. sp.[8]

Member of the Willow Wash local fauna.[4]

Saurornitholestes

S. sullivani[21]

  • De-na-zin

"Saurornitholestes"

"S." robustus[22]

Member of the Willow Wash local fauna.[4] Originally assigned to Saurornitholestes, actually a troodontid.[23]

Troodontidae

Indeterminate[24]

Tyrannosauridae

Indeterminate[8][25]

Turtles[edit]

Turtles of the Kirtland Formation
Genus Species Location Member Abundance Notes

Basilemys[4]

B. nobilis[4]

Member of the Willow Wash local fauna.[4]

Denazinemys[4]

D. nodosa[4]

Member of the Willow Wash local fauna.[4]

Neurankylus[4]

N. baueri[4]

Member of the Willow Wash local fauna.[4]

Plastomenus[4]

P. robustus[4]

Member of the Willow Wash local fauna.[4]

Thescelus[4]

T. hemispherica[4]

Member of the Willow Wash local fauna.[4]

Bony fish[edit]

Bony fishes of the Kirtland Formation
Genus Species Location Member Abundance Notes

Melvius[4]

M. chauliodous[4]

Member of the Willow Wash local fauna.[4]

Cartilaginous fish[edit]

Cartilaginous fish of the Kirtland Formation
Genus Species Location Member Abundance Notes

Myledaphus[4]

M. bipartitus[4]

Member of the Willow Wash local fauna.[4]

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Sullivan and Lucas 2006
  2. ^ Fowler 2017
  3. ^ C. M. Bauer, 1916, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 98-P
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc "Table 1," in Sullivan and Lucas (2006). Page 11. Note that the Willow Wash local fauna is entirely within the De-na-zin member; see "Biostratigraphy" page 8.
  5. ^ a b Listed as "cf. Leidyosuchus sp." in "Table 1," in Sullivan and Lucas (2006). Page 11. Note that the Willow Wash local fauna is entirely within the De-na-zin member; see "Biostratigraphy" page 8.
  6. ^ a b c d Burns and Sullivan 2011
  7. ^ a b c "Table 20.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 439.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "3.3 New Mexico, United States; 10. Lower Kirtland Formation," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 580.
  9. ^ "Table 20.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 440.
  10. ^ "Table 17.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 365.
  11. ^ "Table 20.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 442.
  12. ^ a b c "Kirtlandian Index Fossils," in Sullivan and Lucas (2006). Page 10.
  13. ^ a b c d Jasinski and Sullivan 2011
  14. ^ a b c d Arbour et al. 2014
  15. ^ a b c d Sullivan and Fowler 2011
  16. ^ a b "3.3 New Mexico, United States; 10. Lower Kirtland Formation and 11. Upper Kirtland Formation," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Pages 580-581.
  17. ^ Jasinski et al. 2011
  18. ^ a b c d e f "Systematic Paleontology," in Carr and Williamson. (2010). Page 1.
  19. ^ a b c d "Systematic Paleontology; Referred Specimens," in Carr and Williamson. (2010). Page 1.
  20. ^ a b c d "Systematic Paleontology; Holotype," in Carr and Williamson. (2010). Page 1.
  21. ^ Jasinski, Steven. "A new dromaeosaurid (Theropoda: Dromaeosauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of New Mexico (B&W)". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  22. ^ a b "Abstract," in Sullivan. (2006). Page 253.
  23. ^ Evans et al. 2014
  24. ^ Listed as "cf. Troodon sp." in "3.3 New Mexico, United States; 11. Upper Kirtland Formation," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Pages 580-581.
  25. ^ Listed as "cf. Tyrannosaurus sp." in "3.3 New Mexico, United States; 11. Upper Kirtland Formation," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Pages 580-581.

Bibliography[edit]