Kitigan Zibi, Quebec
|First Nations Reserve|
|• Type||Band council|
|• Chief||Jean-Guy Whiteduck|
|• Federal riding||Pontiac|
|• Prov. riding||Gatineau|
|• Total||183.90 km2 (71.00 sq mi)|
|• Land||172.07 km2 (66.44 sq mi)|
|Population (2011 census)|
|• Density||8.1/km2 (21/sq mi)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
Kitigan Zibi (also known as River Desert, and designated as Maniwaki 18 until 1994) is a First Nations reserve of the Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg First Nation, an Algonquin band. It is situated at the confluence of the Désert and Gatineau Rivers, and borders south-west on the Town of Maniwaki in the Outaouais region of Quebec, Canada. Having a total area of 183.9 square kilometres (71.0 sq mi), it is the largest Algonquin Nation in Canada, in both area and population.
Present in the reserve are grocery and hardware supermarkets, gas station, elementary and secondary schools with a library accessible to the whole community, gift shops, a community radio station, a day-care, a community hall, a health centre, a police department, a youth centre, a wildlife centre, and an educational and cultural centre.
Kitigàn means "garden" or "cultivated land." Since Algonquins were historically not farmers, it may be that, in this case, this name originated as a reference to a clearing made by the Hudson's Bay Company for the establishment of its post, dependencies, and the adjoining garden.
The reserve is bounded by the Eagle River along its west side, by the Desert River on the north side, and the Gatineau River on the east side. Most of its development is along or near Highway 105, while forest still covers much of the reserve.
It is also home to 13 fresh water lakes with areas in excess of 250,000 square metres (2,700,000 sq ft) or 25 hectares (62 acres) and approximately 29 smaller lakes and streams located throughout the territory.
Fish species found within these waters are walleye, pike, bass, trout, carp, catfish, and fresh water sturgeon. Mammals found within the reserve include beaver, muskrat, fisher, martin, mink, otter, bobcat, lynx, cougar, deer, black bear, wolf, and moose.
The history of the reserve is closely linked to that of the Town of Maniwaki, which developed concurrently.
In the first half of the nineteenth century, Algonquins of the mission at Lake of Two Mountains, under the leadership of Chief Pakinawatik, came to the area of the Désert River. Shortly after in 1832, the Hudson's Bay Company followed them and installed a trading post at the mouth of this river (now within the municipal boundaries of Maniwaki). A decade later, Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate established the mission of Notre-Dame-du-Desert and, from 1849, they demanded of the authorities the demarcation of a township in order to establish a reserve for the Algonquins. Chief Pakinawatik, along with other leaders, journeyed by canoe on three separate occasions to Upper Canada (Toronto) and negotiated the terms for the setting aside of the reserve land. The township limits were drawn in 1850 and given the name of Maniwaki by the Oblates at this time. In Algonquin language, the place was identified as Kitigànsìpì or Kitigàn Zìbì, meaning "Garden River."
Legally established in 1851, the reserve was demarcated in 1853. In the decree implementing it, the reserve was called "Manawaki" and also "River Desert". The name "Kitigan Zibi" came to replace the other two on September 24, 1994, when the band council gave this title to the reserve.
Because of land claim settlements in the late 1990s, small portions of land of the Town of Maniwaki were added to Kitigan Zibi.
Concerned about the disinterest of its youth in their own language, the community has decided to reintroduce the teaching of the Algonquin language in school.
As of September 2012, the registered population of the Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg First Nation is 2,988 members, of whom 1,560 live on the Kitigan Zibi reserve, 28 live on another reserve or crown land, and 1400 live off reserve.
|Canada census – Kitigan Zibi, Quebec community profile|
|Population:||1401 (20.3% from 2006)||1165 (7.8% from 2001)||1081 (11.6% from 1996)|
|Land area:||172.07 km2 (66.44 sq mi)||172.07 km2 (66.44 sq mi)||172.07 km2 (66.44 sq mi)|
|Population density:||8.1/km2 (21/sq mi)||6.8/km2 (18/sq mi)||6.3/km2 (16/sq mi)|
|Median age:||N/A (M: N/A, F: N/A)||33.4 (M: 28.9, F: 36.2)||32.4 (M: 30.5, F: 34.1)|
|Total private dwellings:||531||482||429|
|Median household income:||$30,776||$26,944||$29,760|
|Notes: 2011 data quality affected by a global non response rate higher than 25%. – References: 2011 2006 2001|
Canada Census data before 2001:
- Population in 1996: 969 (+41.9% from 1991: adjusted for boundary change)
- Population in 1991: 563
- English as first language: 66%
- French as first language: 13%
- Other as first language: 21%
List of chiefs
- Chief Antoine Pakinawatik - 1854-1874
- Chief Peter Tenasco - 1874-1884, 1890–1896
- Chief Simon Odjick - 1884-1890
- Chief Louizon Commanda - 1896-1899
- Chief John Tenasco - 1899-1911
- Chief Michael Commanda - 1911-1917
- Chief John Cayer - 1917-1920
- Chief John B. Chabot - 1920-1924, 1939–1951
- Chief Vincent Odjick - 1927-1933
- Chief Patrick Brascoupe - 1933-1936
- Chief Abraham McDougall - 1936-1939
- Chief William Commanda - 1951-1970
- Chief Ernest McGregor - 1970-1976
- Chief Jean Guy Whiteduck - 1976-2006
- Chief Stephen McGregor - 2006-2008
- Chief Gilbert Whiteduck - 2008-2015
- Chief Jean-Guy Whiteduck - 2015-present day
Culture and tourism
The Kitigan Zibi Pow Wow is held annually, on the first weekend of June. The Kitigan Zibi Cultural Centre has a number of exhibits, cultural artifacts, paintings, and photographs relating to the Algonquin culture and history. A living museum, Mawandoseg Kitigan Zibi, is dedicated to traditional Anishinaabeg way of life.
- "Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg". First Nation Profiles. Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
- "Kitigan Zibi". Répertoire des municipalités (in French). Ministère des Affaires municipales, des Régions et de l'Occupation du territoire. Retrieved 2012-10-26.
- "Kitigan Zibi, Quebec (Code 2483802) census profile". 2011 Census of Population. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2012-10-26. Cite error: Invalid
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- "Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg Member Community Page". Algonquin Anishinabeg Nation Tribal Council. Retrieved 2008-09-17.
- "Kitigan Zibi (Réserve indienne)" (in French). Commission de toponymie du Québec. Retrieved 2012-10-26.
- "Maniwaki (Ville)" (in French). Commission de toponymie du Québec. Retrieved 2012-10-26.
- "2006 Community Profiles". Canada 2006 Census. Statistics Canada. March 30, 2011. Retrieved 2012-10-26.
- "2001 Community Profiles". Canada 2001 Census. Statistics Canada. February 17, 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-26.
- Statistics Canada: 1996 census
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