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Knights of Columbus

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Knights of Columbus
The Knights of Columbus emblem consists of a shield mounted on a formée cross. Mounted on the shield are a fasces, an anchor, and a dagger.
Emblem of the Knights of Columbus
AbbreviationK of C
MottoIn service to One, in service to All
FormationMarch 29, 1882; 137 years ago (1882-03-29)
FounderMichael J. McGivney
Founded atNew Haven, Connecticut
TypeCatholic fraternal service organization
HeadquartersKnights of Columbus Building, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.
Supreme Knight
Carl A. Anderson
Supreme Chaplain
William E. Lori
Affiliations
Websitewww.kofc.org

The Knights of Columbus is a global Catholic fraternal service organization.[1][2] It is currently led by Carl A. Anderson.

The organization was founded in 1882 as a mutual benefit society for working-class and immigrant Catholics in the United States. It has grown to support refugee relief, Catholic education, local parishes and dioceses, and global Catholic causes.[1][3][4][5] The Knights promote a conservative Catholic view on public policy issues, including various political causes, and are participants in the new evangelization.

The organization provides certain financial services to affiliated groups and individuals.[6] Its wholly owned insurance company, one of the largest in the world, underwrites more than two million insurance contracts, totaling more than US$100 billion of life insurance in force.[7] The order also owns the Knights of Columbus Asset Advisors, a money management firm that invests in accordance with Catholic social teachings.

As of 2019, there are nearly two million members around the world.[8][9][10] Membership is limited to practicing Catholic males aged 18 or older. The Order comprises four different "degrees", each one of which exemplifies one of the core principles of the order.[1] There are more than 16,000 local Knights of Columbus councils around the world,[9] including over 300 on college campuses.[11][12] Its junior organization is known as the Columbian Squires.[13]

History[edit]

Early years[edit]

A painting of the Michael J. McGivney.
Michael J. McGivney, founder of the Knights of Columbus
St. Mary's Church

In 1882, Irish-American priest Michael J. McGivney founded the Knights of Columbus in New Haven, Connecticut. [14][15] McGivney wanted to provide insurance to care for his Catholic immigrant parishioners who faced unforeseen hardship by setting up a mutual benefit society.[16][17] Under an insurance scheme devised by McGivney, a deceased Knight's widow was granted a US$1,000 death benefit,[18] funded by a pro-rata contribution from the membership.[18][19] In addition, there was also a sick benefit for members who fell ill and could not work.[20]

Early 20th century[edit]

During World War I, the Knights established soldiers' welfare centers in the U.S. and abroad.[21] After the war, the Knights participated in education, occupational training, and employment programs for veterans.[22]

See him through--Help us to help the boys.jpg

Following the war, some Americans had concerns about the assimilation of immigrants and believed public schooling was necessary to teach all children to be American. The Oregon Compulsory Education Act of 1922 would have disallowed parochial schools including Catholic schools in that state.[23][24][25] The Knights of Columbus challenged the law in court,[26] and, in a landmark 1925 ruling (Pierce v. Society of Sisters), the United States Supreme Court struck down the act.[27]

In the 1920s, to combat animus targeted at racial and religious minorities, including Catholics, the order formed a historical commission which published a series of three books: "Knights of Columbus Racial Contributions Series": The Gift of Black Folk, by W. E. B. Du Bois, The Jews in the Making of America by George Cohen, and The Germans in the Making of America by Frederick Schrader.[28]

During the nadir of American race relations, a bogus oath was circulated, including by the Ku Klux Klan, claiming that Fourth Degree Knights swore to exterminate Freemasons and Protestants.[29][30][31][32] Numerous state councils and the Supreme Council believed this disparagement would stop if the KKK were punished by fines or jail time, and the Knights began suing distributors for libel.[33] As a result, the KKK ended its publication of the false oath. As the order did not wish to appear motivated by a "vengeful spirit" against those convicted, it then advocated leniency in their sentencing.[33]

Recent history[edit]

Nowadays, according to Church historian Massimo Faggioli, the Knights of Columbus are "'an extreme version' of a post-Vatican II phenomenon, the rise of discrete lay groups that have become centers of power themselves".[5] As the order and its charitable works grew, so did its prominence within the church.[34] Pope John Paul II referred to the order as the "strong right arm of the Church" for their support of the church, as well as for their philanthropic and charitable efforts.[35]

Degrees and principles[edit]

The order is dedicated to the principles ('Degrees') of charity, unity, fraternity, and patriotism.[36] The first ritual handbook, printed in 1885, contained only the first two Degrees teaching unity and charity. The third Degree, espousing fraternity, was adopted in 1891.[37]

