Klingon grammar

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The grammar of the Klingon language was created by Marc Okrand for the Star Trek franchise. He first described it in his book The Klingon Dictionary. It is a nominative–accusative, primarily suffixing agglutinative language, and has an object–verb–subject word order. The Klingon language has a number of unusual grammatical features, as it was designed to sound and seem alien, but it has an extremely regular morphology.

Word order[edit]

Klingon follows an object–verb–subject word order.[1] Adverbs usually go at the beginning of the sentence[2] and prepositional phrases go before the object.[3]

Do’ DujDaq ghoqwI’ Sam la’
Do’ Duj - Daq ghoqwI’ Sam la’
fortunately ship + locative spy find commander
Fortunately, the commander found the spy aboard the ship

Sentences can be treated as objects, and the word ’e’ is placed after the sentence. ’e’ is treated as the object of the next sentence.[4] The adverbs, indirect objects and locatives of the latter sentence go after the subject, but before the ’e’[5]

bIpIv ’e’ vItu’
bI - pIv ’e’ vI - tu’
you-Ø + be healthy that I-it + observe
I observe that you are healthy
I see that you're healthy

Nouns[edit]

Klingon has three noun classes. The first one is living beings with an innate capacity to use language. The second one is body parts (not the body itself) and the third is all other nouns.[6] Klingon has no articles, so the word raS table can mean a table or the table. The difference between the two is inferred from context. The suffixes are ordered based on type number; a type 2 suffix goes before a type 3 suffix, but after a type 1 suffix.[7]

vengHommeyqoqchajDaq
veng - Hom - mey - qoq - chaj - Daq
city + (1) diminutive + (2) plural + (3) dubitative + (4) their + (5) locative
in their so-called villages

Suffixes[edit]

There are five types of noun suffixes. A word cannot have two suffixes of the same type.[8]

Type 1 (size, affection)[edit]

This type has three suffixes:

ghom groupghom’a’ crowd
yuQ planetyuQHom planetoid
  • and the endearment suffix -oy.
vav fathervavoy daddy
  • If the noun to which the endearment suffix is added ends with a vowel, a glottal stop is inserted between them:[9]
ghu babyghu’oy dear baby

Type 2 (plurals)[edit]

This type of suffix forms plurals. There are three suffixes, one for each noun class.

  • The suffix -pu’ is for beings capable of using language.[6]
qetwI’ runnerqetwI’pu’ runners
  • The suffix -Du’ is for body parts,
ghop handghopDu’ hands
  • The suffix -mey is used for all other nouns.
quS chairquSmey chairs
  • When -mey is used for nouns that would normally take -pu’ or -Du’, it carries the connotation of being all over the place.
ghot personghotmey people all over the place

A noun does not require a plural suffix if a pronoun or pronominal prefix serves to indicate that it is plural,[10] or if it is being used in conjunction with a number.[11]

Duypu’ chaH or Duy chaH
They are emissaries.
raSmey DIghor or raS DIghor
We broke the tables.

Type 3 (accuracy)[edit]

This type of suffix indicates the speaker's opinion of the applicability of the noun. There are three suffixes:

  • The suffix -qoq indicates that the speaker thinks what they are referencing is not actually represented by the noun.
QaH the helpQaHqoq the so-called help
  • The dubitative suffix -Hey indicates the speaker is not entirely sure if the object they are referencing is represented by the noun.[12]
choH changechoHHey apparent change
  • The suffix -na’ indicates that the speaker is entirely sure that the object is represented accurately by the noun.[13]
jup friendjupna’ true friend

Type 4 (possession, determiners)[edit]

This type of suffix indicates possession or specifies which object is referred to. It contains twelve suffixes.

There are ten possession suffixes, indicating who is the possessor of the object, which may be a person. For first- and second-person possessors, there are different forms depending on whether the "object" is a being capable of using language.

