Klang (city)

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Klang
كلاڠ (Malay)
The palace of the Sultan of Selangor in Klang
The palace of the Sultan of Selangor in Klang
Flag of Klangكلاڠ (Malay)
Flag
Motto: Perpaduan Sendi Kekuatan (Malay)
"Strength Through Unity"
Location of Klang within the Klang District, and the state of Selangor
Location of Klang within the Klang District, and the state of Selangor
Klangكلاڠ (Malay)  is located in Malaysia
Klangكلاڠ (Malay)
Klang
كلاڠ (Malay)
Location of Klang within the Klang District, and the state of Selangor
Coordinates: 3°02′N 101°27′E / 3.033°N 101.450°E / 3.033; 101.450
Country Malaysia
State Selangor
Establishment 1643
Granted
Municipal Status
1977, 1 January
Government
 • Administered by Majlis Perbandaran Klang
(Klang Municipal Council)
 • Yang diPertua
(Councillor)
Dato Mohammad Bin Yacob
Area
 • Total 573 km2 (202 sq mi)
Population (2010)
 • Total 744,062
 • Density 1,298/km2 (3,360/sq mi)
Time zone MST (UTC+8)
 • Summer (DST) Not observed (UTC)
Website www.mpklang.gov.my

Klang (/ˈklæŋ/; Jawi: كلاڠ<!; Tamil: கிள்ளான்; Chinese: 巴生), old alternative spelling: Kelang), is the royal city and former capital of the state of Selangor, Malaysia, the name Klang comes from the inspiration of Dato Ee. It is located within the Klang District in Klang Valley. It is located about 32 km to the west of Kuala Lumpur and 6 km east of Port Klang. It was the civil capital of Selangor in an earlier era prior to the emergence of Kuala Lumpur and the current capital, Shah Alam. Port Klang, which is located in the Klang District, is the 13th busiest transshipment port[1] and the 16th busiest container port in the world.

Majlis Perbandaran Klang (MP Klang), or Klang Municipal Council, exercises jurisdiction for a majority of the Klang District while the city council of Shah Alam, the state capital, exercises some jurisdiction over other parts of the district (known as Shah Alam selatan).

As of 2010, Klang District has a total population of 842,146, while the population of MP Klang is 744,062.[2]

History[edit]

Klang Municipal Council building with old Raja Mahadi fort's gate in the foreground.

The royal town of Klang has been a site of human settlement since prehistoric times. Bronze Age drums, axes and other artefacts have been found in the vicinity of the town and within the town itself. A bronze bell dating from the 2nd century BC was found in Klang and is now in the British Museum.[3][4][5] Iron age tools called "tulang mawas" ("ape bones") have also been found in Klang.[6] Commanding the approaches to the tin rich Klang Valley, Klang has always been of key strategic importance. It was mentioned as a dependency of other states as early as the 11th century.[7] Klang was also mentioned in the 14th century literary work Nagarakretagama dated to the Majapahit Empire, and the Klang River was already marked and named on the earliest maritime charts of Chinese Admiral Cheng Ho on his visits to Malacca from 1409 to 1433.[8]

The celebrated Tun Perak, the Malacca Sultanate's greatest Bendahara, came from Klang and became its territorial chief. After the fall of Melaka to the Portuguese in 1511, Klang remained in Malay hands, controlled by the Sultan Johor-Riau until the creation of Selangor sultanate in the 18th century.

Mao Kun map from Wubei Zhi which is based on the early 15th century maps of Zheng He showing Klang River estuary (吉令港) near the top left

In the 19th century the importance of Klang greatly increased by the rapid expansion of tin mining as a result of the increased demand for tin from the West. The desire to control the Klang Valley led directly to the Selangor Civil War (also called the Klang War) of 1867–1874 when Raja Mahdi fought to regain what he considered his birthright as territorial chief against Raja Abdullah.[9] During the Klang War, in 1868, the seat of power was moved to Bandar Temasya, Kuala Langat,[8] and then to Jugra which became the royal capital of Selangor.[10] Klang however did not lose its importance. Until the construction of Port Swettenham (now known as Port Klang) in 1901, Klang remained the chief outlet for Selangor's tin, and its position was enhanced by the completion of the Klang Valley railway (to Bukit Kuda) in 1886. In the 1890s its growth was further stimulated by the development of the district into the State' leading producer of coffee, and later rubber. In 1903, the royal seat was moved back to Klang when it became the official seat of Sultan Sulaiman (Sultan Alauddin Sulaiman Shah).

