Kiss of the Spider Woman (novel)

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Kiss of the Spider Woman
Kiss of the Spider Woman (novel).jpg
First US edition cover
Author Manuel Puig
Original title El beso de la mujer araña
Country Argentina
Language Spanish
Genre Novel
Publication date
1976
Media type Print (Hardback & Paperback)

Kiss of the Spider Woman (Spanish: El beso de la mujer araña) is a 1976 novel by Argentine writer Manuel Puig. It depicts the daily conversations between two cellmates in an Argentine prison, Molina and Valentín, and the intimate bond they form in the process. It is generally considered Puig's most successful work.[1]

The novel's form is unusual in that there is no traditional narrative voice, one of the primary features of fiction. It is written in large part as dialogue, without any indication of who is speaking, except for a dash (-) to show a change of speaker. There are also significant portions of stream-of-consciousness writing. What is not written as dialogue or stream-of-consciousness is written as meta-fictional government documentation. The conversations between the characters, when not focused on the moment at hand, are recountings of films that Molina has seen, which act as a form of escape from their environment. Thus there are a main plot, several subplots, and five additional stories that comprise the novel.

Puig adapted the novel into a stage play in 1983, with an English translation by Allan Baker. It was also made into an Academy Award-winning film in 1985 and a Broadway musical in 1993.

Historical background[edit]

Puig started Kiss of the Spider Woman in 1974 starting with Molina, who was an experiment in imagining a romantic female. From there the rest of the notes sprouted into the novel.[2] At first the only country that would publish the novel was Spain.[3] Upon publication it was included on a list of novels that could not be consumed by the population of Buenos Aires, along with novels such as Aunt Julia and the Scriptwriter by Mario Vargas Llosa.[4] Puig feared the publication of the novel would affect his family negatively. Despite this it was entered in the Frankfurt Book Fair.[5] It remained banned until 1983 when the Raúl Alfonsín government took control.[6] The English translation of the book was started even before its official publication in Spanish in 1976.[7] Some of the translation proved problematic for Puig including Molina's speech which he could not get to portray the proper sentimental aspects of the voice.[8] The English translation appeared in 1979.[9] The French translation also proved problematic as the publisher edited out some scenes for their explicit nature.[10] In 1981, Kiss of the Spider Woman won the best Latin American novel of the year from Istituto Italo Latino Americano in Italy.[11]

Plot[edit]

Two prisoners, Luis Molina and Valentín Arregui, share a cell in a Buenos Aires prison. The story takes place between September 9, 1975 and October 8, 1975.[12] Molina, a transgender woman, is in jail for "corruption of a minor", while Valentín is a political prisoner who is part of a revolutionary group trying to overthrow the government. The two characters, seemingly opposites in every way, form an intimate bond in their cell, and their relationship changes both of them in profound ways. Molina recounts various films she has seen to Valentín in order to help them forget their situation.

Toward the middle of the novel the reader finds out that Molina is actually a spy planted in Valentín's cell to befriend him and try to extract information about his organization. Molina gets provisions from the outside for her cooperation with the officials in the hopes of keeping up appearances that her mother comes to visit her (thus giving her a reason to leave the cell when she reports to the warden). It is through her general acts of kindness to Valentín that the two fall into a romance and become lovers, albeit briefly. For her cooperation, Molina is paroled. On the day she leaves, Valentín asks Molina to take a message to his revolutionary group on the outside. Little does she know that she is also being followed by secret police trying to find the location of the group.

Molina dies after being shot by Valentín's group at the rendezvous point after the secret police disrupt the assignation. The novel ends in Valentín's consciousness, after he has been given an anesthetic following torture, in which he imagines himself sailing away with his beloved Marta.

The First Film[edit]

The first story Molina recounts, which opens the novel, is based on the movie Cat People (1942).[13] During the narration, the reader finds out that Valentín sympathizes with the secretary because of his long-lost love, Marta.

The Second Film[edit]

The second story Molina recounts is based on a Nazi propaganda film. Unlike the first, it is unclear whether or not this is an actual movie, but may be a composite of multiple Nazi films and an American film called Paris Underground (1945).[14]

In the film, a French woman falls in love with a noble Aryan officer and then dies in his arms after being shot by the French resistance. The film is a clear piece of Nazi propaganda, but Molina's disinclination to see past its superficial charms is a symptom of her alienation from society, or at least her choice to disengage from the world that has rejected her.

The Third Film[edit]

The third film concerns a young revolutionary with a penchant for racing cars who meets a sultry older woman and whose father is later kidnapped by guerrillas. With his paramour's aid the boy attempts to rescue his father, who ends up dying in a shootout with police. Disillusioned, the young boy joins the guerrillas.