Possessives[13] 1st-person
singular
2nd-person
singular
3rd-person
singular
1st-person
plural
2nd-person
plural
3rd-person
plural
Not capable of using language -wIj -lIj -Daj -maj -raj -chaj
Capable of using language -wI’ -lI’ -ma’ -ra’

There are also two determiner suffixes:[14]

  • -vam this indicates an object that is nearby or that is being discussed
  • -vetlh that indicates an object that is not nearby or that had previously been discussed

Examples:

  • Non-language-user possessives: nav papernavwIj my paper
  • Language-user possessives: qeSwI’pu’ advisorsqeSwI’pu’lI’ your advisors
  • Determiners: Soj foodSojvam this food

Type 5 (syntactic role)[edit]

This type of suffix serves a syntactic role in the sentence. It contains five suffixes.

  • The locative suffix -Daq indicates the action of the sentence is taking place in, at or on the noun.[15] With certain verbs, it indicates motion towards the noun.
juHmaj our homejuHmajDaq in our home
  • The ablative suffix -vo’ indicates that the action is taking place away from the noun. Again, with certain verbs, it indicates motion away from the noun.
qoj cliffqojvo’ away from the cliff
  • The causal suffix -mo’ indicates that the action is occurring because of the noun.
ghu’ situationghu’mo’ because of the situation
  • The dative/benefactive suffix -vaD indicates the indirect object, and/or the noun for which the action has been done.[15]
je’wI’ buyerje’wI’vaD to/for the buyer
  • The topicalizing suffix -’e’ indicates the topic of the sentence or emphasises the noun in the phrase, and also marks the head noun of a relative clause.[16]

Verbs[edit]

Klingon verbs mark for aspect but not for tense, which is indicated where necessary by context and by time adverbs. Prefixes mark subject and object. There are ten types of suffix, and as with nouns, a verb can have no more than one suffix of any type. (The tenth type, called rovers, are an exception.) Again as with nouns, the types of suffix must appear in a strict order, indicated by their type number: a type 2 suffix goes before a type 3 suffix, but after a type 1 suffix. A rover suffix can go between any of them.[17]

Unlike English, there is no infinitive.[18] The presentation of the verb stem as an infinitive in this article's example sentences is just to show the individual morphemes.

Prefixes[edit]

Klingon verb prefixes mark both the subject and the object.

Verb prefixes[18] Object
No object 1st person
singular
2nd person
singular
3rd person
singular
1st person
plural
2nd person
plural
3rd person
plural
Subject 1st person singular jI- qa- vI- Sa- vI-
2nd person singular bI- cho- Da- ju- Da-
3rd person singular Ø- mu- Du- Ø- nu- lI- Ø-
1st person plural ma- pI- wI- re- DI-
2nd person plural Su- tu- bo- che- bo-
3rd person plural Ø- mu- nI- lu- nu- lI- Ø-
unspecified* Ø- vI- Da- Ø- wI- bo- lu-

* Expressed with the type-5 verb suffix -lu’

Legend Meaning
Not represented
Ø- Null prefix
Imperative-mood prefixes[18] Object
No object 1st person
singular
3rd person
singular
1st person
plural
3rd person
plural
Subject 2nd person singular yI- HI- yI- gho- tI-
2nd person plural pe-

Prefixes must be present even if the nouns or pronouns they reference are declared explicitly.[19] In certain cases with a third person object, a first or second person indirect object can be omitted by using the first and second person object prefixes instead. This is known as the prefix trick.[20]

Examples:

  • No object: Qong sleepjIQong I sleep
  • Subject and object: nob giveDunob It gives (to) you
  • Imperative: laD readyIlaD Read it

Suffixes[edit]

Type 1 (reflexive/reciprocal)[edit]

This type of suffix forms reflexive verbs. There are two suffixes.

  • The reflexive suffix -’egh indicates that the individual subject(s) does/do the action to her/him/itself//themselves.[21]
jIlegh I seejIlegh’egh I see myself
ma’ang We revealma’ang’egh We reveal ourselves (individually)
  • The reciprocal suffix -chuq indicates that the individual subjects do the action to each other.[22] Intransitive verbs cannot take this suffix.
Sulegh You(pl) seeSuleghchuq You(pl) see each other

Type 2 (volition/necessity)[edit]

This type of suffix deals with the subject's volition. There are five suffixes.

