Klaus-Jürgen Bathe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Klaus-Jürgen Bathe
Klaus Jurgen Bathe Feb 2016.PNG
Klaus-Jürgen Bathe in 2016 [1]
Born1943 (1943)
NationalityFlag of Germany.svg German
Alma materUniversity of Cape Town
University of Calgary
University of California, Berkeley
Known forFinite element method
Subspace iteration method
MITC elements
Bathe time integration
ADINA software
Scientific career
FieldsComputational mechanics
Finite element method
InstitutionsMassachusetts Institute of Technology
Doctoral advisorEdward L. Wilson

Klaus-Jürgen Bathe is a civil engineer, professor of mechanical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and founder of ADINA R&D, who specializes in computational mechanics.[2] Bathe is considered to be one of the pioneers in the field of finite element analysis and its applications.[3]

Early life and education[edit]

Born in Berlin, Bathe had his high school education in Oldenburg i. O. in the Federal Republic of Germany. He then went to South Africa, where he earned his graduate degree in Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics from the University of Cape Town in 1967. Bathe received his M.Sc. degree in Civil Engineering from the University of Calgary, Canada in 1969. Thereafter, he received his Ph.D. in Civil Engineering from the University of California, Berkeley in 1971.[4] His thesis was on numerical solution of large eigenvalue problems, where he developed the subspace iteration method.


During his time as a post-doctoral fellow (1972–1974) at UC Berkeley, Bathe et al. developed the finite element programs SAP IV and NONSAP,[5] which have been used by thousands of individuals and organizations in research and practice and had a major impact in advancing the finite element method. In 1974 he started the development of the ADINA system. Soon after, he joined the department of mechanical engineering at MIT.

In 1986, he founded ADINA R&D, Inc.[6] On April 7, 2022, Bentley Systems acquired ADINA R&D, Inc.[7]

Major contributions[edit]

Bathe has made fundamental contributions in the finite element analysis of structures, heat transfer, field problems, CFD, and fluid-structure interactions. These contributions are widely used in commercial software codes. Specifically, the following contributions for reliable, accurate and efficient finite element analyses are widely employed:[8]

  • Formulation of plate and shell finite elements (the MITC elements).
  • Formulations of large deformations of solids (the Total and Updated Lagrangian formulations).
  • Solution techniques for large eigenvalue problems (the Bathe subspace iteration method).
  • Solution techniques for contact problems (the constraint-function method).
  • Time integration schemes for the dynamic analysis of structures and fluid-structure interactions (the Bathe method).
  • Schemes for fully coupled fluid-structure interactions and multi-physics problems.
  • Mathematical analysis of finite element schemes.
  • The book "Finite Element Procedures" used as a standard reference text in academia and industry.[9][10][11]

Bathe is widely recognized to bridge the worlds of academia and industry in computational mechanics.[12]

Honors and awards[edit]

Bathe has received many honorary doctorates from institutions around the world: Slovak Academy of Sciences and Technical University of Zilina, Slovakia; Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany; Technical University of Rzeszow, Poland; Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain; University of Bucharest, Romania; University of Miskolc, Hungary; University of Buenos Aires, Argentina; University of Cape Town, South Africa; and Sorbonne Universités – Université de Technologie de Compiègne, France.[2][12]

Bathe has been listed as an ISI Highly Cited Author in Engineering by the ISI Web of Knowledge, Thomson Scientific Company.[13]

Editorial activities[edit]

Bathe currently serves as the Co-Editor of the Journal of Computers & Structures.[14] He is also the editor of the Springer's book series on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics.[15] He has organized the twelve bi-yearly conferences "Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA", at M.I.T., 1977–1999, and the seven bi-yearly conferences "Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics" [16] at M.I.T., 2001–2013.

