Knik Arm Bridge

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Knik Arm Bridge
Wpdms shdrlfi020l cook inlet with arms.jpg
Coordinates 61°17′N 149°54′W / 61.28°N 149.9°W / 61.28; -149.9Coordinates: 61°17′N 149°54′W / 61.28°N 149.9°W / 61.28; -149.9
CrossesKnik Arm
Named forKnik Arm
Total length1.74 miles (2.80 km)
Construction cost$800 million (estimated)[when?]

Coordinates: 61°17′N 149°54′W / 61.28°N 149.9°W / 61.28; -149.9

The Knik Arm Bridge is a dormant proposal for a 1.74-mile (2.80 km) bridge across Cook Inlet's Knik Arm to link the two fastest growing parts of AlaskaAnchorage and the Matanuska-Susitna Borough.

The project consists of a 1.74-mile (2.80 km) bridge with 18 miles (29 km) of connector roads, including on and off ramps, and a $50 million cut and cover tunnel under Government Hill.[1] Cost estimates are between $700 and $800 million.[1]

Proponents say the crossing would provide access to much-needed residential, commercial and industrial land; create jobs; reduce the cost of transportation to Interior Alaska and the North Slope; lessen carbon emissions and provide an alternative transportation route out of Anchorage.

Opponents say the crossing would create unnecessary urban sprawl in the Anchorage area, would be more expensive and less used than projected, would divert limited transportation funding away from more critical projects, would disrupt the Government Hill neighborhood, and negatively impact the endangered Cook Inlet beluga whales.


The idea of a bridge or causeway across Knik Arm was first envisioned in 1923 by Alaska Railroad engineers looking for a more efficient route to Alaska's interior.[2] In 1955, a group of Anchorage businessmen studied it again, arriving at a cost estimate of $25 million ($240 million today).[2] The 1968 Seward's Success proposal, an $800 million ($5.9 billion today) multi-phased megaproject encompassing a large domed community, included both an aerial tramway and monorail to span the Knik Arm.[3]

In 2003, the Alaska Legislature created the Knik Arm Bridge And Toll Authority (KABATA), to develop a method of construction, financing, design, operation and maintenance of the bridge.[4] By 2010, KABATA had completed the final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and had obtained a "build" Record of Decision from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA).


View of area from space. The bridge would cross from the city to Point MacKenzie, Alaska the green area to the NW of the gray city of Anchorage

Many Government Hill residents oppose the plan since many of the options presented would bisect the neighborhood and raze parts of it.[5] Some opponents argue the bridge is a "pork-barrel project" because it was tied to the Gravina Island Bridge in its $450 million plus funding legislation.[6] There is also concern it could threaten a population of beluga whales despite receiving a biological opinion of 'no jeopardy' from the National Marine Fisheries Service.[7] Interconnecting with existing Anchorage freeways and other arteries presents an additional challenge.

Original funding for the Knik Arm Bridge was provided by an earmark written by Don Young. The same bill funded the so-called "Bridge to Nowhere."

The Knik Arm Bridge and Toll Authority (KABATA) came under scrutiny in September 2006 when reports surfaced that its lead staff had received 20% to 30% raises at an executive session in August, raising to a typical salary of $130,000 per year. KABATA produced a 14-minute video which cost $57,490 including airtime.[8]

Former Governor Sarah Palin has been criticized for supporting the project, with one attorney for an environmentalist group suggesting she only supports it because it serves the area that she comes from.[9] Palin's running mate in the 2008 presidential election John McCain opposes the bridge, calling the bill funding it and the Gravina Island Bridge a "monstrosity" that was "terrifying in its fiscal consequences".[9]

In 2011, the city of Anchorage filed a lawsuit to force the federal government to drop its green light for the controversial Knik Arm bridge project, arguing that it would hurt the Port of Anchorage.[10]

Some critics have expressed a belief that the toll revenue estimates provided to rationalize construction are unrealistic, as well.[11]

Because of all of the concerns, the demise of the project has been expected for years.[12] Funding for the project has been repeatedly removed from the state budget by Governor Bill Walker.[13][14]


Supporters of the bridge believe that the bridge would allow the growing population of the region to expand into the Point MacKenzie area.[15] The approach road and connectors, along with the bridge total about 10 miles (16 km) from Downtown Anchorage, about the same commuting distance as other available land in Anchorage. The residents of the Matanuska/Susitna Valley currently have only a single road to get to and from Anchorage and points south and Anchorage residents only have a single route to all points north. The Parks Highway which runs through Willow, Alaska, Houston, Alaska and Wasilla, joins the Glenn Highway, which continues along a strip of land between Chugach State Park and the military bases north of Anchorage. The Knik Arm Bridge and connecting roads would provide a secondary north/south roadway to Wasilla. There is however concern that the only paved connecting road on the Matanuska/Susitna Borough side of the bridge, which is the Knik Goose Bay Road, is presently overcapacity and listed as one of the four most dangerous roads in the state.[16] The commuting distance for the vast majority of all existing residents of the Matanuska/Susitna Valley would not be lessened by taking the Knik Arm Bridge, a factor that Bridge critics say make KABATA's current revenue forecasts from the Bridge Tolls overstated.[17]

Defending Knik Arm Bridge spending[edit]