  • The suffix -nIS indicates that the subject is required to or has the necessity to complete the action.
choja’ You tell mechoja’nIS You need to tell me
  • The suffix -qang indicates that the subject is willing to perform the action.
lungev They sell itlungevqang They are willing to sell it
  • The suffix -rup indicates the subject is prepared to complete the action.
ghu’ poj He/She analyzes the situationghu’ pojrup He/She is ready to analyze the situation
  • The suffix -beH indicates that the subject has been set up to complete the action. -beH is used with devices, whereas -rup is used with beings.[22]
nagh poj It analyzes the rocknagh pojbeH It is ready to analyze the rock
  • The suffix -vIp indicates that the subject is afraid to do the action.[23]
bIQub You thinkbIQubvIp You are afraid to think

Type 3 (inceptive/inchoative)[edit]

This type of suffix describes the action of the verb. There are two suffixes.

  • The suffix -choH indicates a change of state to that indicated by the verb:
yIt He/she/it walksyItchoH He/she/it starts walking
Doq It is redDoqchoH It becomes red
  • The suffix -qa’ indicates the action had been stopped, but is now resuming, or that the action is being performed again.[23]
yIQIj Explain ityIQIjqa’ Re-explain it

Type 4 (causative)[edit]

There is only one suffix in this category, the causative suffix -moH. This suffix indicates that the subject is causing the object to do something. If the verb to which it is added is transitive, the object becomes the indirect object. Many Klingon words are derived this way. For example, the verb clean (Say’moH) is derived from the verb be clean (Say’).[24]

Intransitive verb:

poS lojmIt.
poS   lojmIt
be open   door
The door is open.
Causative form:
lojmIt poSmoH ghot.
lojmIt   poS - moH   ghot
door   be open + causative   person
The person caused the door to be open.
The person opened the door.

Transitive verb:

paq Danej.
paq Da - nej
book you-it + look for
You look for the book.
You look/are looking for the book.
Causative form:
paq qanejmoH
paq qa - nej - moH
book I-you + look for + causative
I caused you to look for the book.
I made you look for the book.

Type 5 (undefined subject; capability)[edit]

There are two unrelated suffixes in this group. The suffix -lu’ indicates an undefined subject.[24] The verb prefixes that are normally used for first or second person subject with third person singular object are used to indicate first or second person object. The suffix -laH indicates that the subject is capable of performing the action of the verb.[24]

Examples:

  • -lu’ without prefix:
much bejlu’
much bej - lu’
presentation watch + indefinite subject
the presentation is watched, someone watches the presentation [Note 1]
much bej
He/she watches the presentation
  • -lu’ with prefix:
vItlha’lu’
vI - tlha’ - lu’
I-it + chase + indefinite subject
I am chased, someone chases me
vItlha’
I chase it
  • -laH:
vIbomlaH
vI - bom - laH
I-it + sing + able to
I can sing it

Type 6 (perfection; uncertainty)[edit]

This type indicates the speaker's opinion of the action of the verb. There are four suffixes.

  • The suffix -chu’ indicates that the speaker considers the action is done in the best possible manner.
pIQoy we hear youpIQoychu’ we hear you clearly
  • The suffix -bej indicates that the speaker is completely sure the action is occurring.
bInep you liebInepbej you definitely lie
  • The dubitative suffix -law’ indicates that the speaker thinks the action is occurring, but is not sure.[25]
luyaj they understand itluyajlaw’ they seem to understand it
  • The suffix -ba’ indicates that the speaker thinks that it is obvious that the action is occurring.[26]
lupar they dislike itluparba’ they obviously dislike it

Type 7 (aspect)[edit]

This type indicates the verb's aspect. There are four Type 7 suffixes.

Note that aspect is different from tense and independent of it. A "completed" event (perfective aspect, -pu’ or -ta’) can just as easily be set before, during, or after the time of description (past, present, or future tense), or unspecified for tense. For simplicity, this section says "is completed", not "was, is, or will be completed." (Do not confusive perfective aspect with "perfectly done".)