Klaus-Jürgen Bathe Leadership Program[edit]

The Klaus-Jürgen Bathe Leadership Programme was established at the University of Cape Town in 2014 through a gift donated by Professor Klaus-Jürgen Bathe. It is awarded annually to University of Cape Town students with at least 2 years of study left, from any of the six university faculties.[17] The goal of this Program is to produce graduates coming from any faculty of the University of Cape Town, South Africa with outstanding leadership qualities and a strong sense of social justice, who will go on to play leading and significant roles in business, government, industry and civil society in South Africa and on the African continent.[18]


  • K.J. Bathe and E.L. Wilson, "Numerical Methods in Finite Element Analysis", Prentice-Hall, 1976.
  • K.J. Bathe, "Finite Element Procedures in Engineering Analysis", Prentice-Hall, 1982.
  • K.J. Bathe, "Finite Element Procedures", 1st Edition, Prentice Hall, 1996; 2nd Edition, Watertown, MA: Klaus-Jürgen Bathe, 2014.
  • D. Chapelle and K.J. Bathe, "The Finite Element Analysis of Shells – Fundamentals", 1st Edition, Springer, 2003; 2nd edition, Springer, 2011.
  • M. Kojic and K.J. Bathe, "Inelastic Analysis of Solids and Structures", Springer, 2005.
  • K.J. Bathe, "To Enrich Life", Amazon.com, 2007, 2nd edition 2019.
  • K.J. Bathe, "How Lawyers Think, Work & when Perhaps not Hire a Lawyer", Amazon.com, 2021.
  • M.L. Bucalem, K.J. Bathe, "The Mechanics of Solids and Structures – Hierarchical Modeling and the Finite Element Solution", Springer, 2011.

Video Courses on Finite Element Methods[edit]

  • MIT Video Lectures: "Finite Element Procedures for Solids and Structures – Linear Analysis".[19]
  • MIT Video Lectures: "Finite Element Procedures for Solids and Structures – Nonlinear Analysis".[20]


  1. ^ "K.J. Bathe Leadership Programme, 2016 Introduction Dinner".
  2. ^ a b "K.J. Bathe at Massachusetts Institute of Technology".
  3. ^ Anwar Bég, O. (2003). Giants of Engineering Science. Troubador Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-1-899293-52-0.
  4. ^ Klaus-Jürgen Bathe (2008). To Enrich Life. Klaus-Jürgen Bathe. ISBN 978-0979004926.
  5. ^ "Comments by E.L. Wilson on the research in the early 1970s by K.J. Bathe in Connections (2017)" (PDF).
  6. ^ "ADINA Finite Element Analysis Software". adina.com.
  7. ^ "Bentley Systems Announces Acquisition of ADINA to Extend Nonlinear Simulation throughout Infrastructure Engineering". www.bentley.com. 2022-04-07. Retrieved 2022-05-05.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  8. ^ J.W. Tedesco and J. Walczak, Preface, Computers & Structures, 81: 455–462, 2003
  9. ^ Klaus-Jürgen Bathe. Finite Element Procedures (2nd ed.). Klaus-Jürgen Bathe. ISBN 978-0-9790049-2-6.
  10. ^ Klaus-Jürgen Bathe. Finite Element Procedures, Download (2nd ed.) (PDF).
  11. ^ Klaus-Jürgen Bathe. Finite Element Procedures, Solutions Manual, Download (2nd ed.) (PDF).
  12. ^ a b "Bridging the world of academia and industry". University of Cape Town News.
  13. ^ "ISI Highly Cited Author, K.J Bathe, 2001 HCR as of September 8 2015". Archived from the original on 2016-04-01. Retrieved 2016-03-30.
  14. ^ "K.J. Bathe Co-Editor of Journal of Computers & Structures". Retrieved 2009-10-16.
  15. ^ "K.J. Bathe Editor of the Springer's book series on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics". Retrieved 2009-10-19.
  16. ^ "Seventh MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics".
  17. ^ "Scholarships | Klaus-Jürgen Bathe Leadership Programme". www.kjbatheleadership.uct.ac.za. Retrieved 2018-01-03.
  18. ^ "Klaus-Jürgen Bathe Leadership Program".
  19. ^ "MIT Video Lectures: Finite Element Procedures for Solids and Structures – Linear Analysis".
  20. ^ "MIT Video Lectures: Finite Element Procedures for Solids and Structures – Nonlinear Analysis".

External links[edit]