The Fourth Degree, which is dedicated to patriotism, was adopted in 1903.[38][39] Members of the Fourth Degree join assemblies which are separate from ordinary councils.[38] Assemblies may form color guards, which are often the most visible arm of the Knights, to attend important civic and church events.[40]

Charitable giving[edit]

The Knights of Columbus states that charity is its most important principle.[41][42] Beginning in 1897, the National Council encouraged local councils to establish funds to support members affected by the 1890s depression.[43] Aid was also dispensed to assist victims of natural and man-made disasters in the early 20th century.[44][45] Councils also offered employment agency services and provided aid to the poor and sick as well as people burdened with intellectual disability.[39][46][47] The organization has been reluctant to discuss the charitable and social causes it supports, which have tended to be more conservative than the mainstream views of Catholics in general.[48][49]

Membership[edit]

Knights of Columbus headquarters

Membership is restricted to adult male Catholics.[50] As of 2018, there were 1.9 million knights.[51][52] Each member belongs to one of more than 16,000 local "councils" around the world.[9][53] The college councils program started with the chartering of University of Notre Dame Council #1477 in 1910.[54]As of 2018, there over 300 college councils.[11][12]

Corporate governance[edit]

The Supreme Council is the governing body of the order. It elects insurance members to serve three-year terms on a 24-member Board of Directors.[55][56] Leaders' salaries are set by the board of directors and ratified by the delegates to the Supreme Convention.[57] The seven-figure salaries of senior KofC officers have been criticized as excessive.[57][58][49]:1 In 1969, the Knights opened a 23-story headquarters building in New Haven.[59][60]

Promotion of the Catholic faith[edit]

Efforts against religious discrimination[edit]

The Knights of Columbus presented a check to The Catholic University of America on the steps of the university's McMahon Hall in 1904 to establish a Chair of American History.

Since its earliest days, the Knights of Columbus has been a "Catholic anti-defamation society".[61] In 1914, it established a Commission on Religious Prejudices.[61] As part of the effort, the order distributed pamphlets, and lecturers toured the country speaking on how Catholics could love and be loyal to America.[62]

The creation of the 4th Degree, with its emphasis on patriotism, performed an anti-defamation function as well as asserting claims to Americanism.[63][64] In response to a defamatory "bogus oath" circulated by the KKK,[65] in 1914 the Knights set up a framework for a lecture series and educational programs to combat anti-Catholic sentiment.[66]

New evangelization[edit]

The Knights have been urged to take a prominent role in the new evangelization.[67] The CIS published a series on the new evangelization in 2011,[68] and donations to other Catholic mass communication services represent one of the Knights' major expenditures.[69] The Knights have also established councils in both secular and Catholic universities.[70]

Political activity[edit]

While the Knights were active politically from an early date, in the years following the Second Vatican Council, as the "Catholic anti-defamation character" of the order began to diminish as Catholics became more accepted, the leadership began to use its financial resources to directly influence the direction of the Church.[5] That led to the creation of a "variety of new programs reflecting the proliferation of the new social ministries of the church".[71][5]

The leadership of the order has been, at times, both liberal and conservative. Martin H. Carmody and Luke E. Hart were both political conservatives, but John J. Phelan was a Democratic politician prior to becoming Supreme Knight,[72] John Swift's "strong support for economic democracy and social-welfare legislation marks him as a fairly representative New Deal anti-communist,"[73] and Francis P. Matthews was a civil rights official and member of Harry Truman's cabinet. The current Supreme Knight, Carl A. Anderson, previously served in Ronald Reagan's White House.

While the Knights of Columbus support political awareness and activity, United States councils are prohibited by tax laws from engaging in candidate endorsement and partisan political activity due to their non-profit status.[74] The rules of the order also prohibit partisan politics in council chambers or at any events.[75] Public policy activity is limited to issue-specific campaigns, typically dealing with Catholic family and sanctity of life issues.[76][50] They state that

In addition to performing charitable works, the Knights of Columbus encourages its members to meet their responsibilities as Catholic citizens and to become active in the political life of their local communities, to vote and to speak out on the public issues of the day. ... In the political realm, this means opening our public policy efforts and deliberations to the life of Christ and the teachings of the Church. In accord with our Bishops, the Knights of Columbus has consistently maintained positions that take these concerns into account. The order supports and promotes the social doctrine of the Church, including a robust vision of religious liberty that embraces religion's proper role in the private and public spheres.[76]