  • The perfective suffix -pu’ indicates that, in the time context of the sentence, the action is completed.
qaS It occursqaSpu’ It has occurred
vIghor I break itvIghorpu’ I broke it
  • The suffix -ta’ also indicates that the action is completed, and further specifies that it was done on purpose.[27]
Qu' tur She carries out the missionQu' turta’ She has carried out the mission
vIghor I break itvIghorta’ I broke it (on purpose)
  • The suffix -taH indicate that the verb is occurring continuously.
jItlhuH I breathejItlhuHtaH I keep breathing
  • The suffix -lI’ indicate that the verb is occurring continuously, but that it has a definite ending point.[28]
vISop I eat itvISoplI’ I am eating it (when eating something where there is a definite end point)

The perfective aspect can also be indicated by the use of the verb form rIntaH after the main verb. This carries the connotation of irreversibility.[28]

ghorlu’ rIntaH It has been broken (and it cannot be mended)

Type 8 (honorific)[edit]

There is only one suffix in this group, the honorific suffix -neS. It is used when addressing any type of superior, be it social, political, or military, and only when being very polite or having high regard for that person. It is never required.[29]

-neS: qaqIH I meet youqaqIHneS I am honoured to meet you

Type 9 (syntactic)[edit]

Eleven suffixes specify syntactic roles in the sentence.

Nominalizers[edit]

Two suffixes form specific types of noun from a verb.

  • The suffix -wI’ is used to form words for persons and things that do something, much as English nouns of the form X-er can mean either "person who does X" (listener, baker) or "thing that does X" (screwdriver, sprinkler).[17]
’Ij listen’IjwI’ listener
woch be tallwochwI’ tall person or tall thing
  • The suffix -ghach is used as a nominalizer for verbs ending in suffixes, which otherwise are unable to be nominalized. This suffix is usually used with other suffixes and is rarely found alone with the verb stem.[30][31]
QallaH be able to swimQallaHghach the ability to swim
pIvchoH become healthypIvchoHghach becoming healthy
Modals[edit]

These two suffixes inflect the verb in specific grammatical moods.

bIqal you are corruptbIqal’a’? Are you corrupt?
  • The optative suffix -jaj is used to indicate a wish or desire of the speaker.[26]
bIQap You succeedbIQapjaj May you succeed
Subordinators[edit]

The following seven suffixes are used to form subordinate clauses. A subordinate clause may go after or before the clause it modifies.[32]

Time

  • The suffix -pa’ indicates that the event described in the main clause occurs chronologically before the event of this clause.
jItlheDpa’, HIboQ Before I depart, assist me
(jItlheD I depart, HIboQ assist me)
  • The suffix -vIS indicates that the main clause is occurring at the same time as this clause. It is always used in conjunction with the type-7 suffix continuous suffix -taH.
lumtaHvIS, pagh ta’ He accomplishes nothing while he procrastinates
(lum procrastinate, ta’ accomplish, pagh nothing)
  • The suffix -DI’ indicates that the event of the main clause occurs immediately after the event of this clause is completed.
jImej chocholDI’ As soon as you approach me, I leave
(jImej I leave, chochol you approach me)

Cause and effect

DaSamlaHchugh, DaSuqlaH If you can find it, you can take it
(DaSamlaH you can find it, DaSuqlaH you can acquire (take) it)
  • The suffix -mo’ indicates the main clause is occurring because of this clause.[26]
bI’Ilmo’, qavoq Because you are sincere, I trust you
(bI’Il you are sincere, qavoq I trust you)

(Relative and purpose clauses)

  • The suffix -bogh is used in relative clauses. Their usage is covered in the relative clauses section.
  • The suffix -meH is used in purpose clauses.[17] Their usage is covered in the purpose clauses section.

Rovers[edit]

This type of suffix is known as a lengwI’ in Klingon, which is translated as rover (leng wander + wI’). There are four rovers. These suffixes have no defined position, and can go after the verb stem or after any suffix – even another rover – except after a type-9 suffix or where the result would be meaningless. They modify whatever directly precedes them.