In 1874, Selangor accepted a British Resident who would "advise" the Sultan, and Klang became the capital of British colonial administration for Selangor from 1875 until 1880 when the capital city was moved to Kuala Lumpur.[11][12] Today Klang is no longer State capital or the main seat of the ruler, but it remains the headquarters of the District to which it gives it name.

In May 1890, a local authority, known as Klang Health Board, was established to administer Klang town. The official boundary of Klang was first defined in 1895. In 1926 the health boards of Klang and Port Swettenham were merged, and in 1945 the local authority was renamed Klang Town Board.[13] In 1954, the Town Board became the Klang Town Council after a local election was set up to select its members in accordance with the Local Government Election Ordinance of 1950. In 1963, the Port Klang Authority was created and it now administers three Port Klang areas: Northport, Southpoint, and West Port.[14]

In 1971, the Klang District Council, which incorporated the nearby townships of Kapar and Meru as well as Port Klang, was formed. After undergoing a further reorganisation according to the Local Government Act of 1976 (Act 171), Klang District Council was upgraded to Klang Municipal Council (KMC) on 1 January 1977.[13] From 1974 to 1977, Klang was the state capital of Selangor before the seat of government shifted to Shah Alam in 1977.[8]

Etymology[edit]

Klang may have taken its name from the Klang River which runs through the town. The entire geographical area in the immediate vicinity of the river, which begins at Kuala Lumpur and runs west all the way to Port Klang, is known as the Klang Valley.

One popular theory on the origin of the name is that it was derived from the Mon–Khmer word Klong, or from the old meaning of the Malay word Kilang, meaning "warehouses". In the old days, it was full of warehouses (kilang currently means "factory").[15] Another suggestion is that it means a canal or waterway.[16]

Districts[edit]

Pasar Jawa Mosque on the northern side of Klang River

Klang is divided into Klang North and Klang South, which are separated by the Klang River.

Klang North used to be the main commercial centre of Klang, but since 2008, more residential and commercial areas as well as government offices are being developed in Klang South. Most major government and private health care facilities are also located at Klang South.[citation needed] Hence, this area tends to be busier and becomes the center of social and recreational activities after office hours and during the weekends. This is triggered by the rapid growth of new and modern townships such as Bandar Botanic, Bandar Bukit Tinggi, Taman Bayu Perdana, Glenmarie Cove, Kota Bayuemas etc. all located within Klang South.

At the Klang North side, some of the older and established residential areas include Berkeley Garden, Taman Eng Ann, Taman Klang Utama, Bandar Baru Klang and so forth. Newer townships include Bandar Bukit Raja, Aman Perdana and Klang Sentral.

Malaysia's busiest port, Port Klang is located at Klang South.

Economy[edit]

The economy of Klang is closely linked with that the greater Klang Valley conurbation which is the most densely populated. urbanized and industrialized region of Malaysia.[17] There is a wide range of industries within the Klang municipality, major industrial areas may be found in Bukit Raja, Kapar, Meru, Taman Klang Utama and Sungai Buloh, Pulau Indah, Teluk Gong and others.[18] Rubber used to be an important part of the economy of the region, but many rubber plantations were converted to palm oil from the 1970s onwards, and then again converted for urban development and infrastructure use.[19][20]

Port Klang forms an important part of the economy of Klang. It is home to about 95 shipping companies and agents, 300 custom brokers, 25 container storage centers, as well as more than 70 freight and transport companies.[21] It handled almost 50% of Malaysia's sea-borne container trade in 2013.[22] The Port Klang Free Zone was established in 2004 to transform Port Klang into a regional distribution hub as well as a trade and logistics centre.[23]

Politics[edit]

Klang encompasses three parliamentary seats: Kapar (Mr. Manikavasagam a/l Sundaram of PKR), Kota Raja (Mdm. Siti Mariah Mahmud of PAS), and Klang (Mr. Charles Anthony Santiago of DAP). All three are held by the Pakatan Rakyat coalition. These constituencies are subdivided into state seats.

Demographics[edit]

The following are the census figures for the population of Klang. The 1970 figures were collected before Klang reorganisation. The 2010 figures are for MP Klang, which includes the city of Klang, Meru, Kapar, Port Klang and other areas.

