Kizil Caves

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Kizil Caves
قىزىل مىڭ ئۆي
克孜尔千佛洞
Kizil Caves Kuqa Xinjiang China 新疆 库车 克孜尔千佛洞 - panoramio (2).jpg
Kizil Caves on the edge of the Tarim Basin. The modern structures at the center approximately correspond to Caves 1 to 30.
Kizil Caves is located in Xinjiang
Kizil Caves
Shown within Xinjiang
Kizil Caves is located in China
Kizil Caves
Kizil Caves (China)
Kizil Caves is located in Asia
Kizil Caves
Kizil Caves (Asia)
LocationXinjiang, China
Coordinates41°47′04″N 82°30′17″E / 41.78444°N 82.50472°E / 41.78444; 82.50472Coordinates: 41°47′04″N 82°30′17″E / 41.78444°N 82.50472°E / 41.78444; 82.50472
Kizil Caves
Uyghur name
Uyghurقىزىل مىڭ ئۆي
"Thousand Red Houses"
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese克孜爾千佛洞
Simplified Chinese克孜尔千佛洞
Literal meaning"Kizil Caves of the Thousand Buddhas"

The Kizil Caves (simplified Chinese: 克孜尔千佛洞; traditional Chinese: 克孜爾千佛洞; lit. 'Kizil Caves of the Thousand Buddhas'; Uighur: قىزىل مىڭ ئۆي, lit. 'The Thousand Red Houses'; also romanized Qizil Caves, spelling variant Qyzyl; Kizil means 'red') are a set of Buddhist rock-cut caves located near Kizil Township (克孜尔乡, Kèzī'ěr Xiāng) in Baicheng County, Aksu Prefecture, Xinjiang, China. The site is located on the northern bank of the Muzat River 65 kilometres (75 km by road) west of Kucha.[1][2] This area was a commercial hub of the Silk Road.[3] The caves are said to be the earliest major Buddhist cave complex in China, with development occurring between the 3rd and 8th centuries.[3] Another name for the site has been Ming-oi (明屋, "The Thousand Houses"), although this term is now mainly used for the site of Shorchuk to the east.[4]

Caves[edit]

Western Group of Caves (caves 1-80).[5]
Map of Kizil Caves (German names)
Collapsed central pillar cave 34 at Kizil, 1914
A typical "Central Pillar" cave, with main vaulted hall, central pillar with niche, two side corridors and back room (Cave 219)
A side corridor, looking towards the back room. Cave 171

The Kizil Caves complex is the largest of the ancient Buddhist cave sites that are associated with the ancient Tocharian kingdom of Kucha, as well as the largest in Xinjiang. Other famous sites nearby are the Kizilgaha caves, the Kumtura Caves, Subashi Temple and the Simsim caves.[6][7] The Kizil Caves are "the earliest representative grottoes in China".[8] At the time the caves were created, the area of Kucha was following the orthodox Sarvastivadin school of Hinayana Buddhism, although an early and minority Dharmagupta presence has also been noted.[9] The simpler square caves may have been established by the Dharmagupta from the 4th century CE or earlier, while the "central pillar" caves, which flourished from the mid-6th century CE, can rather be associated with the Sarvastivadin school.[9]

Overview[edit]

There are 236 cave temples in Kizil, carved into the cliff stretching from east to west for a length of 2 km.[1] Of these, 135 are still relatively intact.[10] The earliest caves are dated, based in part on radioactive carbon dating, to around the year 300.[11] Most researchers believe that the caves were probably abandoned sometime around the beginning of the 8th century, after Tang influence reached the area.[12] Documents written in Tocharian languages were found in Kizil and a few of the caves contain Tocharian and Sanskrit inscriptions which give the names of a few rulers.

Many of the caves have a central pillar design, whereby pilgrims may circumambulate around a central column incorporating a niche for a statue of the Buddha, which is a representation of the stupa.

There are three other types of caves: square caves, caves with large image and monastic cells (kuti). Around two-thirds of the caves are kutis which are monks' living quarters and store-houses and these caves do not contain mural paintings.[13] Chronology remains the subject of debate.[14][13]

"Central pillar" cave structure[edit]

In the typical "central pillar" design, pilgrims can circumambulate around a central column incorporating a niche for a statue of the Buddha, which is a representation of the stupa. The so-called "central pillar" which appears on a plan is actually not a pillar at all but only the rock at the back of the cave, into which was bored a circular corridor allowing for circumambulation.[15]

A large vaulted chamber is located in front of the "central pillar" column and a smaller rear chamber behind with two tunnel-like corridors on the sides linking these spaces. In the front chamber, a three-dimensional image of Buddha would have been housed in a large niche serving as the focus of the interior, however, none of these sculptures have survived at Kizil.[16] The rear chamber may feature the parinirvana scene in the form of a mural or large sculpture, and in some cases, a combination of both. The "central pillar" layout is possibly related to the structural design of Kara Tepe in northern Bactria.[17]

The program of the paintings in the "central pillar" caves generally follows a fixed arrangement: the walls of the main cella show sermons of the Buddha, the ceiling has rhomboid vignettes alluding to Jatakas, the central niche has the scene of the Indrasala Cave. The back room or corridor has scenes related to the Parinirvana, and finally the painting over the exit is related to the Tusita Heaven and the future Buddha Maitreya.[18]

Datation schemes[edit]

Albert Grünwedel and the German school[edit]

Datation scheme according to the German school[19][20]
Stage I
"Gandharan"
Stage II
"Sasanian"
Cave of the Hippocampi (Cave 118, mural).
Cave of the Hippocampi (Cave 118, plan)
Trader making a dedication to the Buddha, Cave 38
Cave of the Musicians (38), Kizil
500-600 CE:
Caves 207, 118, 76, 117, 77, 212, 83, 84
600-650 CE:
Caves 67, 198, 199, 110, 129, 114, 38, 205, 224, 7, 206, 13
Circa 650 CE:
Caves 8, 219, 3, 4, 63, 58, 178, 175, 181
After 650 CE:
Caves 123, 185, 184, 188

The German Albert Grünwedel proposed in 1912 a structural scheme which has remained influential throughout the 20th century. It is essentially based on the definition of two schools of art, "Style 1" and "Style 2".[19] Style I, qualified as "Indo-Iranian", derives from the Art of Gandhara, and murals tend to have dark cinnabar backgrounds with green and orange color schemes and natural shading, and the architecture tends to consist in squarish caves with cupola ceilings.[19][20] Style II derives from Sasanian art, and is characterized by a strong contrast between brilliant green-blue pigments.[19] Architecturally, the caves of Style II have a central stupa-pillar surrounded by a circular corridor for circumambulation. According to Grünwedel, Style II was before the 8th century CE. After Grünwedel, Albert von Le Coq and Ernst Waldschmidt proposed dates, based in the epigraphic inscriptions found in the caves. They proposed to date Style I from 500 to 600, and Style II from 600 to 650 CE. These chronological guidelines remained extremely influential throughout the 20th century, as late as the 1980s.[19]

Modern attempts at Carbon 14 dating[edit]

Various attempts at radio-carbon analysis were made over the years, with various degrees of success, but with the main effect of pushing back the dates of the first caves to circa 300 BCE, and challenging the German classification according to styles and colors schemes.[19]

In 1979, a Chinese institute (文物保护科学技术研究所, Wenwu baohu kexue jishu yanjiusuo) carbon-tested caves 63, 47, 13.[21]

Su Bai[edit]

Datation scheme according to Su Bai (1981)[20][19]
Stage I
"Initial stage"
310 CE +-80
350 CE +-60
Stage II
"Flourishing stage"
395 CE +-65
465 CE +-65
Stage III
"Decline stage"
545 CE +-75
685 CE +-65
Caves 38, 47, 6, 80, 13 Caves 77, 17, 171, 104, 139, 119, 35, 36, 92, 118, 39, 49, 14 Caves 201, 70, 148, 234, 187, 185, 182, 183, 181, 189, 190, 172, 8, 107B, 107A, 180, 197
Huo and Wang (1993)[19][20]
Stage I
200-350 CE
Stage II
350-500 CE
Stage III
500-700 CE
Caves 118, 92, 77, 47, 48, 117, 161, 196, 224, 17, 104 Caves 38, 76, 83, 84, 114, 13, 32, 171, 172 Caves 110, 57, 212, 81, 184, 188, 199, 207, 8, 205, 99, 4, 123, 206, 178

In 1979-1981, Su Bai of Beijing University (北京大学历史系考古教研室, Beijing daxue lishi xi kaogu jiaoyanshi) made an influential carbon-testing campaign for caves 47, 3, 38, 6, 171, 17, 190, 8.[21] Based on these dates and on an analysis of the architecture of the caves (from the simpler to the more sophisticated), Su Bai proposed an influential dating scheme, pushing back the dates of the first caves to circa 300 CE.[20]

Huo and Wang[edit]

In 1989-1993, Huo and Wang (中国社会科学院考古研究所, Zhongguo shehui kexueyuan kaogu yanjiusuo) tested the following caves: 224, 76, 4, 8, 34, 68, 77, 98, 104, 114, 117, 118, 119, 125, 129, 135, 162, 171, 180, 189, 196, 198, 206, 212, 219, 227, 27, 39, 48, 60, 69, 70, 77, 84, 91, 92, 99, 123, 139, 161, 165, 178, 207.[21] They proposed a chronology which has some significant differences with the chronology previously proposed by Su Bai.[20]

Japanese teams of Nagoya University (日本名古屋大学) tested in 1995, 1997, 1998 and 2011 the following caves: 8, 171, 224, 13, 67, 76, 77, 92, 205.[21]

Many of the results remain inconclusive, sometimes even contradictory, and the historical period in question is rather too short in relation to the uncertainty margin of Carbon 14 datation, to provide a meaningful segmentation of the caves.[22] Most narrow Carbon dates given for the Kizil Caves refer to a 68% probability level (1σ), which implies a significant level of uncertainty, and when dates are adjusted to the 95% probability level (2σ) as standard archaeological practice requires,[23] then the timespan between the earliest and lowest dates becomes so large (about 200 to 300 years),[24] as to make individual comparisons between the caves meaningless.[25] Most researchers now use an approach combining artistic and architectural analysis together with carbon-dating, as a way to approach a reliable nomenclature, as proposed by Marylin Martin Rhie from 2001.[20]

Caves, murals and architecture[edit]

Buddhist 2nd-century CE Sanskrit text in Middle Brahmi script, Ming-oi, Kizil Caves. First line: "... [pa]kasah tasmad asma(d)vipaksapratipaksas...". Carbon-dated to 130 CE (80–230 CE), corresponding to the rule of the Kushan king Kanishka.

In 1906, the German expedition team of Albert von Le Coq and Albert Grünwedel explored the Kizil Caves. While Grünwedel was primarily interested in copying the murals, von le Coq chose to remove many of the murals. Most of the fragments removed are now in Museum of Asian Art (formerly Museum für Indische Kunst) in Dahlem, Berlin.[26] Other explorers removed some fragments of murals, that may now be found in museums in Russia, Japan, Korea and United States. Although the site has been both damaged and looted, around 5000 square metres of wall paintings remain,[27] These murals mostly depict Jataka stories, avadanas, and legends of the Buddha, and are an artistic representation in the tradition of the Hinayana school of the Sarvastivadas.[1]

Carbon-testing and stylistical analysis helped determine three main periods in the paintings at Kizil, which cover a period from 300 CE to 650 CE.[28] The art of Kizil correspond to the Western school of art in the Tarim Basin, and mainly displays influences from Gandhara and the Iranian world, particularly influence from the Hephtalites, and no influence from East Asia.[29][30][31][32]

The Kizil Caves were designated by the Germans by a series of names, and have been separately numbered by the Chinese. A correspondence chart has been produced by Rhie.[33]

Some very early caves, now numbered 90-17 to 90-24, have been discovered since the 1990s in the lower parts of the cliff at the entrance of the central valley. These caves were square or rectangular with barrel-vaulted ceilings, but without any decorations.[34]

General characteristics[edit]

Kizil standing Buddha of the 1st period (300-395 CE). Tocharian B inscription reading:
Se pañäkte saṅketavattse ṣarsa papaiykau.jpg
Se pañäkte saṅketavattse ṣarsa papaiykau
"This Buddha by Sanketava's hand was painted".[35][36][37][38]
Often attributed in the past to the 7th century CE,[39] but now carbon dated to 245-340 CE.[40]

A notable feature of the murals in Kizil is the extensive use of blue pigments, including the precious ultramarine pigment derived from lapis lazuli from Afghanistan. In the classification of the art of the region by Ernst Waldschmidt, there are three distinct periods:[1] the murals from the first phase are characterized by the use of reddish pigments, while those from the second phase used bluish pigments in abundance.[12] The earlier paintings reflect more Greco-Indian or Gandharan influences, while the second ones show Iranian (Sassanian) influences.[11] Later caves seem to have fewer legends and/or jatakas, being replaced by the repetitive designs of numerous small Buddhas (the so-called thousand Buddha motif), or sitting Buddhas with nimbuses.[1] The paintings of the first two phases showed a lack of Chinese elements.[12] The last phase, the Turkic-Chinese period, is most in evidence in the Turfan area, but in Kizil only two caves showed Tang Chinese influence.