  • The rover suffix -be’ negates what precedes it but in the imperative mood -Qo’ is used.[33]
wInaD We praise itwInaDbe’ We do not praise it
bo’ollaH You are able to verify itbo’ollaHbe’ You are not able to verify it
  • The rover suffix -Qo’ negates what precedes it in the imperative mood. In the indicative mood it indicates refusal by the subject. It can only be used between verb suffixes of Type 8 and Type 9.[34]
yIQIp Be stupidyIQIpQo’ don't be stupid
vIlon I abandon itvIlonQo’ I refuse to abandon it
  • The rover suffix -qu’ emphasises what precedes it.[35]
mejqang He is willing to leavemejqangqu’ He is really willing to leave
  • The rover suffix -Ha’ reverses what precedes it; that is, it indicates that the opposite of what precedes it is being done, or that the action is being undone.[34] If used on a verb that cannot be undone and has no meaningful opposite, it means to perform the action wrongly, not in the proper way, somewhat like the English prefix mis- in misspeak, mistype, misspell, etc. Unlike the other rovers, it can be placed only just after the stem; its classification in the rover category is attributed to the insistence of fictional Klingon grammarians.[36]
yIchu’ Activate ityIchu’Ha’ De-activate it
bolo’ you (plural) use itbolo’Ha’ you (pl.) misuse it
bIQuch You are happybIQuchHa’ You are unhappy

The position of the rover suffixes affects the meaning of the word. Contrast

luSoplaH They are able to eat it
luSoplaHbe’ They are not able to eat it
luSopbe’laH They are able to not eat it
(In context, possibly equivalent to They can refuse to eat it)
luSopbe’laHbe’ They are not able to not eat it
(In context, possibly equivalent to They cannot refuse to eat it)

Pronouns and copula[edit]

Klingon has no verb that corresponds to the verb to be; the concept is expressed using a different grammatical construction. Pronouns can be used as verbs that act as the pronoun plus the verb to be. The pronoun can take verb suffixes, which then modify the pronoun like any other verb. A third-person subject that is not a pronoun must go after the pronoun-verb and carry the type-5 noun suffix -’e’[37]

Pronouns[38] 1st-person
singular
2nd-person
singular
3rd-person
singular
1st-person
plural
2nd-person
plural
3rd-person
plural
Capable of using language jIH SoH ghaH maH tlhIH chaH
Not capable of using language ’oH bIH

Examples:

  • qonwI' tlhIH You are composers
  • ghojwI’ ghaH HaDwI’’e’ A studier is a learner

Adjectives[edit]

Klingon does not have adjectives as a distinct part of speech. Instead, many intransitive verbs can be used as adjectives, in which case they follow the noun they modify. Contrast (wep coat, and yIQ be wet)

wep yIQ
the wet coat

with

yIQ wep.
The coat is wet.

In this construction, the only verbal suffixes allowed are rover suffixes such as -qu’ and -Ha’.[39] Type-5 noun suffixes that would normally be attached to the noun are instead attached to the adjectival verb:[40]

pa’Daq
in the room
pa’ tInDaq
in the big room (tIn big)

Adverbs[edit]

Adverbs are usually placed at the beginning of the sentence,[2] but time adverbs go before other adverbs.[41]

wa'leS ghaytan nujatlh.
wa'les ghaytan nu - jatlh
tomorrow likely they-us + speak
They will probably speak to us tomorrow.

Adverbs can take the rover suffix -Ha’ to denote the opposite adverbial.[42]

Do’
fortunately
Do’Ha’
unfortunately

Conjunctions[edit]

Klingon has seven conjunctions, and they are different for nouns and for sentences. The noun conjunctions are je for a logical conjunction, joq for a logical disjunction and ghap for an exclusive disjunction. Noun conjunctions go after the nouns they connect. Sentence conjunctions are ’ej for a logical conjunction, qoj for a logical disjunction and pagh for an exclusive disjunction. ’ach (or ’a) but is used to contrast sentences.[11]

Clauses[edit]

Relative clauses[edit]

