Kiwaian languages

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Kiwaian
Geographic
distribution
Papua New Guinea
Linguistic classificationa primary language family
Glottologkiwa1251[1]
Kiwaian languages.svg
Map: The Kiwaian languages of New Guinea
  The Kiwaian languages
  Trans–New Guinea languages
  Other Papuan languages
  Austronesian languages
  Uninhabited

The Kiwaian languages form a language family of New Guinea. They are a dialect cluster of half a dozen closely related languages.[2] They are grammatically divergent from the Trans–New Guinea languages, and typically have singular, dual, trial, and plural pronouns.[3]

Languages[edit]

Kiwaian languages and respective demographic information listed by Evans (2018) are provided below.[4]

List of Kiwaian languages
Language Location Population Alternate names
Southern Kiwai Kiwai Rural LLG 20,000 Island Kiwai
Wabuda Kiwai Rural LLG 2,750
Bamu south Bamu Rural LLG 6,310
Northeast Kiwai West Kikori Rural LLG 6,000 Urama
Kerewo West Kikori Rural LLG 1,090
Morigi West Kikori Rural LLG ?

Phonemes[edit]

Usher (2020) reconstructs the consonant inventory as follows:[5]

*m *n
*p *t *s *k
*b *d *g
*w
*i *u
*e *o
*a

Pronouns[edit]

Usher (2020) reconstructs the pronouns as,[5]

sg pl
1 *mo *nimo
2 *oɾo *nigo
3 ? *nei

Classification[edit]

The Trans–New Guinea identity of Kiwaiian is supported by a relatively large number of basic lexical items. Ross (2005) tentatively linked Kiwaiian to the erstwhile language isolate Porome. However, the evidence is only two pronouns, and the connection has not been accepted by other researchers.

Evolution[edit]

Kiwaian reflexes of proto-Trans-New Guinea (pTNG) etyma are:[3]

Southern Kiwai language:

  • magota ‘mouth’ < *maŋgat[a]
  • amo ‘breast < *amu
  • gare ‘ear’ < *kand(e,i)k(V]
  • pitu ‘fingernail’ < *mb(i,u)t(i,u)[C]
  • baba ‘father’ < *mbapa
  • sagana ‘moon’ < *takVn[V]
  • tuwo ‘ashes’ < *sumbu
  • era ‘tree’ < *inda
  • nimo ‘louse’ < *niman
  • epuru ‘head’ < *kV(mb,p)utu
  • kopu ‘short’ < *kutu(p,mb)a
  • abida ‘sister’ < *pi(n,nd)a

Other languages:

  • Waboda kepuru < *kV(mb,p)utu
  • Kerewo bena ‘shoulder’ < *mbena ‘arm’
  • Morigi kota ‘leg’ < *k(a,o)ndok[V]
  • N.E. Kiwai modi ‘nose’ < *mundu
  • Bamu kukamu ‘cold’ < *kukam(o,u)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kiwaian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ https://sites.google.com/site/newguineaworld/families/kiwai
  3. ^ a b Pawley, Andrew; Hammarström, Harald (2018). "The Trans New Guinea family". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 21–196. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  4. ^ Evans, Nicholas (2018). "The languages of Southern New Guinea". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 641–774. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  5. ^ a b New Guinea World, Kiwai

External links[edit]