Ethnic Group 1970[24] 2010[25]
Number % Number %
Malay 72,734 31.13% 335,739 45.12%
Other Bumiputras 9,107 1.22%
Bumiputra total 344,846 46.34%
Chinese 100,524 43.02% 190,854 25.65%
Indian 59,333 25.39% 140,519 18.89%
Others 1,079 0.46% 3,573 0.48%
Malaysian total 679,792 91.36%
Non-Malaysian 64,270 8.64%
Total 233,670 100.00% 744,062 100.00%

Crime[edit]

There are a number of criminal gangs in Klang, and gang violence is not uncommon.[26][27] Among the Chinese community, there are the Ang Bin Hoey triad gangs such as Gang 21 which operates in Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley.[28] There are also Gang 24,[29] Gang 36 and others,[30] and their members are often Indians.[31] Due to economic development and changes in the industry, many rubber estates where Indian plantation workers used to live and work were closed, and this is thought to have contributed to a rise of gangsterism amongst the displaced and economically-deprived Indians.[32][33] It is thought that the Indians originally worked for Chinese gang leaders but they now dominate many of these criminal organisations.[31]

Transportation[edit]

Klang is served by five commuter stations that constitute the Batu Caves-Port Klang Route of the KTM Komuter system, namely the Bukit Badak Komuter station, the Kampung Raja Uda Komuter station, the Klang Komuter station, the Teluk Pulai Komuter station and the Teluk Gadong Komuter station.

Klang is well connected to the rest of the Klang Valley via the Federal Highway, the New Klang Valley Expressway, South Klang Valley Expressway, the North Klang Straits Bypass (New North Klang Straits Bypass) as well as the KESAS Highway.

Klang is also served by the RapidKL bus route. Klang Sentral acts as a terminal for buses and taxis in northern Klang.

Infrastructure and developments[edit]

Shopping complexes[edit]

The AEON Bukit Tinggi Shopping Centre in Bandar Bukit Tinggi, Klang has the largest AEON store in Southeast Asia.
Tesco Extra at Bandar Bukit Tinggi, Klang

There are several shopping complexes in Klang, primarily in Klang South, namely:

Hospitals and medical centres[edit]

Local landmarks and attractions[edit]

Church of Our Lady of Lourdes
Tanjung Harapan (The Esplande)
The Galeri Diraja Sultan Abdul Aziz is located at Jalan Besar, Klang
  • Istana Alam Shah - The royal residence of the Sultan of Selangor was built in 1950 in south Klang to replace the old Mahkota Puri Palace. Parts of the Palace are accessible to the public but only on a few days of the week.[34] Near the Palace is the Klang Royal City Park (Taman Bandar Diraja Klang), and located in front of the Palace is a sports stadium (Stadium Padang Sultan Sulaiman) and the Royal Klang Club.
  • Sultan Sulaiman Royal Mosque - The royal Mosque was built in 1932.
  • Church of Our Lady of Lourdes - Built in 1928, the church celebrated its Golden Jubilee in 2008 after the church building had undergone restoration. Father Souhait played a large part in the design of the church building, modelling it on the pilgrimage church in Lourdes, France. The design of the church follows the style of a Gothic architecture.
  • Kota Raja Mahadi - This historic fort was actually an arch of the fort. In the old days, there was a struggle between Raja Mahadi and Raja Abdullah for the control of the Klang district.
  • Tugu Keris (Keris Monument) - A memorial erected to commemorate the Silver Jubilee of the Sultan of Selangor's installation in 1985. The monument is specially designed to depict the Keris Semenanjung that symbolises power, strength and unity.
  • Kai Hong Hoo (开封府) - The only temple in Malaysia dedicated to the worship of Justice Bao (包公), who was a government officer in ancient China's Song Dynasty. Justice Bao consistently demonstrated extreme honesty and uprightness and is today respected as the cultural symbol of justice in the Chinese community worldwide.
  • Tanjung Harapan (The Esplanade) - Fronting the Straits of Malacca, the Esplanade is a sea-side family recreation spot near to Northport that houses several seafood restaurants. Nice setup for sunset-gazing and also for anglers to fish.
  • Little India (Klang) - Colourful street from the striking saris hanging from shops to the snacks and sweetmeats on sale from shops and roadside stalls. During Deepavali, the Indian festival of lights, the street is astoundingly transformed into a colourful spectacle of lights and booming sound of music.
  • Sri Sundararaja Perumal Temple - Built in 1896, it is one of the oldest and the largest of the Vaishnavite temples in Malaysia. The temple is often referred to as the "Thirupathi of South East Asia" after its famous namesake in India.
  • Kuan Im Teng Klang (巴生观音亭)(Goddess of Mercy Temple) - Kuan Im Teng (as pronounced in the Hokkien dialect) is over 100 years old. This Goddess of Mercy Temple is located at the Jalan Barat Daya, near Simpang Lima. Bustling with devotees during the first day and the fifteenth day of lunar calendar. It is one of the oldest temple in Malaya since colonial period, It was established during 1892. The temple is also involved in charity work, contributing to several health and educational organisations. On the eve of Chinese New Year, the temple is opened all night and the street is often packed with devotees queuing shoulder to shoulder to enter the temple hall to offer their incense to the Kwan Yin in hope for an auspicious start to the New Year.
  • Connaught Bridge is one of the oldest bridge in Malaysia's Klang Valley region. It was built in 1948 by the British. The bridge is located in Jalan Dato' Mohd Sidin (Federal route ) near Connaught Bridge Power Station in Klang Selangor. At one time, Connaught bridge can only be crossed one vehicle at a time. No lorry could pass it because it was limited to car, van and small vehicle only. While on the bridge, you will heard the sound of wood 'cracking'! The wooden bridge closed in 1993-1994. In 1995 the wooden bridge was replaced by a concrete box girder bridge.
  • Jambatan Kota is the first double-decked bridge in Malaysia and is located in Klang, Selangor. The bottom deck is a pedestrian walkway bridge while the top deck is a motorist bridge. The bridge was closed to car traffic in the '90s due to high demand that necessitated the construction of a new bridge. The new Jambatan Kota is located beside of the old bridge. The old bridge was constructed between 1957 and 1960, and was officially opened in 1961 by the late Sultan of Selangor, Almarhum Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah as part of the celebration of his coronation as the ninth Sultan of Selangor.
  • Galeri Diraja Sultan Abdul Aziz (Royal Gallery) is the royal gallery located at Bangunan Sultan Suleiman, Klang. Various collections depicting the reign of Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah; from his early childhood through his appointment as the eighth Sultan Selangor in 1960 and as the eleventh Yang di-Pertuan Agong in 1999.