Another characteristic of the Kizil murals is the division into diamond-shaped blocks in the vault ceilings of the main room of many caves. Buddhist scenes are depicted inside these diamond-shapes in many layers on top of one another to show the narrative sequences of the scenes.[1]

Color pigments[edit]

The pigments in the painting of the Kizil Caves have been analysed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The reds are primarily vermilion and red lead, which today are greatly discolored, and red ocher. Blue pigments are from lapis lazuli. Green pigments are from copper hydroxy chloride minerals such as atacamite. Brownish-black pigments are PbO2, obtained from the oxidation of red lead. White pigments were mainly obtained from gypsum.[41]

Style 1: Gandharan "orange and green" paintings[edit]

The Kingdom of Kucha, the most populous oasis in the Tarim Basin, occupied a strategic position on the Northern Silk Road, which brought it prosperity, and made it a wealthy center of trade and culture.[42] Kucha was part of the Silk Road economy, and was in contact with the rest of Central Asia, including Sogdiana and Bactria, and thus also with the cultures of India, Iran, and coastal areas of China.[43] Early visitors are known, such Maes Titianus.[44] Since the 2nd century CE, under the auspices of the Han Dynasty and the Kushan Empire, numerous great Buddhist missionaries passed through the Tarim Basin on their way to China, such as the Parthian An Shigao, the Yuezhis Lokaksema and Zhi Qian, or the Indian Chu Sho-fu (竺朔佛).[45]

Culture flourished, and Indian Sanskrit scriptures were being translated by the Kuchean monk and translator Kumarajiva (344-413 CE), himself the son of a Buddhist man from Kashmir and a Kuchean princess, sister of the King.[45][42] The 1st Style covers a period from 300 to 500 CE, and is characterized by Gandharan themes and orange and green hues, having a strong Indian flavour: female dancers and musicians are often naked or half-naked with full breasts.[46][47] The paintings of Bamiyan in northern Afghanistan are generally considered as the precussors of the art of the Kizil Caves.[48] Towards the end of the period, the influence of the art of Gandhara is considered as a consequence of the political unification of the area between Bactria and Kucha under the Hephthalites, which lasted from 480 to 560 CE, or a few decades later.[49]

Early paintings[edit]

Early inscriptions in Tocharian, an Indo-European language using a derivation of the Indian Brahmi script is used in several early paintings on tablets, as found in the "Cave above the cave of the coffered ceiling".[50]

Earliest painted caves[edit]

"Treasure Caves" (Cave 83, Cave 84)
(300-350 CE)
"Dance of princess Chandraprabha", with frames probably derived from Roman art of the 1st century CE.[52] Treasure Cave C (Cave 83).
Plan of the Treasure Caves E, D (Cave 82), C (Cave 83), B (Cave 84) and A (Cave 85)

According to the Chinese chronicles of the Jin Dynasty (265-316), there were already a thousand Buddhist stupas and temples in Kucha.[53]

The earliest painted caves at Kizil are thought to be Treasure Caves C and B (Caves 83 and 84 respectively), and Cave of the Hippocampi (Cave 118).[52] They are located deep inside the central Valley, and have simple architectural structures, together with paintings in a clear Indian style.[52]

"Treasure Caves C and B" (Cave 83 and Cave 84, 300-350 CE)[edit]

Cave 83 (Treasure Cave C) is a relatively small square cave (3.6x3.6m), with a podium in the middle, probably for a statue or a stupa.[52] Here the ceiling has collapsed.[52] The back wall had a scene of the Rudrayana Legend, with a king observing the dance of a Queen who is nude except for thin veils and jewelry.[52] In this cave, the frames of the paintings, especially the vine rinceaux, are probably derived from Roman art of the 1st century CE.[52] This cave may be slightly earlier then Cave 84.[54] All the paintings were sent to Berlin by Grünwedel.[54]

Cave 84 (Treasure Cave B) was a square, probably domed cave (4x4m, here too the ceiling has collapsed), reflecting on an earlier, simpler cave structure at Kizil, which is also known from Bamiyan (Cave 24).[52] The origin of the paintings in caves 84 seems Indian, probably from Kashmir.[52] They show groups of people standing around figures of the Buddha, who is either seated or standing.[54] The depth of placement is rather shallow, the figures are graceful with curved torsos. The faces are round and plump.[54] Rhies suggest a date of the first half of the 4th century for Cave 84.[54] All the paintings were sent to Berlin by Grünwedel.[54]

"Cave of the Hippocampi" (Cave 118, 300-350 CE)[edit]
Cave of the Hippocampi (cave 118)
(300-350 CE)
Reconstitution of the structure and known decorative layout of the main cella. It is a rectangular room with a transversal vaulted ceiling, entirely decorated with paintings. The side murals have not been preserved, but small figures of Kuchean devotees (about 40cm tall) appeared in the corners.[55][54]
Cave of the Hippocampi, inside the central valley
Plan of vestibule and main cella
Monks and lay Kuchean devotees in the paintings of Cave 118.[54]

The Cave of the Hippocampi (Cave 118), consists in a rectangular room (3.6x4.8 meters), the entrance being on the long side, and the ceiling of which forms a transverse barrel vault.[54] In front of the cave, which is accessible through a door, there used to be an equally wide open space, perhaps adorned with paintings, with remains of a pyramid roof.[54] The model for this kind of vaulted cave can be found in Bactria at Kara Tepe, dating from the 2nd-3rd century CE.[54]

In the middle of the back wall of the main cella stands a large painting (3.42 m wide and 2.16 m high), with an unidentified scene of a King with attendants, possibly "The skill and music in the heavenly palace" (天宫伎乐).[54] The attitudes and postures of the figures remind the reliefs of 3rd-4th century CE Nagarjunakonda.[54] The picture is framed by five successive decorative borders with naturalistic vine rinceau, suggestive of Roman art.[54]

The colors of the murals are various shades of brown, with smatterings of light green, but no blue, defining the so-called "orange and green" style.[54] The lunettes bordering the ceiling have scene with the Buddha.[54] The center of the ceiling has motifs of the sun and moon, two monks, and a bird flying with a human figure in its claws.[54] The sides of the ceiling are composed of diamond-shaped mountains, around which are naturalistic motifs of humans, animals, lakes and trees, a possibly Near-Eastern design which was generally adopted in later caves at Kizil.[54] A band of fantastic animals separated the ceiling from the side walls.[54] The general style appears to be early, and possibly derived from Kasmir and Cave 24 at Bamiyan.[54] The side murals have not been preserved, but figures of devotees appeared in the corners, who were probably noble and wealthy Kuchean donors of the 4th century CE, whose hair style for men and women was "cut straight to the neck" according to the Chinese chronicles Jin Shu.[55]

"Peacock Cave" (Cave 76, circa 400 CE)[edit]

Peacock Cave (Cave 76)
circa 400 CE
Internal layout of the main cella with central "peacock" dome and remaining paintings, as reported by Albert Grünwedel in 1912.[56][57] Most of the intact panels were dismantled and sent to the Museum für Indische Kunst, Berlin, Germany, where many were lost in the destructions of World War II.[56][58] This view faces the left wall ("2" on the plan).
Peacock Cave location and plan (Cave 76). The main cella (top) has a large podium in the center (70cm high), and is crowned by a dome decorated with apsaras flying among peacock feathers.

The "Peacock Cave" (Pfauenhöhle in German)[59] is also an early cave, although dated slightly later to circa 400 CE.[60] It has been carbon dated to mid 4th-end 5th century CE.[61] It is said to be "the most recognizably Indian in the whole Kizil cycle".[62] The paintings echoe the Art of Gandhara and the murals of Ajanta Caves.[62]

A rectangular vestibule, the vaulted roof of which is now collapsed, preceded the main chamber.[56] The main chamber has a domed ceiling, an innovation first seen in early caves at Bamiyan, and in caves 83 and 84 at Kizil.[56][63] In the center of the main chamber, there is a large podium, on which probably stood some major statuary associated with the Buddha.[56] The architecture of the cave displays a marked advancement compared to earlier caves, but is anterior to the "central pillar" cave structure.[56][63]

Several paintings illustrate the life of the Buddha. Only the left wall of the main cella had remained in great part intact by the time Grünwedel visited. The top part of the wall showed four important moments of the life of the Buddha, while celestial observers stand on a balcony above: 1) the Birth of Siddharta and the first Three Steps in which the Buddha appears naked and already tall, 2) the Four Encounters outside of the Palace, 3) the Seduction of Mara's daughters, who are turned into old women, and 4) the Assault of Mara.[56][64][65] The middle row was almost entirely damaged, although scenes of the Preaching Buddha were identifiable.[66] The panels can be numbered 5 to 9, but 5 and 9 being half-panels going over the adjacent walls.[66] In one of the panels appear soldiers similar to those of the Cave of the Painters.[66] The bottom of the wall contained fragments of panels showing: 10) the Parinirvana, 11) devotees looking at the Buddha being put in a coffin, 11) The Buddha in his coffin, and 12) would have been the Cremation of the Buddha.[66][56][65] The upper part of the mural was removed by Grünwedel, and sent to Germany in panels, where some are still held in the Museum für Indische Kunst.[56]

This presentation of the various events of the life of the Buddha in successive panels reminds of examples from Gandhara, such as the Sikri stupa, although the panels in the Cave of the Peacock are remarkable by their rigorous chronological arrangement.[18] Similar types of narrative panels have also been found in Andhra.[18]

The dome over the cella is composed of eight pairs of segments filled with a flying apsara among peacock feather. Numerous devatas and Buddhas of the past are painted around the dome.[56]

According to Historian of Art Benjamin Rowland, commenting one of the remaining fragments, the "group of sword-bearing figures are recognizable Indian ethnic types".[62]

The "Cave of the Seafarers" (cave 212, circa 400 CE)[edit]

"Cave of the Seafarers" (Cave 212)
Circa 400 CE
Plan of the cave, a rare longitudinal layout
Monk in meditation with a skull
A part of the frieze made by "the painter from Rome" Rumakama along the border of the mural.

The "Cave of the Seafarers" (Höhle der Seereise) is dated by Rhies to the early 5th century CE, based on a stylistic analysis.[68] Carbon dates are significantly later, circa 561-637 CE.[69] The cave contained long narrative sequences about various paths to enlightenment.[68] Most of the panels are now in the Dahlem Museum.[68] The content of the paintings in the "Cave of the Seafarers" is clearly derived from Indian, specifically Gandharan, prototypes.[70]

A painter "Rumakama" (Rumakama, "the one from Rome"),[71] appears in a Sanskrit inscription in the cave.[69] The inscription, scribbled on the right side of the mural, reads:

"After this painting was done, the one who came from Rumakama (Syria), the painter Manibhadra, did these circles below".[72][73]

"Rumakama" inscription, in Sanskrit.

According to Grünwedel, "the circles (mandalâni) undoubtedly refer to the edges made of foliage and human skulls", that is the Classical border of acanthus leaves and Buddhist skulls painted along the inferior border of the mural.[74]

The word Rumakama, or Romakam appears in the Kizil paintings as well as in the later Tibetan document, and is thought to refer to a painter who came from the Roman Empire or the Byzantine Empire.[75]

Cave of the Seafarers. A Classical border of acanthus leaves and Buddhist skulls was painted along the bottom edge of the mural, in cave 212 where "Rumakama" worked.

"Cave of the statues" (Cave 77, 375-400 CE)[edit]

"Cave of the statues" (Cave 77)
375-400 CE
Self-portrait of the painter (104x35 cm) from the Cave of the Statues, in Central Asian caftan and high boots and armed with a dagger,[76][77] and nearby painting of a cowherd listening to a sermon of the Buddha, from the main hall. Cave of the Statues. 14C date: 406-425 CE.[69]

The "Cave of the Statues" (Statuenhöhle) has actual statues made of clay and straw, fibers or hair for reinforcement, often dated to the 6th century CE,[78] but now rather dated to 375-400 CE in conjunction with carbon dates.[69][79][80][61] Many of the statues were made from molds, which had Sanskrit names on them, which are probably the names of the crafsmen or the owners.[78]

One of the statues is a man in a particular type of armour with sectioned areas. This type of armour was in use for several centuries in art of the Northern segment of the Silk Road, and later became prevalent in China.[81] The head is a tentative addition.[82] Lü Guang, a Chinese general sent by Emperor Fu Jian (r. 357-385) of the Former Qin Dynasty (351-394), who temporarily conquered Kucha in 383-385 CE, mentioned the powerful armour of Kuchaen soldiers, a type of chainmail and lamellar armour of Sasanian inspiration which can also be seen in the paintings of the Kizil Caves:[42]

They were skillful with arrows and horses, and good with short and long spears. They armour was like chain link; even if one shoots it, [the arrow] cannot go in.