In a relative clause, the verb has the type-9 verb suffix -bogh added to it.[43] The order of the words in relative clauses remains the same as in regular clauses, but the head noun may optionally get the type-5 suffix -’e’ added.[44]

chuS Saj ngevbogh ghot’e’.
chuS Saj ngev - bogh ghot - -’e’
to be noisy pet sell + relative person + focus
The person who sells the pet is noisy
chuS Saj’e’ ngevbogh ghot.
chuS Saj + -’e’ ngev - bogh ghot
be noisy pet + focus sell relative person
The pet which the person sells is noisy

Since there is already a type-5 noun suffix marking the head noun, nothing other than the subject or the object can be marked as head noun. Two sentences are formed instead to form the same idea. Relative clauses can have nouns with type 5 suffixes as modifiers, but it can be ambiguous as they can be misinterpreted as being part of the main sentence.[44]

Purpose clauses[edit]

A purpose clause expresses the reason or goal of the action of the main clause. If it is modifying a noun it states the purpose of the noun. A purpose clause always goes before the clause or noun it modifies.[43] This is the cause of some grammatical ambiguity in Klingon, as a -meH modifying a noun at the beginning of a sentence can be misinterpreted as modifying the entire sentence. This can be resolved in writing with punctuation.[44]

  • -meH with sentence: jumISmoHmeH, jutoj
ju - mIS - moH - meH, ju - toj
you-us + be confused + causative - purpose you-us + trick
You tricked us in order to confuse us.
  • -meH with nouns: QaQ vIDubmeH qechlIj
QaQ vI - Dub - meH qech - lIj
be good I-it + improve + purpose idea + your
Your idea [for I improve it] is good
Your idea on how I should improve it is good/Your idea for improving it is good.

Comparatives[edit]

In this section, noun phrases are indicated by the abbreviation NP, and adjectives by A.

Klingon comparatives mainly rely on adjectives like law’ (to be many), puS (to be few), rap (to be the same), and rur (to resemble, to be like) to contrast the nouns. However, many (but not all) of the comparatives have unusual word orders that don't parse as regular Klingon sentences.

  • The main Klingon comparative structure is NP1 A law’ NP2 A puS.
    The general meaning of this construction is "NP1 is more A than NP2".
qachvam chu’ law’ juHlIj chu' puS. This building is newer than your home.
(chu’ be new, qachvam this building, juHlIj your home)
literally: this-building new many – home-your new few
  • The structure NP1 A law’ Hoch A puS is used to form superlatives, i.e.
    "NP1 has the most of quality A (= has more of quality A than anything/one else has)".
    (Hoch = all, everyone, everything)
qIDvetlh tlhaQ law' Hoch tlhaQ puS. That joke is the funniest.
(tlhaQ be funny, qIDvetlh that joke)
literally: joke-that funny many – everything funny few
  • The inverse structure, Hoch A law’ NP1 A puS is used to indicate
    "NP1 has the least of quality A".[43]
Hoch quv law’ verengnan quv puS. Ferengi are the least honorable.
(quv be honorable, verengnan Ferengi)
literally: everyone honorable many – Ferengi honorable few
  • The structure A NP1; NP2 rur is used to form similes:
    "NP1 is A; he/she/it resembles NP2".
’IQ rav rur. He is as sad as a floor.[45]
(’IQ be sad; he is sad, rav floor, rur to resemble; he resembles)
literally: he is sad; he is like a floor

Questions[edit]

A yes–no question in Klingon can be formed by adding the suffix -’a’ to the regular form. The word for yes is HISlaH or HIja’ and the word for no is ghobe’.[37] Interrogative pronouns go where the answer would normally go, and don't reorder the sentence. Interrogative adverbs go at the beginning of the sentence.[46]

Numbers[edit]

Klingon uses a base-10 system to count numbers. To form a multiple of 10, 100, 1000, 1000000, the word for the multiple of ten is suffixed to the digit. For example. chorghmaH is a combination of the word chorgh eight and the number forming suffix -maH ten.