Cuisine[edit]

Chinese food[edit]

Klang is well known for its Bak Kut Teh (Chinese: 肉骨茶, Pinyin: Ròu Gŭ Chá), a herbal soup that uses pork ribs and tenderloins. The dish is popularly thought to have originated in Klang.[35] Bak Kut Teh is popular in various locations including Taman Intan (previously called Taman Rashna), Teluk Pulai, Jalan Kereta Api and Pandamaran.

There are a number of foodcourts in Klang which served local cuisine. Located in Taman Eng Ann is a large foodcourt serving many daytime snacks ranging from the well-known Chee Cheong Fun, Yong Tau Foo, Popia (Chinese springrolls), the medicinal herb Lin Zhi Kang drink, to Rojak and Cendol. Other stalls found also serving Chee Cheong Fun in Klang are located around the Meru Berjaya area. The Yong Tau Foo, a Malaysian Hakka Chinese delicacy, is a popular meal for lunch and dinner as well.

Seafood[edit]

The coastal regions and islands near Port Klang are also well-known for their seafood, such as Pulau Ketam, Bagan Hailam,[36] Teluk Gong,[37] Pandamaran and Tanjung Harapan.[38]

Education[edit]

Schools

Sister cities[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "PORT KLANG CELEBRATES OVER 100 YEARS OF BEING MALAYSIA’S PREMIER PORT". Port Klang Authority. Retrieved 15 May 2012. 
  2. ^ MPK, Klang. "TABURAN PENDUDUK DAN CIRI-CIRI ASAS DEMOGRAFI TAHUN 2010". MPK Klang Site. 
  3. ^ British Museum Collection
  4. ^ The Kettledrums of Southeast Asia: A Bronze Age World and Its Aftermath - August Johan Bernet Kempers - Google Books. Books.google.com.au. Retrieved 17 September 2013. 
  5. ^ W. Linehan (October 1951). "Traces of a Bronze Age Culture Associated With Iron Age Implements in the Regions of Klang and the Tembeling, Malaya". Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society) 24 (3 (156)): 1–59. 
  6. ^ R. O. Winstedt (October 1934). "A History of Selangor". Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society) 12 (3 (120)): 1–34. 
  7. ^ J.M. Gullick (1983). The Story of Kuala Lumpur, 1857-1939. Eastern Universities Press (M). p. 7. ISBN 978-9679080285. 
  8. ^ a b c "Background and History". Port Klang Integrated Coastal Management Project. 
  9. ^ A History of Malaysia - Barbara Watson Andaya, Leonard Y. Andaya - Google Books. Books.google.com.au. Retrieved 17 September 2013. 
  10. ^ Kon Yit Chin, Voon Fee Chen (2003). Landmarks of Selangor. Jugra Publications. p. 34. 
  11. ^ Prem Kumar Rajaram. Ruling the Margins: Colonial Power and Administrative Rule in the Past and Present. p. 35. 
  12. ^ Isabella Lucy Bird (1883). The Golden Chersonese and the Way Thither. pp. 271–272. 
  13. ^ a b "Background". Klang Municipal Council. 
  14. ^ "Port Klang: Review and History". World Port Source. 
