This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Kkangpae (Korean: 깡패) is a romanization of the Korean for a 'gangster', 'thug', or 'hoodlum', usually referring to members of unorganized street gangs. This is as opposed to mafiosos or members of organised crime gangs, which are known as geondal (Korean: 건달), or jopok (Korean: 조폭; Hanja: 組暴).
Criminal gangs have featured in South Korean popular culture, including films and television, over the past decades.
The Korean mafia may have been established in the 19th Century, towards the end of the Joseon dynasty, with the rise of commerce and the emergence of investment from European colonial powers. At this time, pre-existing street gangs, which were largely lower-class but operated by wealthy merchants, gained greater influence. The modern history of Korean criminal organizations can be divided into four periods: the Colonial era, the political mobs of the 1950s and early 1960s under president Syngman Rhee, the Civil War period under the military rule of Park Chung-hee and Chun Doo-hwan, and the present era.
1910–1945: Colonial era
During the 35 years of when Korea under Imperial Japanese rule, some Koreans were subjected to forced labor and sex slavery. This intensified during World War II when the Empire of Japan spread its empire throughout Manchuria, and parts of China. During this period, Koreans fled to mainland Japan and formed mobs to overcome discrimination and crime. The most infamous "mobster" during this period was Kim Du-han, the son of a famous Korean independence fighter and insurgent leader Kim Chwa-chin, a freedom fighter against Colonial rule. After his mother and father were killed, Kim grew up as a beggar and became involved with a local gang named Jumok ('fist'). He rose through the ranks and became infamous for fighting groups against the yakuza.
The colonial branch of the Imperial Japanese yakuza was then under the control of Hayashi, an ethnic Korean who defected to the Japanese and joined the yakuza. The rival mob to Hayashi's yakuza was controlled by Koo Majok, but the Korean mafia was always short of money and many local mob bosses were disloyal to Koo and formed separated mobs, notably Shin Majak and Shang Kal (twin knives). Koo Majok finally tried to solidify his control over the Korean mobs by knocking out Ssang Kal and taking over his territory, but it caused a backlash. Kim Du-han, originally a member of Ssang Kal, rebelled against Koo Majok. Kim killed both Shin Majok and Koo Majok, and unified all the Korean mobs under his command at the age of 18. After solidifying his rule by beating the revolting groups, Kim made his move against the yakuza, starting the famous trial war between Jumok and yakuza, which became symbolic of the resistance by Koreans against Japanese. Kim Du-han was a major figure of the movement against the colonial rule and later became a politician in Syngman Rhee's Liberal Party. To this date, many Korean mobs are still at war with Japanese mobs, or yakuza.
1950s-60s: Political mobs
During the 1950s, two separate Seoul-based groups, the Myung-dong and the Chong-ro, operated to protect Korean merchants from Japanese criminals who were often protected by officials (Lee, 2006). The 1960s, however, saw a shutdown of nearly all gang activity as those groups were considered a problem by the regime.
1970s-80s: Military rule
It wasn’t until the early 1970s that the modern Korean gangs began to emerge. Hierarchical structures began forming during this time, as well as the use of weapons such as knives and iron bars which culminated in more violent attacks (Lee, 2006). The 1980s was a flourishing period for gangsters, as they were able to infiltrate businesses and set up connections with in-house government and entertainment officials, as well as making ties with other global crime rings.
The early 1990s saw another periodic crackdown with Article 114 of Korean Criminal Law dictating that not only were organized gangs illegal, but those who joined or formed groups could also be charged. This new law forced many into hiding or fleeing, while many others were arrested, and even those who finished their time were often put under surveillance if they were deemed career criminals (Lee, 2006). However, Korea’s rapid globalization has it made it hard for law enforcement to completely stamp out organized crime, which continues to be a problem in the present day.
Gang members have been linked to crimes ranging from sex trafficking to drug smuggling and extortion. A survey in 2007 showed that 109 inmates jailed for organized criminal activities were all involved in extortion, mostly victimizing/running bars, nightclubs, and game rooms (2007, “Average”). Gangsters have also been used as hired muscle and strongmen for businesses, such as in the case of Kim Seung-youn, “a conglomerate owner who hired gangsters to abduct and beat up employees of bar” (2007, “Organized Gangs”). Assaults have become more common in recent years as seen in 2009, when out of 621 gang members, 35% were arrested for assault while extortion took second at 29%, and illegal gambling (11%) and loan sharking (7%) made up the rest. The amount of gang members and affiliates jump in years of economic strain, as in the economic slump of 2009, when officials saw a 60% increase in new gang formations and activities (2009, “South Korea”). In 2011, police initiated a crackdown on gangs and affiliated members, rounding up 127 individuals within the first week of the ‘war against organized crime’ (2011, “About 130”).
South Korean mafiosos often have tattoos of the pa (English: mob) they are in. When confronted by other mobs, they show their tattoos to help identify themselves. The tattoo can also be used as a warning to the general public. As a result, tattoos are often considered taboo in South Korean society.
The stereotypical image of the quintessential South Korean mafioso is one with a gakdoogi hairstyle, which consists of the sides of the head shaved, with hair remaining on top, a big build, dark, black clothing, tacky suits, black-painted luxury cars, prominent tattoos, and regional accents or dialects (Korean: Saturi). Contrary to popular belief, Seoul is not a known hotbed of South Korean mob presence. The most prominent organizations of the South Korean mafia operate in the Jeolla region, in cities such as Gwangju and Mokpo, with other South Korean mafiosos known to be operating in Busan and Incheon.