The Fourth Film[edit]

Based on the film I Walked with a Zombie (1943), the fourth story concerns a rich man who marries a woman and brings her to his island home. There his new bride discovers a witch doctor who has the ability to turn people into zombies. It is eventually revealed that the man's first wife was seduced by the witch doctor and turned into a zombie. Reunited with his first wife, the man proclaims his love for his first wife, but is ultimately killed by the witch doctor.

The Fifth Film[edit]

The fifth film Molina recounts is a love story in which a newspaper man falls in love with the wife of a Mafia boss. Lovestruck, he stops his newspaper from running a potentially damaging story about the woman. They run away together but are unable to support themselves. When the man falls ill, his lover prostitutes herself so they can survive. Valentín is forced to finish the story despite Molina recounting it. In the end, the man dies and the woman ends up sailing away.

Characters[edit]

  • Molina – One of the protagonists and the prime storyteller. She is a transgender woman who has been jailed for "corrupting a minor".
  • Valentín – The other protagonist, and the main implied listener. He is a revolutionary, imprisoned for belonging to a leftist organization that is trying to overthrow the government.
  • The Warden – One of the antagonists in the novel; he sets up Molina to spy and retrieve information from Valentín, and receives regular reports from him.
  • Gabriel – The waiter whom Molina befriends; he acts as Molina's main love interest throughout the novel.
  • Marta – Marta is Valentín's love interest, whom he lost in order to maintain a serious commitment to his revolutionary organization. She only appears in memories and streams-of-consciousness in the novel.
  • The prison guard
  • Molina's mother

Criticism[edit]

The novel received mixed reviews. The Hudson Review stated that "Puig is a master of narrative craftsmanship" (1979),[15] while The New York Times Book Review asserted that "Other than these film synopses, there's not much here".[16]

Themes[edit]

The author includes a long series of footnotes on the psychoanalytic theory of homosexuality. The footnotes act largely as a representation of Puig's political intention in writing the novel: to present an objective view of homosexuality.[17] The footnotes include both factual information and that given by the fictional Anelli Taub.[18] The footnotes tend to appear at moments of misunderstanding between Molina and Valentín.[19] The extended notes deepen the novel's experimental nature while clarifying the book's challenge to traditional psychoanalytic views of homosexuality.

Other themes include political psychology, film, love, and communism.[citation needed][original research?]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Titler, Jonathan. "Manuel Puig". page 47.
  2. ^ Levine, Suzanne Jill. Manuel Puig and the Spider Woman pages 254–258 .
  3. ^ Levine, Suzanne Jill. Manuel Puig and the Spider Woman page 258.
  4. ^ Levine, Suzanne Jill. "Manuele Puig and the Spider Woman" page 302)
  5. ^ Levine, Suzanne Jill. "Manuel Puig and the Spider Woman". page 282.
  6. ^ Titler, Jonathan. "Manuel Puig". page 52.
  7. ^ Levine, Suzanne Jill. "Manuel Puig and the Spider Woman". page 277.
  8. ^ Levine, Suzanne Jill. "Manuel Puig and the Spider Woman." page 304
  9. ^ Titler, Jonathan. "Manuel Puig". page vix
  10. ^ Levine, Suzanne Jill. "Manuel Puig and the Spider Woman." page 305
  11. ^ Levine, Suzanne Jill. "Manuel Puig and the Spider Woman." page 317
  12. ^ Kerr, Lucille. "Suspended Fictions". page 184.
  13. ^ Levine, Suzanne Jill. Manuel Puig and the Spider Woman page 260.
  14. ^ Levine, Suzanne Jill. "Manuel Puig and the Spider Woman." page 305
  15. ^ Park, Clara Clairborne. "Review of Kiss of the Spider Woman." Contemporary Literary Criticism. 28. Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research Co. , 1984. Print.
  16. ^ Coover, Robert. "Old, New Borrowed, Blue" Contemporary Literary Criticism. 28. Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research Co. , 1984. Print.
  17. ^ Tittler, Jonathan. Manuel Puig. page 51
  18. ^ Tittler, Jonathan. Manuel Puig. page 51
  19. ^ Levine, Suzanne Jill. Manuel Puig and the Spider Woman'. page 258.

References[edit]

  • Levine, Suzanne Jill. Manuel Puig and the Spider Woman: His Life and Fictions. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2000. Print.
  • Tittler, Jonathan. Manuel Puig. New York: Twayne Publishers. 1993. Print.
  • Kerr, Lucille. Suspended Fictions: Reading Novels by Manuel Puig. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1987. Print.