— Biography of Chinese General Lü Guang[42]

A painter, holding a cup of paint, and whose clothes "exactly match" the painters in the "Cave of the Painters" (caftan, boots...) is visible in one of the murals of the cave.[77][83] Originally at the front end of the right corridor, next to the right wall, the painting is now located in the Hermitage Museum.[84]

Fragments of very fine painting have reached us, which are also attributed to the Cave of the Statues, although Rhies has expressed a slight doubt.[85] Albert Grünwedel in 1912 did make a description of the remaining murals consistent with these, and further states that they are in "pure Gandhara style" and seem to have been "made by the same artists as those of the Cave of the Painters".[86] He attributed both caves to the same "Stage I" period (500-600 CE).[19][20]

"Cave of the Painters" (Cave 207, dated 478-536 CE)[edit]

Cave of the Painters
(Cave 207, 478-536 CE)
Group around the Buddha and Classical Roman-style frieze over him in the main vaulted chamber of the Cave of the Painters (center top of the right wall).[88]
General decorative content and layout of the main chamber with prismatic dome, with location of the painters, as recorded by Albert Grünwedel in 1912.[69] The cave is today almost devoid of pictorial remains: the paintings of the right wall were sent to the Dahlem Museum in Germany, but only few survived World War II;[89][90] the paintings of the left wall were essentially intact in 1912 and have remained on-site, but they are today fragmentary and have been vandalized.[91]
Detail of the Monks attending the Buddha

The "Cave of the Painters" (Malerhöhle, 画家窟, Cave 207)[92] is one of the earliest caves of Kizil, and one of the most beautiful.[93] The cave contained a statue of the Buddha against the rear wall of the cella, and a barrel-vaulted ambulatory surrounded it.[93] The main cellar contained nine murals of the preaching Buddha on each side wall.[93]

The name of the cave comes from the numerous self-portraits of painters standing at the side of the murals, holding paint cupellas and brushes.[93] Several of the painters have a label, such as the written label in Sanskrit (Gupta script): "Painting of Tutuka" (Citrakara Tutukasya Citrakara Tutukasya) next to the painter in question.[94] "Citrakara" is not Tocharian, but Sanskrit (and later Hindi, चित्रकला) for "painter/painting".[95][96][97][98]

Paleography, stylistic analysis and carbon dating combine to give a date of circa 500 CE for these paintings.[93] Some stylistic elements have a strong Classical touch, such as Roman-style friezes at the top of the walls, over scenes of the Buddha.[88]

The Cave of the Painters, as some other caves at Kizil, depicts men in caftans with a triangular collar on the right side, and a unique hairstyle. Another marker is the two-point suspension system for swords, which seems to have been a Hephthalite innovation, and was introduced by them in the territories they controlled.[32] These paintings appear to have been made during Hephthalite rule in the region, circa 480–550 CE.[32][99] The influence of the art of Gandhara in some of the paintings at the Kizil Caves, dated to circa 500 CE, is considered as a consequence of the political unification of the area between Bactria and Kucha under the Hephthalites.[100]

The paintings of the Caves of the Painters have been carbon dated to 478-536 CE.[69] Albert Grünwedel in 1912 considered that the murals of the "Cave of the Statues" had been "made by the same artists as those of the Cave of the Painters", and that they were in "pure Gandhara style".[101] Also, a self-portraited painter in the Caves of the Statues, holding a cup of paint, has clothes which "exactly match" those of the painters in the "Cave of the Painters" (caftan, boots...).[77][83] The clothing style of the painters at Kizil has often been described as Sasanian,[102] but is now rather considered as Hephthalite due to the similarities with the figures in Bamiyan, Dilberjin Tepe or Balalyk Tepe.[32][99] Grünwedel attributed both caves to the same "Stage I" period (500-600 CE).[19][20]

The main cella contains 18 scenes of the Buddha preaching.[103] The niche must have contained a monumental statue of the Buddha, and paintings related to the Indrasala Cave narrative.[103] The ceiling is prismatic, reproducing a type of architecture known from Bamiyan.[103] The left corridor contained murals related to the War for the Relics and the Sharing of the relics of the Buddha, one of them showing armoured warriors on horses.[103] The murals of the back corridor were almost entirely gone by 1912. Only a few traces remained, suggesting scenes of the Parinirvana.[103] The right corridor had a beautiful mural showing a monk transmitting the teachings of the Buddha to a kneeling royal familly.[103]

Style 2: Indo-Iranian "blue and green" paintings[edit]

Cave of the Musicians (38)
Plan
A typical "central pillar" cave layout, painters at work
The eponymous musicians, and Jivajivaka the two-headed bird, over the murals of the main hall.

The 2nd style covers the 5th century CE and early 6th century CE, as seen in caves 77 or 36-36. Carbon testing from this period gave dates ranging from 395 +-65 CE to 465 +-65 CE (ie a maximum range of 330-530 CE).[28][46] This style is characterized by strong Iranian-Sogdian elements probably brought with intense Sogdian-Tocharian trade during the period, the influence of which is especially apparent in the Central-Asian caftans with Sogdian textile designs, as well as Sogdian longswords of many of the figures.[47] Other characteristic Sogdian designs are animals, such as ducks, within pearl medallions.[47] Indo-Iranian influence also appears in mythological figures, such as the bird Garuda with snakes in its beak, the wind god Vayu, the sun god Aditya or the moon god Chandra.[47]

The "Cave of the Painters" is typical of this period and style, which has been called the "First Indo-Iranian style" to express influences from Gandhara and the geographical area of Eastern Iran, at that time occupied by the Sasanian Empire and the Hephthalites.[29] The use of stongly contrasted "blue and green" colours, and the drawing of a line for contours, are characteristic of this style.[29] The famous cave of the "Sixteen sword bearers" belongs to this period. No East-Asian influence is visible in these paintings.[29]

The "First Indo-Iranian style" evolved into a "Second Indo-Iranian style", with a few intermediate stages.[29]

"Cave of the Musicians" (Cave 38, circa 350 CE)[edit]

The "Cave of the Musicians" is probably the earliest of the "central pillar" caves at Kizil, dated to the mid-4th century CE, and its iconography is also among the earliest.[112] The so-called "central pillar" which appears on a plan is actually not a pillar at all but only the rock at the back of the cave, into which was bored a circular corridor allowing for circumambulation.[15] There is a niche in the "central pillar" designed to house a statue of the Buddha, and two other niches on each side of the main entrance, and niches in the back corridor.[15] The central niche probably depicted the Buddha meditating in the Indrasala Cave cave, with a background decoration of a mountain, a recurring central theme at Kizil.[15] Maitreya, the Buddha of the future, in the Tusita Heaven, appears in a beautiful mural over the exit door.[15] Structurally, the cave remains relatively simple, as it does not have an anteroom or vestibule.[15]

Carbon testing by Su Bai gave dates ranging from 310 +/-80 CE to 350 +/-60 CE (ie a maximum range of 230-410 CE).[15][28][46] Huo and Wang attributed the cave to the Second Period, giving it a date from mid-4th to late 5th century (circa 350-499 CE).[15] This marks a radical change from the early German datation, which estimated the cave to be from the 600-650 CE period, and which presented the cave as an example of the later "Blue-green style", said to succeed chronologically the "Orange-green style" group.[15]

The style of the paintings is derived from the Art of Gandhara and Kashmir, the Art of Mathura and early Gupta art, with striking influences from Roman art and the art of Palmyra.[15][113] Kumārajīva is known to have travelled repeatedly between Kucha and Kashmir around this time, and he may have been instrumental, among many others, in the transmission of this art.[15] The structural prototype of the cave may be Kara Tepe in Bactria.[114] The flat, well-delineated surfaces of the paintings remind of the Roman Opus sectile technique, which prospered circa 331-359 CE.[15]

Cave 14: Central Asian traders (circa 400 CE)[edit]

Group of caves 14-19. The small Cave 14 is located to the west, and Cave 17 is in the center of the group. The other caves are viharas, without decorations.

Cave 14, a small and nearly square room with a vaulted ceiling (2.17x2.17 meters), is considered as later than the "Cave of the Musicians", and dated to the late 4th century CE to early 5th century CE, circa 400 CE, by Rhie.[119][120] The cave has many designs showing Central Asian traders encountering various dangers on their way, such as being lost in the dark, and being saved by the Dragon-King Mabi.[121] Cave 14 is considered as an important historical marker for the dress styles or the armour types worn by some of the figures.[120]

Cave 17: Tocharian royalty (circa 500 CE)[edit]

Tocharian royal family (King, Queen and young blond-hair Prince), Kizil, Cave 17 (entrance wall, lower left panel). Hermitage Museum.[122][123][124][125]

Cave 17 (Cave of the Bodhisattva Vault) is large "central pillar" cave located near Cave 14, and high up on the rock to the right of Cave 8.[126] It was probably the main cave of the group of caves from 14 to 19, which also includes several undecorated living quarters or viharas, and was dedicted to religious services. Su Bai dates Cave 17 to the Second Stage (395-465 CE -+65), together with Cave 14. Luo and Wang date it to 465 CE +-65.[80] Rhie attributes Cave 17 to circa 500, based on stylistic considerations.[127] It is a "central pillar" cave, with a small, very colorfull, square cella (3.80x3.90 meters) with a vaulted ceiling, a central pillar with two side corridors, and a back room.[128] These caves were possibly small chapels to nearby viharas.[119]

In Cave 17,[129] on the lower left panel of the entrance wall, appeared a Royal family, composed of the King, Queen and young Prince. They are accompanied by monks, and men in caftan. The relief is now in the Hermitage Museum.[130] The King wears a crown and a triple halo, with Sasanian-type royal ribbons.[125] He wears a long white caftan decorated with small diamond designs, and has long boots. His right hand is in front of his chest, holding an incense lamp,[125] and he holds an akinakes sword and a red bag in the left hand.[125][131] The end of a long knight's sword is visible behind the first boot.[125] The king can be identified as a Tocharian king of Kucha.[124] His Queen wears a long robe, and his two sons, Princes, wear ornate caftan and are fair-haired.[125]

According to Historian of Art Benjamin Rowland, the portraits in Kizil show "that the Tocharians were European rather than Mongol in appearance, with light complexions, blue eyes, and blond or reddish hair, and the costumes of the knights and their ladies have haunting suggestions of the chivalric age of the West".[132] The Chinese named Kuchean kings by adding the prefix "白", meaning "white", probably pointing to the fair complexion of the Kucheans.[133] The Chinese Monk Xuanzang in 645 CE, noted that "they clothe themselves with ornamented garments of silk and embroidery".[134]

This cave also shows Central Asian traders encountering various dangers on their way, such as being lost in the dark, and being saved by the Dragon-King Mabi. Another is the story of the good merchant Sabu (萨缚), who, in order to show the way to a party of 500 merchants lost in the darkness, puts his own arms on fire to use them as torches, and successfully rescues them. The story appears in numerous paintings, in which the merchants are in Central Asian garb and accompanied by camels, and Sab has the attributes of a Bodhisattva.[135]

"Cave of the Sixteen sword bearers" (Cave no. 8, 432-538 CE)[edit]

Cave of the Sixteen sword bearers
(Cave 8, 432-538 CE)
Kizil Caves swordsmen in Hephthalite style, originally lining the interior of the side corridors.[32][138]
Structure and known decorative layout of the main hall of the cave. The side corridors, decorated with the Sixteen Sword-bearers, lead to a back room, which is transversally vaulted. The cave was Carbon dated to 432–538 CE.[136][137]

The "Cave of the Sixteen sword bearers" ("Höhle der Schwertträger", 十六带剑者窟) is a famous cave with a series of murals showing swordsmen wearing caftans and armed with long sword and daggers. These murals have been carbon dated to 432–538 CE.[139][140] The swordsmen have also been dubbed the "Tocharian donors".

The interpretations of the nationality or ethnicity of the donors have varied. Some authors claim that the donors are indeed Tocharians, an elusive people of the Tarim Basin who spoke the well-documented Tocharian language, the easternmost Indo-European language.[141] According to this thesis, the donors in the murals are of the Indo-European type, wearing Iranian-style clothes and reddish hair.[141]

A more recent interpretation is that the sword-bearers are actually Hephthalites, who are known to have occupied the Tarim Basin from 490 to 560 CE, precisely at the time the paintings were made.[32][138] The clothing style, the iconography and the physionomy of the donors are said to be extremely close to those depicted in the paintings of Tokharistan (Bactria), the center of Hephthalite power, at sites such as Balalyk tepe or Dilberjin Tepe.[32][138] At present, the most prevalent opinion among academics seems to be that the Hephthalites were initially of Turkic origin.[142]

Similar donors can be seen in the Kumtura Caves.

In the "Cave of the Sixteen sword bearers", the murals of the sixteen sword-bearers are located in the lateral left and right corridors around the central pillar, simulating a procession of devotees.[143] The sides of the main room are occupied by panels showing groups around seated Buddhas, while the vault is decorated with a myriad of small Buddhas with emanating flames.[143] The back room, behind the central pillar, is decorated by a huge mural showing the sharing of the relics, with soldiers in armour riding horses and elephants (β on the plan).[143][144]

"Cave with the Ring-Bearing Doves" (Cave 123, dated 431-533 CE)[edit]

"Cave with the Ring-Bearing Doves", with central dome in the main hall.