  15. ^ Shanti Gunaratnam (1 April 2012). "The town that tin built". New Straits Times. 
  16. ^ "History". Klang Municipal Council. 
  17. ^ Ooi Keat Gin (2009). Historical Dictionary of Malaysia. Scarecrow Press. pp. 157–158. ISBN 978-0810859555. 
  18. ^ "Industrial Areas". Klang Municipal Council. 
  19. ^ Peter D. Tyson, ed. (2002). Global-Regional Linkages in the Earth System. Springer. p. 160. 
  20. ^ Garik Gutman et al. (2004). Land Change Science: Observing, Monitoring and Understanding Trajectories of Change on the Earth's Surface. Springer. p. 122. ISBN 978-9400743069. 
  21. ^ "Klang Introduction". Klang Chinese Chamber of Commerce and Industry. 
  22. ^ "Port Klang aims for 20 million TEUs". The Star. 2 July 2013. 
  23. ^ "Gateway" (PDF). Port Klang Authority. 2009. 
  24. ^ Katiman Rostam. "Population Change of the Klang-Langat Extended Metropolitan Region, Maalaysia, 1957-2000" (PDF). Akademika 79 (1): 1–18. 
  25. ^ "Table 13.1 : Total population by ethnic group, Local Authority area and state, Malaysia, 2010" (PDF). Department of Statistics, Malaysia. p. 181. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2012. 
  26. ^ "Brutal killings a sign of all-out gang war". The Malay Mail. February 16, 2015. 
  27. ^ G. Prakash (April 3, 2015). "Chopped up teen linked to Klang gang war, cops say". The Malay Mail. 
  28. ^ Gregory F Treverton, Carl Matthies, Karla J Cunningham, Jeremiah Gouka, Greg Ridgeway (2009). Film Piracy, Organized Crime, and Terrorism. RAND Corporation. p. 68. ISBN 978-0833045652. 
  29. ^ Gregory F Treverton, Carl Matthies, Karla J Cunningham, Jeremiah Gouka, Greg Ridgeway (2009). Film Piracy, Organized Crime, and Terrorism. RAND Corporation. ISBN 978-0833045652. 
  30. ^ "’Tis the season for extortion". The Malaysian Insider. 18 February 2015. 
  31. ^ a b "The ‘Taikos’ Behind Indian Gangs". Sin Chew Daily. August 28, 2013. 
  32. ^ C. E. R. Abraham (2006). Speaking Out: Insights Into Contemporary Malaysian Issues. Utusan Publications. p. 107. ISBN 9676117935. 
  33. ^ "Malaysia's gang menace". Al Jazeera. 11 July 2014. 
  34. ^ "Istana Alam Shah". 
  35. ^ Su-Lyn Tan, Mark Tay (2003). Malaysia & Singapore. Lonely Planet. p. 140. 
  36. ^ Simon Richmond, Damian Harper. Malaysia, Singapore & Brunei. Lonely Planet. pp. 130–131. ISBN 978-1740593571. 
  37. ^ Charles de Ledesma, Mark Lewis, Pauline Savage (2003). The Rough Guide to Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1843530947. 
  38. ^ "Medan Muara Ikan Bakar @ Tanjung Harapan, Port Klang". Foodstreet. 

External links[edit]


Preceded by
first
Capital of Selangor
(1875–1880)
Succeeded by
Kuala Lumpur
Preceded by
Kuala Lumpur
Capital of Selangor
(1974–1977)
Succeeded by
Shah Alam

Coordinates: 3°02′N 101°27′E / 3.033°N 101.450°E / 3.033; 101.450