According to excavations, a castle was built in the late 15th century, approximately 500m southeast of the site of the present-day Kishiwada Castle. 
After 1408 the Hosokawa were the Shugo (Governors) of upper and lower half of Izumi Province, and in the early 16th century, the Kishiwada territory was controlled by the Izumi branch of the Matsuura clan, Shugodai (vice Governors) of Izumi province, descendants of Watanabe no Tsuna (953–1025), and the Emperor Saga (786-842), the 52nd Emperor of Japan. In 1562, the Lord of Kishiwada castle was Matsuura Tora, but the Lordship changed to Matsuura Hikaru, also called Magohachiro, who later became Hizen no kami (Governor of Hizen Province). 
In 1585, Matsuura Munekiyo with Nakamura Kazuuji and 8,000 men were besieged by 30,000 men (Battle of Kishiwada), and the castle was rebuilt as the base of Toyotomi Hideyoshi's conquest of Kishu. For his military achievement, Matsuura Munekiyo was given additional territories and transferred to Ise Province.
A five storied keep was erected by Hidemasa Koide in 1597. Nobukatsu, ruler of Okabe Mino, took possession of the castle in 1640 from Takatsuki. The Okabe family maintained its position for 13 generations (up to the Meiji Restoration). The castle's five storied keep was destroyed when struck by lightning in 1827, but was reconstructed in 1954, and is now also used as a folk museum.
- Tsuji. 2015. pp. 7é–74.
- Yamanaka, Goro (2016). Small Thoughts about Matsuura clan, Izumi Province, edited by Yasunori Koyama, "Political and Social Structure in Kinai during the Warring States Period". Izumi Shoin. ISBN 9784757603745.
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