The "Cave with the Ring-Bearing Doves" (Cave 123), carbon-dated to the 5th-6th century CE (431-533 CE), had a typical "central pillar" structure.[145] It has a square vestibule or main hall (3.42 x 3.42 meters) in front of the pillar forming the back wall, the vestibule being surmounted by a decorated dome. The painting were brought to Europe by the fourth Royal prussian expedition to Central Asia of 1913-1914 led by Albert von Le Coq.[146] The prototype for the dome decorated with standing Buddhist deities is to be found in Group C of the caves at Bamiyan.[147]

The cave has been reconstructed in the Ethnological Museum of Berlin:

Other works of the 2nd period[edit]

3rd period (500-700 CE): "Second Indo-Iranian style"[edit]

King Ajatasaru, His Queen, and His Minister Varshakara, Kizil, Maya Cave, (Cave 224).
Mural of the Mourning of the Buddha, with various figures in ethnic costumes. Maya Cave, 224. The second figure from the right is thought to be a Turk.[148][149]

The "First Indo-Iranian style" evolved into a "Second Indo-Iranian style", with a few intermediate stages, which corresponds to the third period at Kizil.[29] Again, no East-Asian influence is visible in these paintings.[29]

The 3rd phase covers a period from the mid-6th century CE to the early 7th century CE. Carbon testing from this period gave dates ranging from 545 +/-75 CE to 685 +/-65 CE (ie a maximum range of 470-750 CE).[46] Maya Cave (n.224) is one of the famous caves from this period. Historically, the paintings of this period seem to correspond to the Turk expansion, following their uprising against the Rouran Khaganate in 552 and their subsequent territorial expansion.[28] This can also be seen the style of armour of some of the soldiers in the murals, especially with their pear-shaped helmets.[28]

Many caves correspond to this third period, also called the "Second Indo-Iranian style", such as Caves 21 or 22.[29] Vivid colors are used, with great contrast. A lot of lapis lazuli blue is incorporated in the palette of this artist.[29] Skin color or hair color are often quite unnatural.[29] Backgrounds often have plenty of flowers, fruits or leaves. Ornaments are often extravagant.[29]

Māyā Cave (Third complex, cave 224, c.550-600 CE)[edit]

Maya Cave (Cave 224) of "III Anlage" is one of the most famous caves of the Third Period. It is dated to circa 550-600 CE, and possibly follows the events of the Turk uprising against the Rouran Khaganate in 552 CE and the subsequent Turk expansion.[150] The helmets of the Knights depicted in some of the murals have been said to be characteristic pear-shaped segmented helmets of the Turkic type.[151][152]

A famous mural of the Mourning of the Buddha at his Cremation appears in Maya Cave (224), from the rear passage of the cave, with various figures in ethnic costumes.[153] Three of the men among the mourners cut their forehead skin or chest with their knives, a practice of self-mutilation practiced by the Scythians.[153] One of the mourners if is thought to be a Turk.[154][155]

Māyā Cave (Second complex, Cave 205, end 6th century CE)[edit]

Māyā Cave (Cave 205)
Prince Tottika of Kucha with his wife Svayamprabhā, accompanied by two monks, Maya Cave 205, Kizil.
King Anandavarman and attendants.[159][160]
Reconstitution by Albert Grünwedel
The inscription in Sanskrit mentioning Anandavarman

Maya Cave of "II Anlage" (Cave 205) has been carbon-dated to the 6th-7th century CE.[61] The cave has an inscriptions in Sanskrit mentioning the King of Kucha Anantavarma. He is shown is shown accompanied by two armed attendants.[161]

"When Anantavarma, the great king (maharaja?) of Kucha, saw the letter of Ilmonis, the dedication and the little container of musk, he had honor done to the Buddha."

— Albert Grünwedel translation.[161]

A Prince appears with his wife in the adjacent frescoes, mentioned in a nearby inscription as the future king Tottika and his princess Swayamprabha.[162]

This cave has been rather precisely dated to the end of the 6th century CE, based on the names of the rulers found in the inscriptions, particularly King Tottika and his wife Svayamprabha (a Sanskrit name), who also appear together with Suvarnapushpa (known to have ruled 600-625 CE) and his son Suvarnadeva in the inscriptions on the walls of the Red-dome Cave.[163] The epigraphy also suggest dates later than the Cave of the Painters, with its more ancient inscription about the "painter Tutuka".[164]

Red-dome Cave 67: more royal dedications[edit]

Another nearby cave, the Red-domed Cave A (Cave 67) also has inscriptions mentioning a list of donors including a queen and six kings, among them Suvarnapuspa (ruled 600-625 CE) and his son Suvarnadeva (ruled 625-648 CE).[165][166][167] Also included in the inscriptions are the names of King Tottika and his wife Svayamprabha (a Sanskrit name), who also appear in the Maya Cave of the Second Group (Cave 205), suggesting proximity in time of these two caves.[168] The epigraphy also suggest dates later than the Cave of the Painters, with its more ancient inscription about the "painter Tutuka".[169]

Cave 69: portrait and dedication of the king of Kucha (securely dated to 600-647 CE)[edit]

King Suvarnapushpa of Kucha (historically known, ruled 600-625 CE), Cave 69, Kizil.

This period has the only known secure dating in the Kizil Caves: Cave 69 has a painting of a royal Kuchean couple with an inscription in the halo of the King: "Temple Constructed for the Benefit of Suvarnapushpa by His Son", Suvarnapuspa having ruled between 600 and 625, and his three sons died before 647 CE according to Chinese sources.[170][171][172]

When he visited Kucha in 630 CE, the Chinese monk Xuanzang received the favours of Suvarnadeva, the son and successor of Suvarna-puspa, and Hinayana king of Kucha.[173]

Xuanzang described in many details the characteristics of Kucha (屈支国, in "大唐西域记" "Tang Dynasty Account of the Western Regions"), and probably visited Kizil:[174][175]
1) "The style of writing is Indian, with some differences"
2) "They clothe themselves with ornamental garments of silk and embroidery. They cut their hair and wear a flowing covering (over their heads)"
3) "The king is of Kuchean ("屈支") race"[176]
4) "There are about one hundred convents (saṅghārāmas) in this country, with five thousand and more disciples. These belong to the Little Vehicle of the school of the Sarvāstivādas (Shwo-yih-tsai-yu-po). Their doctrine (teaching of Sūtras) and their rules of discipline (principles of the Vinaya) are like those of India, and those who read them use the same (originals)."
5) "About 40 li to the north of this desert city there are two convents close together on the slope of a mountain".[69]

These events were soon before the Tang campaign against Kucha in 648 CE.[173]

Other paintings of the third period[edit]

4th period (8th-9th century CE): Tang Dynasty Style[edit]

An apsara playing pipa. Tang Dynasty.

A 4th period, also described as "The third style" receives strong influence from Chinese painting, a result of the artistic activity and expansion of the Tang dynasty.[178] The civilization of Kucha, with the whole Tarim Basin from Turfan to Khotan, fell to the Chinese punitive invasion of 648 CE, putting an end to the Indian and Iranian styles of Kucha.[179] Two caves at Kizil have art of the Tang period: cave 43 and cave 229.[180] In nearby Kumtura and in Turfan, Chinese styles now prevailed.[179]

In 670 CE, the Tibetan Empire conquered most of the Tarim Basin, including Khotan, Kucha, Karashahr and Kashgar, which they kept until the Chinese took back the control of the area in 692.[181]

In 753 CE, the northern part of the Tarim Basin was taken over by the Turks of the Uyghur Khaganate, based in Turfan.[181][182] A new Tibetan conquest took place in 790 CE.[181] By 900 CE, the area was under Muslim domination.[181]

Texts and inscriptions[edit]

Love poem[edit]

Most of the texts known from the Tocharians are religious, except for one known love poem in Tocharian B, found in Kizil and dated circa 600 CE (manuscript B-496):[183]

Tocharian B manuscript B-496
Translation
(English)
Transliteration Inscription
(Tocharian script)

I.
... for a thousand years however, Thou wilt tell the story Thy (...) I announce,
Heretofore there was no human being dearer to me than thee; likewise hereafter there will be no one dearer to me than thee.
Love for thee, affection for thee—breath of all that is life—and they shall not come to an end so long as there lasts life.
III.
Thus did I always think: "I will live well, the whole of my life, with one lover: no force, no deceit."
The god Karma alone knew this thought of mine; so he provoked quarrel; he ripped out my heart from thee;
He led thee afar; tore me apart; made me partake in all sorrows and took away the consolation thou wast.

... mi life, spirit, and heart day-by-day...[184][185][186][187]

II.

(...) Yaltse pikwala (...) watäṃ weṃt no

Mā ñi cisa noṣ śomo ñem wnolme lāre tāka mā ra postaṃ cisa lāre mäsketär-ñ.

Ciṣṣe laraumñe ciṣṣe ārtañye pelke kalttarr śolämpa ṣṣe mā te stālle śol-wärñai.

III.

Taiysu pälskanoym sanai ṣaryompa śāyau karttse-śaulu-wärñai snai tserekwa snai nāte.

Yāmor-ñīkte ṣe cau ñi palskāne śarsa tusa ysaly ersate ciṣy araś ñi sälkāte,

Wāya ci lauke tsyāra ñiś wetke klyautka-ñ pāke po läklentas ciṣe tsārwo, sampāte.

(...) Śaul palsk araśñi, kom kom[184][185]

Tocharian B Love Poem, manuscript B496 (one of two fragments).

"Kyzil library"[edit]

The Kyzil library had some of "the oldest copies of the Indian theatre known today" written in Sanskrit or in Tokharian B: these Indian plays, called Nāṭaka in Sanskrit literature, alternate prose and verse, music and pantomime, and also provide scenic indications so that a single performer can enact a complete play by changing attitudes and voices. These plays are at the origin of the "chantefables" or Chinese "transformation texts" called Bianwen.[188]

13th century Tibetan document about Kizil[edit]

Tibetan map of the Kizil Caves (13th entury CE)

Albert Grünwedel, one of the German discovers of the Kizil Caves, found in Saint-Peterburg a 13th century Tibetan text related to Kucha and the Kizil Caves, including a map, which describes the caves from the perspective of Tantric Buddhism.[189] According to the Tibetan text, the paintings in some of the caves were commissioned by a Tokharian (Thogar) king called "Mendre" (probably Māndhātṛ) with the advice of Anandavarman, a high-ranking monk. The king ordered an Indian artist, Naravahanadatta, and a Syrian artist, Priyaratna, with their disciples to paint the caves.[1] The neighbouring Khotanese kings Vijayavardhana and Murlimin also assisted with the painting of another cave by sending artists to the site.

The king of Thogar, called Mendre, or "the Persian" (Po-lo-si), or Anandavarma, had images painted in these caves for the followers of Buddha, by the artist and painter Mitradatta, also by Naravahanadatta, who came from a place of worship (Kultort) of the Niganthas, finally by Priyaratna who came from Syria also with their apprentices (Werkschüler). Mendre, the king, received an image of Amitabha from the emperor of China, and went into the land of blessedness (Sukhavati). A son of the emperor of China came to the castle of Mir-li, killed, according to an oath that he had made, all Jaina-Niganthas and all followers of Kalachakra and restored all the caves for the worship of Buddha (Buddha-Kultus).

— Albert Grünwedel translation of the Tibetan text.[190]

The Japanese Buddhist scholar Teramoto Enga gave a rather different translation:

The Statue of Kumārajīva in front of the Kizil Caves in Kuqa County, Xinjiang, China.

King Mendre, or the King of Persia (Polosi) or Anandavarma the kings of Tukhara (覩货罗, Tokharistan)[191] had images painted in these caves for all the followers of the Buddha, by the artist and painter Mitradatta, also by Naravahanadatta, who came from a place of worship of the Niganthas, finally by Priyaratna who came from Syria (Rumakama, "Roman Empire") also with their apprentices. King Mendre and the King of Tukhara received the relics of Amitabha and went into the land of blessedness (Sukhavati). The son of the King of Tukhara called Dahuangfa (大黄发王) came to the city of Mir-li, preached the Kalachakra to all the Jaina-Niganthas and restored all the caves for the worship of Buddha.

— Teramoto Enga translation of the Tibetan text (fragment).[192]

According to a recent translation by Sam van Schaik, the text should be:

Among the Buddhists there was a Tocharian (Tho-gar) king called Men-dre, or Polosi, or Ānandavarmā. He had the caves painted by restorers and painters: Mitradatta; Naravāhanadatta from the lands of the "naked ones" (Niganthas); Priyaratna from Romakam (Byzantine Empire); and other experts in restoration. The king of the Rgya-ser and King Men-dre's bodies were taken by Amitābha and he went to the land of bliss. When the son of the great king of Rgya-ser came to the fort of Mir-li, thanks to the power of prayer, all the "naked ones" (Niganthas) were killed by the followers of Kālacakra, and all of the Buddhist caves were restored.

— Translation by Sam van Schaik.[71]

According to Sam van Schaik, "Mendre" could be the Indo-Greek king Menander, or the mythical king Manadhatṛ of Buddhist sources;[193] "Polosi" could be a Chinese abbreviation for king Prasenajit; "Romakam" may be the Byzantine Empire; the "naked ones" would be the Niganthas.[71]

In Tibetan, the country named "Tho-gar" "Thod-kar" corresponds to Tokharistan (ancient Bactria).[194][195][196]

Influences[edit]

Mogao Cave 288, Devatas at the Balcony, Western Wei period

The Kizil Caves are "the earliest representative grottoes in China".[197] The art of the Kizil Caves is thought to have influenced cave art at Dunhuang, in the Mogao Caves, as early as during the Northern Liang dynasty (421-439 CE), and pictorial arts in China thereafter.[198]

According to historian Daniel C. Waugh:

Given the importance of the Kucha region in the transmission of Buddhism into China and the evidence we have about the movement of translators such as Kumarajiva, it is reasonable to suggest that the art (and possibly the artists) of Kizil influenced the early art of the Mogao Cave complex near Dunhuang, further east along the Silk Road. The earliest of the extant Dunhuang caves (dating from the beginning of the fifth century) show distinctly "Central Asian" features in their painting, stylistically similar to what we find at Kizil. Among the subjects depicted at Kizil and Mogao in strikingly similar fashion is that of the "Cosmological Buddha", whose robe displays images connected with the phenomenal world.[69]

Decay, vandalism, dismantlement, and tourism[edit]

20th century vandalism: the murals of the left wall of the Cave of the Painters (Cave 207) were photographed and left in place by the German explorer Albert Grünwedel in 1912 (black and white photograph), but have since been vandalized in-situ and are now almost completely destroyed as of 2019 (color photograph), with only disfigured portions remaining. This vandalism occured during the last century.

Since their construction and decoration between the 4th and 8th centuries CE, the Kizil Caves have suffered numerous periods of religious vandalism and decay.[199]

Of course, Western archaeologists orchestrated the massive sampling on the best remaining works of art in the early 20th century.[199] Aside from their colonial outlook, one of their alleged motivations was to protect these works of arts from vandalism due to Islamic iconoclasm and the depredations of treasure hunters.[200] Most of the dismantled panels were sent to the Museum für Indische Kunst, Berlin, Germany, but ironically and tragically many were lost in the destructions of World War II, with only photographs or drawings remaining in the best cases.[56][201] A significant number of the murals were also captured by the Soviets in Berlin, and turned up recently in the Hermitage Museum.[202][203][124][125]

In more recent times, the Red Guards also contributed to the destruction of the site, and last but not least, the transformation of the site for touristic purposes since 2005 has led to the disfigurement of many caves and the irretrievable loss of archaeological knowledge.[199] Today, none of the caves can be said to have remained entirely intact, although many remain quite impressive.[204][200]

Caves 1-17 in 1912 and in 2015, with major modifications for protection and touristic accessibility.

