|K. pneumoniae on a MacConkey agar plate.|
|Classification and external resources|
Klebsiella pneumonia (KP) is a form of bacterial pneumonia associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae. It is typically due to aspiration and alcoholism may be a risk factor, though it is also commonly implicated in hospital-acquired urinary tract infections, and COPD(chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) individuals
Signs and symptoms
Individuals with Klebsiella pneumonia tend to cough up a characteristic sputum, as well as having fever, nausea, tachycardia and vomiting. Klebsiella pneumonia tends to affect people with underlying conditions, such as alcoholism.
In terms of the pathophysiology of Klebsiella pneumonia we see neutrophil myeloperoxidase defense against K P.Oxidative inactivation of elastase is involved, while LBP helps transfer bacteria cell wall elements to the cells.
Klebsiella resistant strains have been recorded in USA with a roughly threefold increase in Chicago cases, quarantined individuals in Israel, United Kingdom and parts of Europe, possible ground zero, or location of emergence, is the India-Pakistan border.
In terms of the diagnosis of Klebsiella pneumonia the following can be done to determine if the individual has this infection, including susceptibility testing for (ESBL) Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase, as well as:
Treatment for Klebsiella pneumonia is by antibiotics such as aminoglycosides and cephalosporins, the choice depending upon the person’s health condition, medical history and severity of the disease.
Klebsiella possesses beta-lactamase giving it resistance to ampicillin, many strains have acquired an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase with additional resistance to carbenicillin, amoxicillin, and ceftazidime. The bacteria remain susceptible to aminoglycosides and cephalosporins, varying degrees of inhibition of the beta-lactamase with clavulanic acid have been reported. Infections due to multidrug-resistant gram-negative pathogens in the ICU have invoked the re-emergence of colistin. However, colistin-resistant strains of K. pneumoniae have been reported in ICUs. In 2009, strains of K. pneumoniae with gene called New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase ( NDM-1) that even gives resistance against intravenous antibiotic carbapenem, were discovered in India and Pakistan.Klebsiella cases in Taiwan have shown abnormal toxicity, causing liver abscesses in people with diabetes mellitus (DM), treatment consists of third generation cephalosporins.[medical citation needed]
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