The order opposed persecution of Catholics in Mexico during the Cristero War,[77] and opposed communism.[78][79] Also during the 20th century, the order established the Commission on Religious Prejudices, and the Knights of Columbus Historical Commission which combated racism.[80] It was also supportive of trade unionism, and published the works "of the broad array of intellectuals", including George Schuster, Samuel Flagg Bemis, Allan Nevins, and W. E. B. DuBois.[80]

During the Cold War, the order had a history of anti-socialist, anti-communist crusades.[81] They lobbied to add "under God" to the Pledge of Allegiance, as a religious response to Soviet atheism.[82][83] The Knights have been active opponents against the legal introduction of same-sex marriage and have been a key contributor in terms of funding to local measures.[84]The Knights have donated over $1 million to the Susan B. Anthony Foundation and other anti-abortion and anti- contraception organizations.[5][85]

Subsidiaries[edit]

Museum[edit]

A photograph of the façade of St. Peter's Basilica.
The cross from the façade of St. Peter's Basilica now resides in the Knights' museum.[86]

On March 10, 2001, the order opened a museum in New Haven dedicated to their history.[87][60] The 77,000 square foot building cost $10 million to renovate.[87] It holds mosaics on loan from the Vatican and gifts from Popes, the membership application from John F. Kennedy, and a number of other items related to the history of the Knights.[87] Near the entrance is the cross held by Jesus Christ on the facade of St. Peter's Basilica[87] before undergoing a Knights-financed renovation.[86] As many as 300,000 visitors were expected per year.[87]

Knights of Columbus Asset Advisors[edit]

In 2015, the order launched Knights of Columbus Asset Advisors, a money management firm that invests money in accordance with Catholic social teaching.[6][88] The firm uses the Socially Responsible Investment Guidelines published by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops to guide their investment decisions.[6][88] The guidelines include protecting human life, promoting human dignity, reducing arms production, pursuing economic justice, protecting the environment, and encouraging corporate responsibility.[a][6]trim

In addition to the wholly owned subsidiary, it also purchased 20% of Boston Advisors, a boutique investment management firm, managing assets for institutional and high-net-worth investors.[6][90] Knights of Columbus Asset Advisors manages the fixed-income strategies for their funds while Boston Advisors sub-advises on the equity strategies.[6][90] Knights of Columbus Asset Advisors also offers model portfolio, outsourced CIO services, a bank loan strategy, and other alternative investment strategies.[6] In 2019, the Knights purchased the institutional management business of Boston Advisors.[90]

Saint John Paul II National Shrine[edit]

The order owns and operates the Saint John Paul II National Shrine in Washington D.C.[5] In 2011, the Order purchased the 130,000-square-foot John Paul II Cultural Center.[91][92][5] The mission as a cultural center ended in 2009[93] and the Knights rebranded it as a shrine to Pope John Paul II.[91][92] Soon after the pope was canonized, the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops named the building a national shrine.[93]

Each year 64,000 pilgrims visit the shrine, which features video content, interactive displays, and personal effects from John Paul.[93] There is also a first class relic of the pope's blood on display for veneration.[93] It also serves as a base for the Order in Washington, D.C.[94]

Notable Knights[edit]

A photograph of President John F. Kennedy
President John F. Kennedy was a Fourth Degree member of Bunker Hill Council No. 62.[95]

Many notable Catholic men from all over the world have been Knights of Columbus. In the United States, some of the most notable include John F. Kennedy; Ted Kennedy;[96] Vince Lombardi; Al Smith;[97] Sargent Shriver;[98] Samuel Alito; John Boehner;[99] Ray Flynn;[100] Jeb Bush;[101] and Sergeant Major Daniel Daly,[102] a two-time Medal of Honor recipient.[103]

In the world of sports, Vince Lombardi, the famed former coach of the Green Bay Packers;[104] James Connolly, the first Olympic gold medal champion in modern times;[105] Floyd Patterson, former heavyweight boxing champion;[106] and baseball legend Babe Ruth[107] were all knights.

On October 15, 2006, Bishop Rafael Guizar Valencia (1878–1938) was canonized by Pope Benedict XVI in Rome. In 2000, six other Knights, who were killed in the violence following the Mexican Revolution, were declared saints by Pope John Paul II.[108]

Emblem of the order[edit]

Knights of Columbus LOGO.png

The emblem of the order was designed by Past Supreme Knight James T. Mullen and adopted at the second Supreme Council meeting on May 12, 1883.[109] Shields used by medieval knights served as the inspiration. The emblem consists of a shield mounted on a Formée cross, which is an artistic representation of the cross of Christ. This represents the Catholic identity of the order.[110][non-primary source needed]