Major Kizil caves[edit]

The caves were first named in German by Albert Grünwedel based on various individual characteristics. Many of these names have remained in English. More recently, a numbering system was adopted by the Chinese, roughly based on the geographical position of the caves from West to East.

Chinese
number/name
German name English name Stylistic period
(Rhie, 2019)[205]
C14 date
(Su Bai, 1983)
C14 date
(Huo and Wang, 1993)
Image Plan/ View
"Group West of the Valley" (谷西 Guxi, Caves 1-80)
新 1
(克孜尔石窟新1窟)
New cave 1
Kizil New Cave 1.jpg
2
(克孜尔石窟第2窟)
Höhlengruppe mit der Kamin C, D, E[206] Cave Group with the Chimney C, D, E
Kizil, Group with the Chimney.jpg
3 Höhlengruppe mit der Kamin B[207] Cave Group with the Chimney B
4 Höhlengruppe mit der Kamin A[208] Cave Group with the Chimney A 570 CE +-65[61]
Kizil, Group with the Chimney, Cave A.jpg
7 Höhle mit dem Freskoboden Cave with the Fresco floor
Cave with the Fresco floor (motifs).
Cave with the Fresco floor (Plan).jpg
8
十六带剑者窟
Höhle der sechzehn Schwertträgger[209] Cave of the Sixteen Swordbearers 432–538 CE[210][211] 640 CE +38-50[61]
Kizil 16, sword-bearers.jpg
Cave of the 16 Sword Bearers (plan).jpg
13 Cave 13
Kizil Sibi Jataka Cave 13
14 Cave 14[212] Mid to late 4th century.[213] 395 CE +-65 to 465 CE +-65.[80]
Dragon-King Mabi saving traders, Kizil cave 14.jpg
Kizil Group 14-19.jpg
17 Höhle mit dem Bodhisattvagewölbe[214]
Also: Höhle mit dem Bodhisattva-Plafond
Cave of the Bodhisattva Vault 395 CE +-65 to 465 CE +-65.[80] 465 CE +-65[61]
Tocharian Royal family, Cave 17
Kizil, Cave 17 (plan)
27 Nischenhöhle[215] Cave of the Niche
Cave of the Niche (inside view)
Cave of the Niche, Kizil (plan)
30 Cave 30
Kizil, cave 30.jpg
34 Höhle mit dem meditierenden sonnengott Cave with meditating Sun God[216] Circa 400 CE.[217]
Collapsed central pillar cave at Kizil.jpg
36, 37 Das Sogenannte Kloster[218] The So-called Cloister Cave 395 CE +-65 to 465 CE +-65.[80]
Caves 36, 37, Kizil
Cloister Cave, Kizil
38 Höhle mit dem Musikerchor[219] Cave of the Musicians Mid 4th century CE. Possibly the earliest "central pillar" cave.[220] 310 CE +-80[28][46][221] mid 4th-end 5th century.[61]
Self-immolation of a Bodhisattva, Cave of the Musicians, Kizil Caves, circa 600-650 CE.jpg
Cave of the Musicians, Kizil.jpg
39 Cave 39, a square cave 395 CE +-65 to 465 CE +-65.[80]
40 Cave 40, a vihara cave, without decoration
? Bibliotek Library
47 Kultstatten Colossal Image Cave[222] 310 CE +-80 to 350 CE +-60.[80] 350 CE +/-60.[61]
Caves 46, 47, 48, Kizil Caves
48 [223] 350-400 CE 350 CE +/-60.[61]
58 Höhle der Behlemten Cave of the Helmetted Man
60 Grösste Höhle Largest Cave and Cave above the Largest Cave 422-529 CE[69]
Sasanian-style medallions in Cave 60, Kizil Caves.jpg
Cave 60, Kizil
63 Kāśiapa Höhle[224] Kāśiapa Cave
Kasyapa cave, Kizil
66 Rotkuppelhöhle B[225] Red-domed Cave B
Kizil, Red Dome Cave.jpg
67 Rotkuppelhöhle A[226] Red-domed Cave A Inscriptions mentioning a list of donors including a queen and six kings including Suvarnapuspa (ruled 600-625 CE) and his son Suvarnadeva.[227]
Kizil, Red Dome Cave paintings.jpg
69 Cave 69 Mural of King Suvarnapusa and his Queen, with inscription "Temple Constructed for the Benefit of Suvarnapousa by His Son", datable to 600-647 CE since the king is known and dated by Chinese sources.[228]
King Suvarnapusa and his Queen in Cave 69 (dated 600-647 CE per Chinese sources)
76 Pfauenhöhle[229] Peacock Cave Circa 400 CE.[230] mid 4th-end 5th century CE.[61]
Peacock Cave cella
Peackock Cave plan (Cave 76)
77
塑像群窟
Höhle der Statuen[231] Cave of the Statues[232] 375-400 CE.[233] 395 CE +-65 to 465 CE +-65.[80] 3rd-mid 4th century.[61]
Kizil Bodhisattva (2).jpg
Cave of the Statues, plan.jpg
80 Höllentopfthöhle Hell's Pot Cave 310 CE +-80 to 350 CE +-60.[80]
Cave 80, lunette over the Buddha niche
Hell's Pot Cave (plan).jpg
"Group Inside the Valley" (谷内 Gunei, Caves 81-135)
81 Cave 81 6th-7th century CE.[61]
Kizil horseman Cave 81 (detail).jpg
82 Schatzhöhle D, E Treasure Caves D, E 300-350 CE. An undecorated vihara.[54]
Treasure Caves, Kizil
83 Schatzhöhle C Treasure Cave C 300-350 CE. One of the oldest decorated caves at Kizil.[234] mid 4th-end 5th century CE.[61]
Dance of Chandraprabha, Kizil Caves.jpg
84 Schatzhöhle B Treasure Cave B 300-350 CE. One of the oldest decorated caves at Kizil.[235] mid 4th-end 5th century CE.[61]
Treasure Cave B (Cave 84), 3D.
85 Schatzhöhle A Treasure Cave A 300-350 CE. Ruined.[54]
92 Höhle mit der Äffin Cave of the Female Ape 395 CE +-65 to 465 CE +-65.[80] 3rd-mid 4th century.[61]
Cave of the Female Ape (detail)
Cave of the Female Ape (plan)
110 Treppenhöhle Cave with the Steps 6th-7th century CE.[61]
Central Pillar Cave, mural in the back room (Cave of the Stairs)
Cave of the Stairs
114 Höhle mit dem Gebetmühle[236] Cave with the Prayer Wheel[237] Circa 400 CE.[238] 355 CE (+50/-100)[239]
Dragon-King Mabi saving traders, Kizil cave 114
Cave of the Prayer Wheel (plan)
116 Kleine Höhle neben der übermalten Höhle Small Cave near the Overpainted Cave
Small Cave near the Overpainted Cave (plan)
117 Übermalte Höhle Overpainted Cave 3rd-mid 4th century.[61]
Overpainted Cave (Cave 117), Kizil
118
海马窟
Hippokampen Höhle[240] Cave of the Hippocampi[241] 300-350 CE.[242] 395 CE +-65 to 465 CE +-65.[80] 3rd-mid 4th century CE. One of the oldest decorated caves at Kizil.[61]
Kizil 118.jpg
Cave of the Hippocampi (plan)
123 Höhle mit dem ringtragenden Tauben[243] Cave of the Ring-bearing Doves 431-533 CE 620 CE +60-80[61]
Cave with the Ring-Bearing Doves, Kizil, Cave 123, 431-533 AD, wall paintings, view 1 - Ethnological Museum, Berlin - DSC01804.JPG
Cave 123 at Kizil (plan).jpg
? Höhle mit dem Zebuwagen[244] Cave of the Zebu Cart (now lost)
Cave of the Zebu cart (Zebu cart mural)
Cave of the Zebu cart (plan)
129 Kleine Kuppelhöhle Small Domed Cave
"Group East of the Valley" (谷东 Gudong, Caves 136-201)
165-168 Casetten Höhle 5, 4, 3, 2 Corbelled Ceiling [Laternendecke ceiling] Caves 5, 4, 3, 2
Kizil, corbelled ceiling of Corbelled Cave 3 (Cave 167)
Cave 167, ceiling
171 395 CE +-65 to 465 CE +-65.[80] mid 4th-end 5th century CE.[61]
God and female musician, Kizil Cave 171. Carbon dated to 417-435 CE.jpg
175 Versuchungs Höhle Cave of the Temptation
Kizil 175.jpg
Caves 175-178, Kizil
176 Zweirletzte Höhle Second Cave from the Left
177 Höhle 4 Cave 4
178 Schlucht Höhle Ravine Cave 695 CE +110-95[61]
Cave of the Ravine (Cave 178, trader with camel).jpg
Ravine Cave (Cave 178, plan), Kizil
179 2. Höhle 2 (Japaner Höhle) Cave 2 (Japanese Cave)
181 Hochliegende Höhle Cave of the High Place 545 CE +-75 to 685 CE +-65.[80]
182 Hochliegende Höhle [der 2. Schlucht] Cave of the High Place [in the small valley] 545 CE +-75 to 685 CE +-65.[80]
Cave 182 mural
184 Drittletzte Höhle Third Cave from the Front 6th-7th century CE.[61]
Monks and devotees, Cave 184, Kizil
186 Mittlere Höhle Center Cave (Middle Cave)
Cave 186, Kizil
188 Cave 188
Cave 188, lunette, with Central Asian foreigner at the left
193 Nāgarāja Höhle Nāgarāja Cave
Standing warrior, Cave 193, Kizil.jpg
Nagaraja Cave, Kizil
198 Teufelshöhle mit Annexen C[245] Cave of the Devil with Annex C 6th-7th century CE.[61]
Devotees and Monks, Cave 198, Kizil.
Kizil, Cave of the Devil (plan)
198 side corridor
(not yet numbered)
Teufelshöhle mit Annexen B[246] Cave of the Devil with Annex B
Group of Gods from the corridor between the Devil cave and annex
199 Teufelshöhle mit Annexen A[247] Cave of the Devil with Annex A
Murals with Princes. Kucha.jpg
"Group at the End of the Mountain" (后山 Houshan, Caves 202-231)
205 Höhle mit der Maya, 2. Anlage (Höhle 19)[248] Maya Cave of 2nd Anlage (Cave 205) 6th-7th century CE.[61]
The Monk Ajnatakaundinya, Maya Cave, Site 2, (Cave 205), Kizil, c. 5th-6th century AD, wall painting - Ethnological Museum, Berlin - DSC01697.JPG
Central Pillar Cave at Kizil (Maya Cave, Cave 205).jpg
206 Höhle mit der Fusswaschung (Höhle 18)[249] Foot-washing Cave (Cave 18) 640 CE +55-45[61]
Buddha Sermon, Kizil, Foot-Washing Cave (Cave 206), 343-411 AD, wall painting- Ethnological Museum, Berlin - DSC01717.JPG
Foot-washing Cave (plan)
207
画家窟
Höhle der Maler (Höhle 17)[250] Cave of the Painters (Cave 17) 480–550 CE.[32][251] 630 CE +65-75[61]
Kizil Caves painters, circa 500 CE.jpg
Kizil, Cave of the Painters, plan.jpg
212 Höhle der Seereise (Höhle 11) Cave of the Seafarers (Cave 11) Early 5th century CE.[252] 561-637 CE 6th-7th century CE.[61]
Monk and skull, Cave 212, Kizil
Seafarers Cave, Kizil
219 Ajātaśatru-Höhle (Höhle 1) Ajātaśatru Cave (Cave 1)
Kizil, Ajatasatru Cave mural
Kizil, Ajatasatru Cave plan
222 Schakalsöhle (Höhle 7) Cave of the Jackals (Cave 7)
223 Höhle 6[253][254] Cave 6[255]
224 Höhle mit der Maya, 3. Anlage (Höhle 5)[256] Maya Cave of 3rd Anlage (Cave 224) 440 CE +95-60.[61]
Maya Cave, section3, Kizil Caves.jpg
Kizil, Maya Cave 224, plan
225 Höhle 4 Cave 4
227 Pretahöhle (Höhle 3) Preta Cave (Cave 3)
Kizil, Preta Cave, mural over the niche of the Buddha
Preta Cave plan
"Group East of the Valley (2nd part)" (谷东 Gudong, Caves 232-235)
Source: Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 649. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Manko Namba Walter (October 1998). "Tokharian Buddhism in Kucha: Buddhism of Indo-European Centum Speakers in Chinese Turkestan before the 10th Century C.E" (PDF). Sino-Platonic Papers (85).
  2. ^ "Kezil Thousand-Buddha Grottoes". xinjiang.gov. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2007-08-05.
  3. ^ a b "Kizil Thousand-Buddha Cave". Retrieved 2007-08-05.
  4. ^ Rowland, Benjamin (1975). The art of Central Asia. New York, Crown. p. 154.
  5. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 645. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  6. ^ (Other than Kizil)... "The nearby site of Kumtura contains over a hundred caves, forty of which contain painted murals or inscriptions. Other cave sites near Kucha include Subashi, Kizilgaha, and Simsim." in Buswell, Robert E.; Lopez, Donald S. (24 November 2013). The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton University Press. p. 438. ISBN 978-1-4008-4805-8.
  7. ^ Vignato, Giuseppe (2006). "Archaeological Survey of Kizil: Its Groups of Caves, Districts, Chronology and Buddhist Schools". East and West. 56 (4): 359–416. ISSN 0012-8376. JSTOR 29757697.
  8. ^ Li, Zuixiong (2010). "Deterioration and Treatment of Wall Paintings in Grottoes along the Silk Road in China and Related Conservation Efforts" in Conservation of Ancient Sites on the Silk Road (PDF). Los Angeles: The Getty Conservation Institute. p. 49.
  9. ^ a b Vignato, Giuseppe (2006). "Archaeological Survey of Kizil: Its Groups of Caves, Districts, Chronology and Buddhist Schools". East and West. 56 (4): 411. ISSN 0012-8376. JSTOR 29757697.
  10. ^ "Caves as Canvas: Hidden Images of Worship Along the Ancient Silk Road". Sackler Gallery. Smithsonian Institution.
  11. ^ a b Daniel C. Waugh. "Kucha and the Kizil Caves". Silk Road Seattle. University of Washington.
  12. ^ a b c Makiko Onishi, Asanobu Kitamoto. "The Transmission of Buddhist Culture: The Kizil Grottoes and the Great Translator Kumārajīva".
  13. ^ a b Vignato, Giuseppe (2006). "Archaeological Survey of Kizil: Its Groups of Caves, Districts, Chronology and Buddhist Schools". East and West. 56 (4): 359–416. ISSN 0012-8376. JSTOR 29757697.
  14. ^ Howard, Angela F. (1991). "In Support of a New Chronology for the Kizil Mural Paintings". Archives of Asian Art. 44: 68–83. ISSN 0066-6637. JSTOR 20111218.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. pp. 658 ff. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  16. ^ "Caves as Canvas: Hidden Images of Worship Along the Ancient Silk Road - Architecture, Decoration, and Function". Sackler Gallery. Smithsonian Institution.
  17. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 707. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  18. ^ a b c Zin, Monika (2013). "Buddhist Narrative Depictions in Andhra, Gandhara and Kucha - Similarities and Differences that Favour a Theory about a Lost a Gandharan School of Painting" in "Buddhism and Art in Gandhara and Kucha" (PDF). Ryokoku University.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Howard, Angela F. (1991). "In Support of a New Chronology for the Kizil Mural Paintings". Archives of Asian Art. 44: 68–69. ISSN 0066-6637. JSTOR 20111218.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. pp. 645 ff. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  21. ^ a b c d Casalini, Alice (2015). Towards a new approach to the study of the Buddhist rock monasteries of Kuča (Xinjiang) (PDF). p. 69.
  22. ^ Vignato, Giuseppe (2006). "Archaeological Survey of Kizil: Its Groups of Caves, Districts, Chronology and Buddhist Schools". East and West. 56 (4): 406–407. ISSN 0012-8376. JSTOR 29757697.
