She married William Henry Thomson on June 9, 1894.
Her professional stage debut was made in London, England, in 1904, where she performed renditions of African-American folk songs. She is credited with having helped preserve these traditional songs and bring them to European audiences. While in London, she was introduced to and befriended members of the British Royal Family, for whom she would go on to perform many times. However, it is her contributions to children's music for which Cheatham is best known as a musician, as she became popular throughout the world by performing children's songs and stories. During her career, she performed for thousands in England, France, Germany, and the United States, and organized children's concerts for the New York Philharmonic and the Philadelphia Orchestra. She published two collections of her songs, Kitty Cheatham: Her Book in 1915, and A Nursery Garland in 1917. Her repertoire included over 1000 songs in nine languages.
Many of the songs she sang expressed themes of Christianity and American patriotism. A member of the Christian Science church (and a friend of its founder, Mary Baker Eddy), Cheatham was highly religious, and she wrote a number of religiously and patriotically-oriented publications.
She was also a speaker who created a series of "illustrated lectures" which focused on her travels throughout Europe. On June 28, 1930, she was invited by Alþing, the parliament of Iceland, to give a speech at their country's Millennial Celebrations. She also spoke before the delegates of the International Women’s Congress, of which she was the honorary vice-president, in Budapest, Hungary in 1937.
- "Kitty Cheatham, Diseuse, 81, Dead. Interpreter of the Literature and Songs of Childhood Was Author, Lecturer, Pacifist". New York Times. January 6, 1946.
- Sarah J. Martin (1998). The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture.
- "Kitty Cheatham A Bride. The Actress Married to an English Cotton Merchant in Nashville". New York Times. June 10, 1894.
- Gregory G. Poole (April 22, 2004). "Kitty Cheatman Papers" (PDF). Tennessee State Library and Archives. Retrieved 2016-09-19.
- Photos of Kitty Cheatham from the NYPL Digital Gallery