Kiviõli is an industrial town in Ida-Viru County, Estonia. The settlement was founded in 1922 and became a town in 1946. The main industry is oil shale mining, which gives the town its name (literally "stone oil"). Included in the town limits, but somewhat separate from the main part of the town, are the districts of Küttejõu and Varinurme.
In 2000, 51% of inhabitants were ethnic Russians and 39% were Estonians. The population, which was 10,353 in 1989, had declined to 7,269 in 2000 and to 5,634 in 2011.