  23. ^ Vignato, Giuseppe (2006). "Archaeological Survey of Kizil: Its Groups of Caves, Districts, Chronology and Buddhist Schools". East and West. 56 (4): 406, note 76. ISSN 0012-8376. JSTOR 29757697.
  24. ^ Vignato, Giuseppe (2006). "Archaeological Survey of Kizil: Its Groups of Caves, Districts, Chronology and Buddhist Schools". East and West. 56 (4): 407, note 76. ISSN 0012-8376. JSTOR 29757697.
  25. ^ Ghose, Rajeshwari (2008). Kizil on the Silk Road: Crossroads of Commerce & Meeting of Minds. Marg Publications. p. 39. ISBN 978-81-85026-85-5.
  26. ^ "Caves as Canvas: Hidden Images of Worship Along the Ancient Silk Road - The Rediscovery of Qizil". Smithsonian Institution.
  27. ^ Kizil Thousand-Buddha Caves: Valuable Record of Buddhism Culture in Xinjiang Archived 2012-07-28 at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h Kubik, Adam (2008). "The Kizil Caves as an terminus post quem of the Central and Western Asiatic pear-shape spangenhelm type helmets The David Collection helmet and its place in the evolution of multisegmented dome helmets, Historia i Świat nr 7/2018, 141-156". Histїria I Swiat. 7: 143-144.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Hertel, Herbert. Along the Ancient Silk Routes: Central Asian Art from the West Berlin State Museums. pp. 48–49.
  30. ^ Ilyasov, Jangar (2001). "The Hephthalite Terracotta // Silk Road Art and Archaeology. Vol. 7. Kamakura, 2001, 187–200". Silk Road Art and Archaeology: 187–197.
  31. ^ "CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS xiv. E. Iranian Art – Encyclopaedia Iranica". www.iranicaonline.org.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h Kageyama, Etsuko (2016). "Change of suspension systems of daggers and swords in eastern Eurasia: Its relation to the Hephthalite occupation of Central Asia" (PDF). ZINBUN. 46: 200-202.
  33. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 649. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  34. ^ Vignato, Giuseppe (2006). "Archaeological Survey of Kizil: Its Groups of Caves, Districts, Chronology and Buddhist Schools". East and West. 56 (4): 395–396. ISSN 0012-8376. JSTOR 29757697.
  35. ^ Härtel, Herbert; Yaldiz, Marianne; Kunst (Germany), Museum für Indische; N.Y.), Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York (1982). Along the Ancient Silk Routes: Central Asian Art from the West Berlin State Museums : an Exhibition Lent by the Museum Für Indische Kunst, Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany. Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-87099-300-8.
  36. ^ Le Coq, Albert von. Die Buddhistische Spätantike in Mittelasien : vol.5. p. 10.
  37. ^ "A dictionary of Tocharian B". www.win.tue.nl.
  38. ^ In Ashokan Brahmi: 𑀲𑁂𑀧𑀜𑀓𑁆𑀢𑁂 𑀲𑀡𑁆𑀓𑁂𑀢𑀯𑀝𑁆𑀲𑁂 𑀱𑀭𑁆𑀲 𑀧𑀧𑁃𑀬𑁆𑀓𑁅
  39. ^ Härtel, Herbert; Yaldiz, Marianne; Kunst (Germany), Museum für Indische; N.Y.), Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York (1982). Along the Ancient Silk Routes: Central Asian Art from the West Berlin State Museums : an Exhibition Lent by the Museum Für Indische Kunst, Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany. Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-87099-300-8.
  40. ^ Waugh (Historian, University of Washington), Daniel C. "MIA Berlin: Turfan Collection: Kizil". depts.washington.edu.
  41. ^ Li, Zuixiong (2010). "Deterioration and Treatment of Wall Paintings in Grottoes along the Silk Road in China and Related Conservation Efforts" in Conservation of Ancient Sites on the Silk Road (PDF). Los Angeles: The Getty Conservation Institute. p. 49.
  42. ^ a b c d Baumer, Christoph (18 April 2018). History of Central Asia, The: 4-volume set. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 158 ff. ISBN 978-1-83860-868-2.
  43. ^ Beckwith 2009, p. xix ff.
  44. ^ Grousset, René (1970). The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-1304-1.
  45. ^ a b Grousset, René (1970). The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia. Rutgers University Press. pp. 49 ff. ISBN 978-0-8135-1304-1.
  46. ^ a b c d e Howard, Angela F. (1991). "In Support of a New Chronology for the Kizil Mural Paintings". Archives of Asian Art. 44: 72. ISSN 0066-6637. JSTOR 20111218.
  47. ^ a b c d Baumer, Christoph (18 April 2018). History of Central Asia, The: 4-volume set. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 165. ISBN 978-1-83860-868-2.
  48. ^ "It was to the Bamian frescoes that the early style of the frescoes of Kizil -somewhat west of Kucha- was related" in Grousset, René (1970). The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia. Rutgers University Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-8135-1304-1.
  49. ^ Kageyama quoting the research of S. Hiyama, “Study on the first-style murals of Kucha: analysis of some motifs related to the Hephthalite's period”, in Kageyama, Etsuko (2016). "Change of suspension systems of daggers and swords in eastern Eurasia: Its relation to the Hephthalite occupation of Central Asia" (PDF). ZINBUN. 46: 200.
  50. ^ Härtel, Herbert; Yaldiz, Marianne; Kunst (Germany), Museum für Indische; N.Y.), Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York (1982). Along the Ancient Silk Routes: Central Asian Art from the West Berlin State Museums : an Exhibition Lent by the Museum Für Indische Kunst, Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany. Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-87099-300-8.
  51. ^ Härtel, Herbert; Yaldiz, Marianne; Kunst (Germany), Museum für Indische; N.Y.), Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York (1982). Along the Ancient Silk Routes: Central Asian Art from the West Berlin State Museums : an Exhibition Lent by the Museum Für Indische Kunst, Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany. Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-87099-300-8.
  52. ^ a b c d e f g h i Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. pp. 651 ff. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  53. ^ Puri, Baij Nath (1987). Buddhism in Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 80. ISBN 978-81-208-0372-5.
  54. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. pp. 651 ff. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  55. ^ a b Grünwedel, Albert. Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1 / Page 108 (Color Image). pp. 102 ff.
  56. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1 / Page 93 (Color Image). pp. 87 ff.
  57. ^ Reconstitution in Grünwedel, Albert (1920). Alt-Kutscha. pp. 251 ff., also black and white 1912 photograph.
  58. ^ Zin, Monika. "INDO-ASIATISCHE ZEITSCHRIFT - PDF Kostenfreier Download". docplayer.org: 23.
  59. ^ Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1. p. 87.
  60. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 683. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  61. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 646-647. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  62. ^ a b c Rowland, Benjamin (1975). The art of Central Asia. New York, Crown. p. 156.
  63. ^ a b Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. pp. 678 ff. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  64. ^ Reconstitution in Grünwedel, Albert (1920). Alt-Kutscha. pp. 251 ff.
  65. ^ a b Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. pp. 679 ff. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  66. ^ a b c d Grünwedel, Albert (1920). Alt-Kutscha. pp. II 10 - II 13.
  67. ^ Reconstitution in Grünwedel, Albert (1920). Alt-Kutscha. pp. 251 ff., also black and white 1912 photograph.
  68. ^ a b c Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. pp. 681 ff. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  69. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Waugh, Daniel (Historian, University of Washington). "Kizil". depts.washington.edu. Washington University. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  70. ^ Zin, Monika. "Sanskrit literature and the Indian pictorial tradition in the paintings of Kucha" (PDF): 288. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  71. ^ a b c Schaik, Sam van (2020). "Fakes, Delusions, or the Real Thing? Albert Grünwedel's Maps of Shambhala". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 140 (2): 278–280. doi:10.7817/jameroriesoci.140.2.0273. ISSN 0003-0279. JSTOR 10.7817/jameroriesoci.140.2.0273.
  72. ^ CHANG, YUAN ZANG. THE EVOLUTION OF EARLY CHINESE BUDDHA FIGURES (PDF). p. 70, Note 70 referencing Li Ruizhe, Cave Temple in Kucha (《龟兹石窟寺》), China Social Sciences Press, December 2015, p. 11.
  73. ^ "scribbled on the right side: "after this painting was done, the one who came from Rumakama (Syria), the painter Manibhadra, did these circles below" in "South Asian Archaeology 1985: Papers from the Eighth International Conference of South Asian Archaeologists in Western Europe, Held at Moesgaard Museum, Denmark, 1-5 July 1985". Curzon Press. 1989: 382. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  74. ^ Grunwedel, Albert. Alt-Kutscha : vol.1. p. II.31.
  75. ^ Schaik, Sam van (2020). "Fakes, Delusions, or the Real Thing? Albert Grünwedel's Maps of Shambhala". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 140 (2): 279. doi:10.7817/jameroriesoci.140.2.0273. ISSN 0003-0279. JSTOR 10.7817/jameroriesoci.140.2.0273.
  76. ^ "俄立艾爾米塔什博物館藏克孜爾石窟壁畫". www.sohu.com.
  77. ^ a b c Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 671, note 166. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  78. ^ a b c Hertel, Herbert. Along the Ancient Silk Routes: Central Asian Art from the West Berlin State Museums. pp. 70–72.
  79. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 678. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  80. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 645. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  81. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 677. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  82. ^ Die Buddhistische Spätantike in Mittelasien : vol.1 / Page 29 (Color Image). p. 25.
  83. ^ a b "In the corner of the outside between the first statue and doorway, you can see the picture of a painter without a head, who is holding a bowl of paint. He wears a costume that exactly matches that of the painter pictures in the "Cave of the Painters"." in Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1 / Page 99 (Color Image). p. 93.
  84. ^ References BDce-695, MIK III 9044 "俄立艾爾米塔什博物館藏克孜爾石窟壁畫". www.sohu.com.
  85. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 673. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  86. ^ "These sermon images are of pure Gandhara style. In their design and in their details they are closely related to the pictures to be treated below in Hohle der Maler; indeed, they seem to have been executed by the same hand." Grunwedel, Albert. Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1 / Page 98 (Color Image). pp. 92–93.
  87. ^ Die Buddhistische Spätantike in Mittelasien : vol.1 / Page 29 (Color Image). p. 25.
  88. ^ a b "A scene with the Buddha is crowned with a frieze of perspective dentils, scrolls, and a classical leaf-fascia which might easily have graced a Roman wall" in Boardman, John (1994). The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity. Princeton University Press. p. 150-151. ISBN 978-0-691-03680-9.
  89. ^ Rowland, Benjamin (1975). The art of Central Asia. New York, Crown. p. 154.
  90. ^ For photographs of the destructions see: "西方探险队揭取了哪些克孜尔壁画——海外克孜尔壁画现状调查_古代艺术_澎湃新闻-The Paper". www.thepaper.cn.
  91. ^ Photographs of the current state of the cave in "丁和|《德藏新疆壁画》系列赏析(三十):画家窟——克孜尔第207号窟". www.360doc.com.
  92. ^ Howard, Angela; Vignato, Giuseppe (14 November 2014). Archaeological and Visual Sources of Meditation in the Ancient Monasteries of Kuča. BRILL. p. 119, note 35. ISBN 978-90-04-27939-1.
  93. ^ a b c d e Hertel, Herbert (1982). Along the Ancient Silk Routes: Central Asian Art from the West Berlin State Museums. pp. 72–74.
  94. ^ Härtel, Herbert; Yaldiz, Marianne; Kunst (Germany), Museum für Indische; N.Y.), Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York (1982). Along the Ancient Silk Routes: Central Asian Art from the West Berlin State Museums : an Exhibition Lent by the Museum Für Indische Kunst, Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany. Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-87099-300-8.
  95. ^ Turner, R. L. (1999). A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages. Motilal Banarsidass Publishe. p. 261, entry for "Citrakara", Sanskrit and Hindu word चित्रकला. ISBN 978-81-208-1665-7.
  96. ^ The Tocharian equivalent would be of the form te Puñakāme paiyka "Puñakāme painted this" in "A dictionary of Tocharian B, "pik-" entry". www.win.tue.nl.