Mounted on the shield are three objects: a fasces; an anchor; and a dagger. In ancient Rome, the fasces was carried before magistrates as an emblem of authority. The order uses it as "symbolic of authority which must exist in any tightly-bonded and efficiently operating organization".[110][non-primary source needed] The anchor represents Christopher Columbus, patron of the order. The short sword, or dagger, was a weapon used by medieval knights. The shield as a whole, with the letters "K of C", represents "Catholic Knighthood in organized merciful action".[110][non-primary source needed]

Auxiliary groups[edit]

Women's auxiliaries[edit]

Many councils also have women's auxiliaries. At the turn of the 20th century two were formed by local councils and each took the name the Daughters of Isabella.[111][112] Using the same name, both groups expanded and issued charters to other circles but never merged. The newer organization renamed itself the Catholic Daughters of the Americas in 1921 and both have structures independent of the Knights of Columbus.[113][114] Other groups are known as the Columbiettes.[111] In the Philippines, the ladies' auxiliary is known as the Daughters of Mary Immaculate.[115]

A proposal in 1896 to establish councils for women did not pass, and was never proposed again.[116]

Columbian Squires[edit]

The Knights' official junior organization is the Columbian Squires. It has been described as "an athletic team, a youth group, a social club, a cultural and civic improvement association, a management training course, a civil rights organization and a spiritual development program all rolled into one".[citation needed] According to the McDonald, "The supreme purpose of the Columbian Squires is character building."[117]

It was founded in 1925 in Duluth, Minnesota, by Brother Barnabas McDonald, F.S.C..[118][119][120] There are more than 25,000 Squires around the world.[citation needed] The formation of new Squire Circles in the United States and Canada is discouraged as the Order desires to move youth activities from exclusive clubs into the local parish youth groups.[120]

Similar Christian organizations[edit]

The Knights of Columbus is a member of the International Alliance of Catholic Knights, which includes fifteen fraternal orders such as the Knights of Saint Columbanus in Ireland, the Knights of Saint Columba in the United Kingdom, the Knights of Peter Claver in the United States, the Knights of the Southern Cross in Australia and New Zealand, the Knights of Marshall in Ghana, the Knights of Da Gama in South Africa, and the Knights of Saint Mulumba in Nigeria.[121] The Loyal Orange Institution, also known as the Orange Order, is a similar organization for Protestant Christians.[122][123]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The full guidelines are published on the episcopal conference's website.[89]

References[edit]

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Works cited[edit]

Alley, Robert S., ed. (1999). The Constitution & Religion: Leading Supreme Court Cases on Church and State. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-57392-703-1.
Brinkley, Douglas; Fenster, Julie M. (2006). Parish Priest: Father Michael McGivney and American Catholicism. New York: William Morrow. ISBN 978-0-06-077684-8.
Dodge, William Wallace (1903). The Fraternal and Modern Banquet Orator: An Original Book of Useful Helps at the Social Session and Assembly of Fraternal Orders, College Entertainments, Social Gatherings and All Banquet Occasions. Chicago: Monarch Book Company.
Flanagan, Luke (2017). "Knights of Columbus Catholic Recreation Clubs in Great Britain, 1917–1919". In Malet, David; Anderson, Miriam J. (eds.). Transnational Actors in War and Peace: Militants, Activists, and Corporations in World Politics. Georgetown University Press. pp. 24–41. ISBN 978-1-62616-443-7.
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 ———  (2001). Patriotism and Fraternalism in the Knights of Columbus. New York: Crossroad Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-8245-1885-1.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
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Further reading[edit]

Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1922). "Knights of Columbus" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 31 (12th ed.). London: Encyclopædia Britannica Company. pp. 682–683.
Egan, Maurice Francis; Kennedy, John James Bright (1920). The Knights of Columbus in Peace and War. 1. Knights of Columbus. ISBN 978-1-142-78398-3.[self-published source?]
Bauernschub, John P. (1949). Fifty Years of Columbianism in Maryland. Baltimore, Maryland: Maryland State Council, Knights of Columbus.[self-published source?]
 ———  (1965). Columbianism in Maryland, 1897–1965. Baltimore, Maryland: Maryland State Council, Knights of Columbus.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)[self-published source?]
  • Lapomarda, S.J., Vincent A. (1992). The Knights of Columbus in Massachusetts (second ed.). Norwood, Massachusetts: Knights of Columbus Massachusetts State Council.[self-published source?]
Sweany, Mark J. (1923). Educational Work of the Knights of Columbus. Bureau of Education Bulletin. 22. Mark J. Sweaney, Director of the Knights of Columbus Educational Activities. Washington: Government Printing Office. hdl:2346/60378.

External links[edit]