Larger powers go before smaller powers: chorghmaH Soch is eight-ten seven. The number suffix -DIch is used to form ordinal numbers, and the number suffix -logh indicates how many times an action has been repeated: loSDIch fourth, wa’maH cha’logh twelve times.[47]

10 -maH
100 -vatlh
1 000 -SaD -SanID
10 000 -netlh
100 000 -bIp
1 000 000 -’uy’
0 pagh 5 vagh
1 wa’ 6 jav
2 cha’ 7 Soch
3 wej 8 chorgh
4 loS 9 Hut

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ -lu’ is not the same thing as the passive voice. -lu’ makes the subject indefinite, and keeps the object where it would be if it had a subject. Unlike the passive voice, it does not make the subject the patient of the verb, except when using the verb prefixes

Sources[edit]

  • Okrand, Marc (1992). The Klingon Dictionary, 2nd Edition. Pocket Books. ISBN 978-0671745592.
  • Okrand, Marc. paq'batlh. uitgeverij. 2011.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Okrand 1992, p.59
  2. ^ a b Okrand 1992, p.56. Note exception neH only, merely from p.56 and jay’ (swear word) from p.177.
  3. ^ Okrand 1992, p.180
  4. ^ Okrand 1992, p.66. Note exception neH want
  5. ^ Okrand 2011
  6. ^ a b Okrand 1992, p.22
  7. ^ Okrand 1992, p.29
  8. ^ a b Okrand 1992, p.21
  9. ^ Okrand 1992, p.174
  10. ^ Okrand 1992, p.23
  11. ^ a b Okrand 1992, p.55
  12. ^ Okrand 1992, p.24
  13. ^ a b Okrand 1992, p.25
  14. ^ Okrand 1992, p.26
  15. ^ a b Okrand 1992, p.27
  16. ^ Okrand 1992, p.28
  17. ^ a b c d Okrand 1992, p.44
  18. ^ a b c Okrand 1992, p.33
  19. ^ Okrand 1992, p.52
  20. ^ Okrand, Marc; Schermerhorn, Neal (29 June 1997). "Re: Some quick questions..." Retrieved 5 July 2013.
  21. ^ Okrand 1992, p.35
  22. ^ a b Okrand 1992, p.36
  23. ^ a b Okrand 1992, p.37
  24. ^ a b c Okrand 1992, p.38
  25. ^ Okrand 1992, p.40
  26. ^ a b c Okrand 1992, p.175
  27. ^ Okrand 1992, p.41
  28. ^ a b Okrand 1992, p.42
  29. ^ a b Okrand 1992, p.43
  30. ^ Okrand, Marc; Schoen, Lawrence M. (September 1994). "Interview: Okrand on -ghach". HolQeD. Flourtown, Pennsylvania: Klingon Language Institute. 3 (3): 10–13.
  31. ^ Okrand 1992, p.176
  32. ^ Okrand 1992, p.62
  33. ^ Okrand 1992, p.46
  34. ^ a b Okrand 1992, p.47
  35. ^ Okrand 1992, p.48
  36. ^ Okrand 1992, p.49
  37. ^ a b Okrand 1992, p.68
  38. ^ Okrand 1992, p.51
  39. ^ Okrand 1992, p.49, says only -qu’, but later canon examples expand the set, for example ngaDHa’ in Okrand 1997, p.150
  40. ^ Okrand 1992, p.50
  41. ^ Okrand 1992, p.179
  42. ^ Okrand, Marc (December 1995). "More from Maltz". HolQeD. Flourtown, Pennsylvania: Klingon Language Institute. 4 (4): 11.
  43. ^ a b c Okrand 1992, p.64
  44. ^ a b c Okrand, Marc; Schoen, Lawrence M. (June 1995). "Interview: Okrand on -bogh and more". HolQeD. Flourtown, Pennsylvania: Klingon Language Institute. 4 (2): 5–6.
  45. ^ Native Klingon Simile from Okrand, Marc. Klingon for the Galactic Traveller. Pocket Books. p. 134. ISBN 978-0671009953.
  46. ^ Okrand 1992, p.69
  47. ^ Okrand 1992, p.53-55