  97. ^ Schopen, Gregory (31 July 2014). Buddhist Nuns, Monks, and Other Worldly Matters: Recent Papers on Monastic Buddhism in India. University of Hawaii Press. p. 264. ISBN 978-0-8248-7392-9.
  98. ^ Kramrisch, Stella (30 April 1994). Exploring India's Sacred Art. Motilal Banarsidass Publishe. p. 140. ISBN 978-81-208-1208-6.
  99. ^ a b Kurbanov, Aydogdy (2014). "THE HEPHTHALITES: ICONOGRAPHICAL MATERIALS" (PDF). Tyragetia. 8: 329.
  100. ^ Kageyama quoting the research of S. Hiyama, “Study on the first-style murals of Kucha: analysis of some motifs related to the Hephthalite's period”, in Kageyama, Etsuko (2016). "Change of suspension systems of daggers and swords in eastern Eurasia: Its relation to the Hephthalite occupation of Central Asia" (PDF). ZINBUN. 46: 200.
  101. ^ About the painting in the Cave of the Statues: "These sermon images are of pure Gandhara style. In their design and in their details they are closely related to the pictures to be treated below in Hohle der Maler; indeed, they seem to have been executed by the same hand." Grunwedel, Albert. Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1 / Page 98 (Color Image). pp. 92–93.
  102. ^ Grousset, René (1970). The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia. Rutgers University Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-8135-1304-1.
  103. ^ a b c d e f g h Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1 / Page 162 (Color Image). pp. 156 ff.
  104. ^ Hertel, Herbert. Along the Ancient Silk Routes: Central Asian Art from the West Berlin State Museums. pp. 55–56.
  105. ^ Rowland, Benjamin (1970). The Art of Central Asia. p. 104.
  106. ^ Härtel, Herbert; Yaldiz, Marianne; Kunst (Germany), Museum für Indische; N.Y.), Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York (1982). Along the Ancient Silk Routes: Central Asian Art from the West Berlin State Museums : an Exhibition Lent by the Museum Für Indische Kunst, Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany. Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-87099-300-8.
  107. ^ Turner, R. L. (1999). A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages. Motilal Banarsidass Publishe. p. 261, entry for "Citrakara", Sanskrit and Hindu word चित्रकला. ISBN 978-81-208-1665-7.
  108. ^ The Tocharian equivalent would be of the form te Puñakāme paiyka "Puñakāme painted this" in "A dictionary of Tocharian B, "pik-" entry". www.win.tue.nl.
  109. ^ Schopen, Gregory (31 July 2014). Buddhist Nuns, Monks, and Other Worldly Matters: Recent Papers on Monastic Buddhism in India. University of Hawaii Press. p. 264. ISBN 978-0-8248-7392-9.
  110. ^ Kramrisch, Stella (30 April 1994). Exploring India's Sacred Art. Motilal Banarsidass Publishe. p. 140. ISBN 978-81-208-1208-6.
  111. ^ Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1 / Page 162 (Color Image). p. 156.
  112. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 666. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  113. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 666. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  114. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 666. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  115. ^ Howard, Angela F. (1991). "In Support of a New Chronology for the Kizil Mural Paintings". Archives of Asian Art. 44: 75. ISSN 0066-6637. JSTOR 20111218.
  116. ^ Howard, Angela F. (1991). "In Support of a New Chronology for the Kizil Mural Paintings". Archives of Asian Art. 44: 75. ISSN 0066-6637. JSTOR 20111218.
  117. ^ Morita, Miki (January 2015). "The Kizil Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum". Metropolitan Museum Journal. 50: 114–135. doi:10.1086/685676. ISSN 0077-8958. S2CID 192452454.
  118. ^ Lesbre, Emmanuelle (2001). "An Attempt to Identify and Classify Scenes with a Central Buddha Depicted on Ceilings of the Kyzil Caves (Former Kingdom of Kutcha, Central Asia)" (PDF). Artibus Asiae. 61 (2): 305–352. doi:10.2307/3249912. JSTOR 3249912.
  119. ^ a b Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 683. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  120. ^ a b Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 691. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  121. ^ "鉴赏|龟兹石窟壁画中的善与爱:看燃臂引路、杀生济众等故事_古代艺术_澎湃新闻-The Paper". www.thepaper.cn (新疆龟兹研究院). 2020.
  122. ^ References BDce-888、889, MIK III 8875, now in the Hermitage Museum."俄立艾爾米塔什博物館藏克孜爾石窟壁畫". www.sohu.com (in Chinese).
  123. ^ Image 16 in Yaldiz, Marianne (1987). Archèaologie und Kunstgeschichte Chinesisch-Zentralasiens (Xinjiang) (in German). BRILL. p. xv. ISBN 978-90-04-07877-2.
  124. ^ a b c "The images of donors in Cave 17 are seen in two fragments with numbers MIK 8875 and MIK 8876. One of them with halo may be identified as king of Kucha." in Ghose, Rajeshwari (2008). Kizil on the Silk Road: Crossroads of Commerce & Meeting of Minds. Marg Publications. p. 127, note 22. ISBN 978-81-85026-85-5. "The panel of Tocharian donors and Buddhist monks , which was at the MIK ( MIK 8875 ) disappeared during World War II and was discovered by Yaldiz in 2002 in the Hermitage Museum" page 65,note 30
  125. ^ a b c d e f g Le Coq, Albert von; Waldschmidt, Ernst. Die buddhistische spätantike in Mittelasien, VI. Berlin, D. Reimer [etc.] pp. 68–70.
  126. ^ Grunwedel, Albert. Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1 / Page 65 (Color Image). p. 59.
  127. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 692. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  128. ^ Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1 / Page 65 (Color Image). p. 59.
  129. ^ Original descriptions only say the mural came from "the 5th cave east of the Cave of the Sixteeen Swordbearers" in Le Coq, Albert von; Waldschmidt, Ernst. Die buddhistische spätantike in Mittelasien, VI. Berlin, D. Reimer [etc.] p. 68., which could technically be Cave 13, but now generally thought to be Cave 17
  130. ^ References BDce-888、889, MIK III 8875, now in the Hermitage Museum."俄立艾爾米塔什博物館藏克孜爾石窟壁畫". www.sohu.com (in Chinese).
  131. ^ Encyclopedia of Buddhist Art. Kaohsiung: Fo Guang Shan Board.
  132. ^ Rowland, Benjamin (1975). The art of Central Asia. New York, Crown. p. 155.
  133. ^ Puri, Baij Nath (1987). Buddhism in Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 79. ISBN 978-81-208-0372-5.
  134. ^ Rowland, Benjamin (1975). The art of Central Asia. New York, Crown. p. 151.
  135. ^ "鉴赏|龟兹石窟壁画中的善与爱:看燃臂引路、杀生济众等故事_古代艺术_澎湃新闻-The Paper". www.thepaper.cn (新疆龟兹研究院). 2020.
  136. ^ MUZIO, CIRO LO (2008). "Remarks on the Paintings from the Buddhist Monastery of Fayaz Tepe (Southern Uzbekistan)". Bulletin of the Asia Institute. 22: 202, note 45. ISSN 0890-4464. JSTOR 24049243.
  137. ^ Waugh, Daniel C. (Historian, University of Washington). "MIA Berlin: Turfan Collection: Kizil". depts.washington.edu.
  138. ^ a b c Kurbanov, Aydogdy (2014). "THE HEPHTHALITES: ICONOGRAPHICAL MATERIALS" (PDF). Tyragetia. 8: 324.
  139. ^ MUZIO, CIRO LO (2008). "Remarks on the Paintings from the Buddhist Monastery of Fayaz Tepe (Southern Uzbekistan)". Bulletin of the Asia Institute. 22: 202, note 45. ISSN 0890-4464. JSTOR 24049243.
  140. ^ Waugh, Daniel C. (Historian, University of Washington). "MIA Berlin: Turfan Collection: Kizil". depts.washington.edu.
  141. ^ a b Härtel, Herbert; Yaldiz, Marianne; Kunst (Germany), Museum für Indische; N.Y.), Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York (1982). Along the Ancient Silk Routes: Central Asian Art from the West Berlin State Museums : an Exhibition Lent by the Museum Für Indische Kunst, Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany. Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 168. ISBN 978-0-87099-300-8.
  142. ^ "The suggestion that the Hephthalites were originally of Turkic origin and only later adopted Bactrian as their administrative, and possibly native, language (de la Vaissière 2007: 122) seems to be most prominent at present." in Rezakhani, Khodadad (2017). ReOrienting the Sasanians: East Iran in Late Antiquity. Edinburgh University Press. p. 135. ISBN 9781474400305.
  143. ^ a b c Grünwedel, Albert. Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1 / Page 56 (Color Image). pp. 50–58.
  144. ^ For a recent photograph of the cave :第8窟 in "公众教育". www.sinowh.org.cn. and "丝绸之路上的克孜尔石窟_洞窟". www.sohu.com.
  145. ^ "Dalhem Museum Notice". 12 April 2011.
  146. ^ "Dalhem Museum Notice". 12 April 2011.
  147. ^ Rowland, Benjamin (1975). The art of Central Asia. New York, Crown. p. 167.
  148. ^ Yatsenko, Sergey A. (2009). "Early Turks: Male Costume in the Chinese Art Second half of the 6th – first half of the 8th cc. (Images of 'Others')". Transoxiana. 14: Fig.16.
  149. ^ Grünwedel, Albert (1912). Altbuddhistische Kultstätten Chinesisch Turkistan. p. 180.
  150. ^ Kubik, Adam (2018). "The Kizil Caves as an terminus post quem of the Central and Western Asiatic pear-shape spangenhelm type helmets The David Collection helmet and its place in the evolution of multisegmented dome helmets, Historia i Świat nr 7/2018, 141-156". Historia i Swiat. 7: 145–148.
  151. ^ Kubik, Adam (2018). "The Kizil Caves as an terminus post quem of the Central and Western Asiatic pear-shape spangenhelm type helmets The David Collection helmet and its place in the evolution of multisegmented dome helmets, Historia i Świat nr 7/2018, 141-156". Historia i Swiat. 7: 145–148.
  152. ^ G, Reza Karamian; Farrokh, Kaveh; Syvänne, Ilkka; Kubik, Adam; Czerwieniec-Ivasyk, Marta; Maksymiuk, Katarzyna. Crowns, hats, turbans and helmets The headgear in Iranian history volume I: Pre-Islamic Period Edited by Katarzyna Maksymiuk & Gholamreza Karamian Siedlce-Tehran 2017. pp. 1157–1163, 1247.
  153. ^ a b Le Coq, Albert von; Waldschmidt, Ernst. Die buddhistische spätantike in Mittelasien, VI. Berlin, D. Reimer [etc.] pp. 80–81.
  154. ^ Yatsenko, Sergey A. (2009). "Early Turks: Male Costume in the Chinese Art Second half of the 6th – first half of the 8th cc. (Images of 'Others')". Transoxiana. 14: Fig.16.
  155. ^ Grünwedel, Albert (1912). Altbuddhistische Kultstätten Chinesisch Turkistan. p. 180.
  156. ^ Kubik, Adam (2018). "The Kizil Caves as an terminus post quem of the Central and Western Asiatic pear-shape spangenhelm type helmets The David Collection helmet and its place in the evolution of multisegmented dome helmets, Historia i Świat nr 7/2018, 141-156". Historia i Swiat. 7: 145–148.
  157. ^ Kubik, Adam (2018). "The Kizil Caves as an terminus post quem of the Central and Western Asiatic pear-shape spangenhelm type helmets The David Collection helmet and its place in the evolution of multisegmented dome helmets, Historia i Świat nr 7/2018, 141-156". Historia i Swiat. 7: 145–148.
  158. ^ G, Reza Karamian; Farrokh, Kaveh; Syvänne, Ilkka; Kubik, Adam; Czerwieniec-Ivasyk, Marta; Maksymiuk, Katarzyna. Crowns, hats, turbans and helmets The headgear in Iranian history volume I: Pre-Islamic Period Edited by Katarzyna Maksymiuk & Gholamreza Karamian Siedlce-Tehran 2017. pp. 1157–1163, 1247.
  159. ^ Grünwedel, Albert. Alt-Kutscha. p. 41 (I29).
  160. ^ 国王名为托提卡,王后名斯瓦扬普拉芭 in 霍, 旭初 (2014). 克孜尔石窟艺术模式及其对外影响, in English in Turfan revisited: the first century of research into the arts and cultures of the Silk Road. Berlin: Reimer.
  161. ^ a b Grünwedel translates it "When Anantavarma, the great king of Kucha, saw the letter of Ilmonis, the dedication and the little container of musk, he had honor done to the Buddha." in German in Grünwedel, Albert. Alt-Kutscha archäologische und religionsgeschichtliche Forschungen an Tempera-Gemälden aus buddhistischen Höhlen der ersten acht Jahrhunderte nach Christi Geburt. p. 41.
  162. ^ Lesbre, Emmanuelle (2001). "An Attempt to Identify and Classify Scenes with a Central Buddha Depicted on Ceilings of the Kyzil Caves (Former Kingdom of Kutcha, Central Asia)" (PDF). Artibus Asiae. 61 (2): 308, note 9. doi:10.2307/3249912. ISSN 0004-3648. JSTOR 3249912.
  163. ^ Vignato, Giuseppe (2006). "Archaeological Survey of Kizil: Its Groups of Caves, Districts, Chronology and Buddhist Schools". East and West. 56 (4): 405, note 72. JSTOR 29757697.
  164. ^ Le Coq, Albert von; Waldschmidt, Ernst. Die buddhistische spätantike in Mittelasien, VII. Berlin, D. Reimer [etc.] pp. 28–33.
  165. ^ Lesbre, Emmanuelle (2001). "An Attempt to Identify and Classify Scenes with a Central Buddha Depicted on Ceilings of the Kyzil Caves (Former Kingdom of Kutcha, Central Asia)" (PDF). Artibus Asiae. 61 (2): 308, note 9. doi:10.2307/3249912. JSTOR 3249912.
  166. ^ Karetzky, Patricia Eichenbaum (2000). Early Buddhist Narrative Art: Illustrations of the Life of the Buddha from Central Asia to China, Korea, and Japan. University Press of America. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-7618-1671-3.