Prominent South Korean gangs
There are many named local gangs and organized crime affiliates in South Korea. They often operate small, local businesses to earn extra money, however, their usual source of income comes from protection fees, in which they take over a certain neighborhood designated as their "territory" (Korean: 구역), demanding that all businesses in the neighborhood make a monthly payment to the gang leaders in exchange for not damaging their business.
Currently, there are three major South Korean crime syndicates, which compete amongst each other regularly. They are the Seven Star (Korean: 칠성파; Chilseongpa), the Double Dragon (Korean: 쌍용파; Ssangyongpa), and the Hwansongseongpa (Korean: 환송성파; Hwansongseongpa). The origin of the H.S.S. Mob's name is unknown, although is rumored that 환, 송, and 성 represent the nicknames of the gang's three founders.
Chil Sung Pa
The Seven Star (Korean: 칠성파/七星派; Chil Sung Pa) is a major South Korean gang. The name apparently originates from the gang's seven founders (of which three are imprisoned, and two are dead). Functioning much like Japan's yakuza, it has gained notoriety in the South Korean criminal underground. However, as their criminal activities are very secretive, the South Korean police cannot act against them, although they have suspicions regarding their illegal deeds. Chil-Sung-Pa is headquartered in Busan and are considered to be the most powerful gang in South Korea. Their gang tattoo is a pattern of seven stars on their chest.
Hwan Song Sung Pa
The Hwan Song Sung Pa (Korean: 환송성파; Hwan Song Sung Pa) is a South Korean street gang. The origin of the gang's name is unknown, although it is however rumored that the founders of the gang are from the same family: the Son (Korean: 손) family and Hwan (Korean: 환), Song (Korean: 송), and Sung (Korean: 성) are the third letters in their Korean names. However, this theory is in doubt as the gang was originally called Hwan-Song Pa (Korean: 환송파), meaning that the previous explanation would mean that the gang had a new founder added as recently as the summer of 2009. Hwan-Song-Sung-Pa is usually referred to as "H.S.S. Mob" and has maintained a rather quiet presence in South Korea since 2008. Despite this, their criminal activities with international gangs have grown tremendously. The gang maintains active treaties with American, Mexican, Japanese, Chinese, Russian and Brazilian gangs, putting the gang on the international organized crime stage. The gang has been reported to operate in Suwon and Gunsan; their signature gang tattoo is the Hanja character of "Son" (Hanja: 孫) the founders' family name, on any part of their body. Where the tattoo is positioned signifies the bearer's rank inside the gang. Underage gang members are not required to get these tattoos until they turn 18.
Ssang Yong Pa
The Double Dragons (Korean: 쌍용파/雙龍派; Ssang Yong Pa) is a South Korean gang that is believed to have largely vanished from South Korean society. The origin of the gang's name is unknown and remains a mystery. The oldest out of South Korea's top three gangs, Ssang-Yong-Pa mafiosos were known to be very violent and brutal during the late 1980s through the late 1990s. Although their presence has decreased since the late 1990s, in 2005, the Ssang-Yong-Pa resurfaced by raiding several night clubs and businesses. However, since the mid-2000s, the Ssang-Yong-Pa went underground yet again. The gang's main turf is Gwangju, the sixth largest city in South Korea. Their gang tattoo is of two dragons curling over each other; it is worn on the bearer's upper arm.
The Buk-Moon-Pa (Korean: 북문파/北門派;Buk Moon Pa), literally known as the Northern gate gang, is a prominent South Korean gang from Suwon. Their name based on the black market that they ruled around the North Gate of Suwon.
In popular culture
Films romanticizing kkangpae have featured in South Korean cinema since the 1970s, but gained a foothold in the market in the early 1990s (Jamier, 2015, p. 1). Such films emphasized traits like loyalty, decency, and morality against a backdrop of violence and corruption. The popularity of films like Friend (2001) and A Bittersweet Life (2005) popularized the image of the identifiable and ‘honorable’ gangster (Jamier, 2015).
The rise in gang-centered content in film and television has been linked to changes in the public perception of kkangpae, particularly in teens and younger audiences. Some have linked this to the increase in school-yard gangs known as iljinhoe, which may take cues from such movies in the form of intimidation and mental or physical abuse (2005, “School Gangs”). Youths may look up to kkangpae characters for their strength and intelligence outside of the restrictive classroom setting (2005, “School Gangs”).
- Man’s gambling ties go far back
- Extortion Case Explores Rifts in Korean Enclave in Queens
- Organized Crime In California- Annual Report To The California Legislature 2004
- Organized Crime In California- Annual Report To The California Legislature 1996
- Anxiety builds as crime increases in Koreatown
- Asian Organized Crime Groups – State of New Jersey Commission of Investigation 1989 Report
- Korea 'fist' genealogy and history
- Five Indicted In a Robbery At a Church
- Korean Gangsters Held in Extortion
- 5 Men Said to Be in Korean Mob Are Charged in Waiters' Assault
- MANHATTAN’S INVISIBLE KOREAN POWER
- Korean Pride:Gangs And The Korean Community
- The Way of the Fists
- Scam, Like A Nesting Doll, Hid Even More