  167. ^ Le Coq, Albert von; Waldschmidt, Ernst. Die buddhistische spätantike in Mittelasien, VII. Berlin, D. Reimer [etc.] p. 27.
  168. ^ Vignato, Giuseppe (2006). "Archaeological Survey of Kizil: Its Groups of Caves, Districts, Chronology and Buddhist Schools". East and West. 56 (4): 405, note 72. JSTOR 29757697.
  169. ^ Le Coq, Albert von; Waldschmidt, Ernst. Die buddhistische spätantike in Mittelasien, VII. Berlin, D. Reimer [etc.] pp. 28–33.
  170. ^ "On the lunette of the front wall is painted a scene of the preaching of the Buddha in the Deer Park. On the left of the Buddha are painted the king and his wife; on the halo of the king is inscribed the dedication, which was interpreted by Pinault in his paper of 1994, 'Temple Constructed for the Benefit of Suvarnapousa by His Son' (this material is referred to in Kezier shiku neirong zonglu p. 2). From Chinese historical records it is known that this king reigned between the years 600 and 625, and his three sons died before 647: to date, this is the most accurate dating for the cave" in Vignato, Giuseppe (2006). "Archaeological Survey of Kizil: Its Groups of Caves, Districts, Chronology and Buddhist Schools". East and West. 56 (4): 405, note 71. ISSN 0012-8376. JSTOR 29757697.
  171. ^ The inscription is translated in Chinese “儿子为苏伐那·勃驶功德造寺” in 霍, 旭初 (2014). 克孜尔石窟艺术模式及其对外影响, in English in Turfan revisited: the first century of research into the arts and cultures of the Silk Road. Berlin: Reimer.
  172. ^ Zhu, Tianshu (2007). BUDDHAS AND BODHISATTVAS: EMANATORS AND EMANATED BEINGS IN THE BUDDHIST ART OF GANDHĀRA, CENTRAL ASIA, AND CHINA. p. 399.
  173. ^ a b Grousset 1970, p. 99.
  174. ^ Beal, Samuel (2000). Si-yu-ki: Buddhist Records of the Western World : Translated from the Chinese of Hiuen Tsiang (A.D. 629). Psychology Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-415-24469-5., also available in: "Kingdom of K'iu-chi (Kucha or Kuche) [Chapter 2]". www.wisdomlib.org. 27 June 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  175. ^ ""屈支国" in 大唐西域记/01 - 维基文库,自由的图书馆". zh.m.wikisource.org. Wikisource.
  176. ^ "王屈支种也" in ""屈支国" in 大唐西域记/01 - 维基文库,自由的图书馆". zh.m.wikisource.org. Wikisource.
  177. ^ Zhu, Tianshu (2007). BUDDHAS AND BODHISATTVAS: EMANATORS AND EMANATED BEINGS IN THE BUDDHIST ART OF GANDHĀRA, CENTRAL ASIA, AND CHINA. p. 439.
  178. ^ Morita, Miki (January 2015). "The Kizil Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum". Metropolitan Museum Journal. 50: 117. doi:10.1086/685676. ISSN 0077-8958. S2CID 192452454.
  179. ^ a b Rowland, Benjamin (1975). The art of Central Asia. New York, Crown. p. 169.
  180. ^ Vignato, Giuseppe (2006). "Archaeological Survey of Kizil: Its Groups of Caves, Districts, Chronology and Buddhist Schools". East and West. 56 (4): 406. ISSN 0012-8376. JSTOR 29757697.
  181. ^ a b c d Rowland, Benjamin (1975). The art of Central Asia. New York, Crown. p. 221.
  182. ^ Grousset, René (1970). The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia. Rutgers University Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-8135-1304-1.
  183. ^ Carling, Gerd (Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen). "Tocharian (p.16)" (PDF).
  184. ^ a b Adams, Douglas Q.; Peyrot, Michaël; Pinault, Georges-Jean; Olander, Thomas; Rasmussen, Jens Elmegård (2013). "More Thoughts on Tocharian B Prosody" in "Tocharian and Indo-European Studies vol.14". Museum Tusculanum Press. pp. 26–28. ISBN 978-87-635-4066-7.
  185. ^ a b Chrestomathie tokharienne: Textes et grammaire, Georges-Jean Pinault. Peeters, 2008.
  186. ^ "Language Log » Tocharian love poem".
  187. ^ World Atlas of Poetic Traditions: Tocharian
  188. ^ Lesbre, Emmanuelle (2001). "An Attempt to Identify and Classify Scenes with a Central Buddha Depicted on Ceilings of the Kyzil Caves (Former Kingdom of Kutcha, Central Asia)" (PDF). Artibus Asiae. 61 (2): 310, note 19. doi:10.2307/3249912. JSTOR 3249912.
  189. ^ Schaik, Sam Van (1 April 2020). "Fakes, Delusions, or the Real Thing? Albert Grunwedel's Maps of Shambhala". The Journal of the American Oriental Society. 140 (2): Online article excerpt. doi:10.7817/jameroriesoci.140.2.0273. ISSN 0003-0279.
  190. ^ Grünwedel, Albert (1920). Alt-Kutscha. p. I10.
  191. ^ For 覩货罗 as "Tokharistan" see 冯承钧学术著作集中 (in Chinese). Beijing Book Co. Inc. June 2015. p. 175. ISBN 978-7-999099-49-9.
  192. ^ Approximate translation (expertise welcome) from Teramoto, Enga (1921). "The Buddhism of the Country of Shambhala according to the inscriptions in the caves of Old Kucha "古龟兹国洞窟壁文とシャンバラ国佛教"" (PDF). Buddhist Studies "佛教研究". Buddhist research center of Otani University 大谷大學佛教研究會.
  193. ^ Hirayama, Satomi (2010). "The wall painting of Kizil Cave 118: the story of king Mandhatr as a new identification". Journal of the Japan Art History Society. 59.
  194. ^ "The population was called by the Greeks Tokharoi, Thaguroi; by the Romans Tochar; or Thogarii (in Sanskrit, Tukhara; in Tibetan, Thod-kar or Tho-gar; in Khotanese, Ttaugara; in Uigurian, Twghry; in Armenian, T'ukri-k'" in Diringer, David (1948). Alphabet A Key To The History Of Mankind. p. 348.
  195. ^ Religions and Trade: Religious Formation, Transformation and Cross-Cultural Exchange between East and West. BRILL. 2 December 2013. p. 81. ISBN 978-90-04-25530-2.
  196. ^ "For the period of the fourth to eighth centuries A.D. only one region (...) was recognized to have the name toγara. (...) It was therefore the old Bactria." in Bailey, H. W. (1937). "Ttaugara". Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London. 8 (4): 887. ISSN 1356-1898. JSTOR 3488482.
  197. ^ Li, Zuixiong (2010). "Deterioration and Treatment of Wall Paintings in Grottoes along the Silk Road in China and Related Conservation Efforts" in Conservation of Ancient Sites on the Silk Road (PDF). Los Angeles: The Getty Conservation Institute. p. 49.
  198. ^ Howard, Angela F. (1991). "In Support of a New Chronology for the Kizil Mural Paintings". Archives of Asian Art. 44: 69. ISSN 0066-6637. JSTOR 20111218.
  199. ^ a b c "The Kizil caves, says a modern critic, have “withstood vandalism by religious zealots, the sampling of large sections of murals by early 20th century European explorers, most notably Von le Coq, and desultory defacement by Red Guards..." Ghose, Rajeshwari (2008). Kizil on the Silk Road: Crossroads of Commerce & Meeting of Minds. Marg Publications. pp. 63–65. ISBN 978-81-85026-85-5.
  200. ^ a b Lopez, Donald S. (15 August 1995). Curators of the Buddha: The Study of Buddhism Under Colonialism. University of Chicago Press. pp. 88–89. ISBN 978-0-226-49308-4.
  201. ^ Zin, Monika. "INDO-ASIATISCHE ZEITSCHRIFT - PDF Kostenfreier Download". docplayer.org: 23.
  202. ^ "俄立艾爾米塔什博物館藏克孜爾石窟壁畫". www.sohu.com (in Chinese).
  203. ^ Image 16 in Yaldiz, Marianne (1987). Archèaologie und Kunstgeschichte Chinesisch-Zentralasiens (Xinjiang) (in German). BRILL. p. xv. ISBN 978-90-04-07877-2.
  204. ^ Lee, Sonya S. (March 2010). Surviving Nirvana: Death of the Buddha in Chinese Visual Culture. Hong Kong University Press. p. 148. ISBN 978-962-209-125-2.
  205. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 649-720. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  206. ^ Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1. p. 43.
  207. ^ Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1. p. 43.
  208. ^ Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1. p. 43.
  209. ^ Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1. p. 50.
  210. ^ MUZIO, CIRO LO (2008). "Remarks on the Paintings from the Buddhist Monastery of Fayaz Tepe (Southern Uzbekistan)". Bulletin of the Asia Institute. 22: 202, note 45. ISSN 0890-4464. JSTOR 24049243.
  211. ^ Waugh, Daniel C. (Historian, University of Washington). "MIA Berlin: Turfan Collection: Kizil". depts.washington.edu.
  212. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 683. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  213. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 691. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  214. ^ Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1. p. 59.
  215. ^ Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1 / Page 66 (Color Image). pp. 60 ff.
  216. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 691. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  217. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 692. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  218. ^ Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1 / Page 68 (Color Image). p. 62.
  219. ^ Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1. p. 63.
  220. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 666. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  221. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 658. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  222. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 666. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  223. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 669. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  224. ^ Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1 / Page 85 (Color Image). pp. 79 ff.
  225. ^ Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1. p. 82.
  226. ^ Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1. p. 82.
  227. ^ Lesbre, Emmanuelle (2001). "An Attempt to Identify and Classify Scenes with a Central Buddha Depicted on Ceilings of the Kyzil Caves (Former Kingdom of Kutcha, Central Asia)" (PDF). Artibus Asiae. 61 (2): 308, note 9. doi:10.2307/3249912. JSTOR 3249912.
  228. ^ Vignato, Giuseppe (2006). "Archaeological Survey of Kizil: Its Groups of Caves, Districts, Chronology and Buddhist Schools". East and West. 56 (4): 405, note 71. ISSN 0012-8376. JSTOR 29757697.
  229. ^ Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1. p. 87.
  230. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 683. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  231. ^ Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1. p. 91.
  232. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 670. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  233. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 678. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  234. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 651. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  235. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 651. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  236. ^ Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1 / Page 118 (Color Image). p. 112.
  237. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 692. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  238. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 694. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  239. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 694. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  240. ^ Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1 / Page 108 (Color Image). p. 102 ff.
  241. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 655. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  242. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 651. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  243. ^ Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1 / Page 125 (Color Image). pp. 119 ff.
  244. ^ Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1 / Page 130 (Color Image). p. 124.
  245. ^ Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1. p. 136.
  246. ^ Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1. p. 136.
  247. ^ Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1. p. 133.
  248. ^ Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1. p. 162.
  249. ^ Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1. p. 158.
  250. ^ Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1. p. 148.
  251. ^ Kurbanov, Aydogdy (2014). "THE HEPHTHALITES: ICONOGRAPHICAL MATERIALS" (PDF). Tyragetia. 8: 329.
  252. ^ Rhie, Marylin Martin (15 July 2019). Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia, Volume 2 The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in China and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 vols). BRILL. p. 683. ISBN 978-90-04-39186-4.
  253. ^ Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1. p. 180.
  254. ^ Grünwedel, Albert (1912). Altbuddhistische Kultstätten Chinesisch Turkistan. p. 180.
  255. ^ Yatsenko, Sergey A. (2009). "Early Turks: Male Costume in the Chinese Art Second half of the 6th – first half of the 8th cc. (Images of 'Others')". Transoxiana. 14: Fig.16.
  256. ^ Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan : vol.1. p. 171.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]