In October 2005 Alaska Senator Ted Stevens opposed diverting Alaska's funding for the Gravina and Knik Arm Bridge funds to Louisiana to repair bridge damage in Hurricane Katrina. In his speech on the senate floor, Stevens threatened to quit Congress if the funds were removed from his state.[18] Republicans in Congress dropped the specific allocation for the two bridges, allowing Alaska to apply the money to current transportation projects. Governor Frank Murkowski planned to fully fund both bridges: "I am proposing we spend the maximum allowed."[citation needed]


In 2009, Anchorage Metro Area Transportation Solutions (AMATS) decided to postpone the project and remove it from Anchorage's short term transportation plan until 2018. The cities of Houston and Wasilla responded with a lawsuit because AMATS did not have the authority to delay the project, which is a National Highway System route.[19] In March 2010, the AMATS Policy Committee with new members, reversed their previous decision and re-instated the bridge into the short term transportation plan.[20]

Received "Record of Decision" from Federal Highways Administration[edit]

In December 2010 the FHWA issued a "Record of Decision" accepting the Environmental Impact Statement, after over seven years and approximately $53 Million spent on studies, preliminary designs, public relations and cost estimating.[21] KABATA has stated that they have asked their Toll and Revenue Consultant Wilbur Smith Associates [22] to re-visit their revenue and toll forecasts to reflect conditions that have changed since 2005, including revised population estimates for the Matanuska Susitna Borough by the University of Alaska Anchorage's Institute for Social and Economic Research (ISER), that are as much as 50% lower than those forecasts used in the EIS to show that the Toll Bridge was "financially feasible".

Legislative action[edit]

Alaska State Senator Linda Menard and House Representative Mark Neuman introduced a set of companion bills in 2011 to establish a project reserve fund and clarify that the project is an infrastructure project backed by the state. These changes were necessitated by the national 2008 financial crisis. It would allow the state to repay the private investors when toll revenue is building up in early years after opening.[23]

Senate Bill 079 set aside $150 Million into a "reserve fund",paid by the State General Funds to cover the estimated deficits for the first three years.[24] Senate Bill 080 says KABATA bonds will now be "obligations of the state."[25]

KABATA CFO Kevin Hemenway told the Legislature's transportation committees that if the reserve fund dropped far enough "it would be subject to appropriation for replenishment."[26]

The bills passed the House but stalled in the Senate.

In 2013 a legislative audit found that KABATA had overestimated potential revenue from tolls, leading to a decision to place the organization under the direct control of the Alaska Housing Finance Corporation, essentially stripping KABATA of any independent authority. The move is also expected to significantly slow the project, with AHFC explicitly rejecting any sort of timetable for completion.[27]

The day after KABATA was merged into AHFC the funding bill was passed, obligating the state for $1.14 billion for the project.[28]

On December 15, 2014 Governor Bill Walker announced the revised capital budget. It cut $45 million for the Knik Arm Project from the capital budget, that was created by the previous administration under Gov. Sean Parnell.[13]

In 2018, the Alaska legislature included funding to restart the now dormant project, but the funding was again vetoed by Governor Walker.[14] With no funding the project is effectively dormant for the foreseeable future.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2014-03-17.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ a b "KABATA History". Archived from the original on 2012-05-21. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
  3. ^ Porco, Peter (November 3, 2002). "City of tomorrow a failed dream of yesterday - Thinking big: Domed suburb across Knik Arm was planned in detail". Anchorage Daily News. p. B3.
  4. ^ "KABATA About Us". Archived from the original on 2012-05-21. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
  5. ^ Microsoft Word - 8-12-05 GHCC KABATA Comments.doc Archived March 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ [1][dead link]
  7. ^ "Endangered Species Act: Section 7 Consultation Biological Opinion, VII. Conclusion" (PDF). p. 71. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
  8. ^ Christiansen, Scott (2010-07-28). "Just slightly north to the future - Anchorage Press: Anchorage Press News". Anchorage Press. Archived from the original on 2012-07-30. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
  9. ^ a b "Palin supports $600 million 'other' bridge project". USA Today. September 16, 2008. Retrieved May 7, 2010.
  10. ^ "KNIK ARM: Muni says it will hurt port, wants federal OK dropped". Anchorage Daily News. 2011-07-07. Archived from the original on 2012-08-19. Retrieved 2013-06-21.
  11. ^ "Knik Arm Bridge Estimates Just Don't Add Up". Anchorage Daily News. 2010-03-15. Archived from the original on 2014-03-18. Retrieved 2013-06-21.
  12. ^ "Final Days of Don Young's Way?". Taxpayers for Common Sense. 2008-06-09. Retrieved 2013-06-21.
  13. ^ a b [2] Fairbanks Daily Newsminer, 12/15/2014
  14. ^ a b Alaska News Nightly, 6/13/2018 Alaska Public Media/Associated Press
  15. ^ "Dittman Survey" (PDF). December 2011. p. 18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-03-18. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
  16. ^ "Safety Corridor, Alaska Highway Safety Office, Transportation & Public Facilities, State of Alaska". Retrieved 2012-11-02.
  17. ^ Andrew Halcro (2011-02-16). "Knik Arm Crossing: A bridge too far?". Alaska Dispatch. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
  18. ^ "Stevens says he'll quit if bridge funds diverted". Anchorage Daily News. Archived from the original on 2006-10-14.
  19. ^ "AMATS votes to keep Knik Arm bridge in city's short-term plans -". 2010-03-25. Archived from the original on 2015-10-18. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
  20. ^ Daily, Anchorage (2010-03-25). "Knik Arm bridge stays in short-term plan | Knik Arm Bridge". Archived from the original on 2012-08-25. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
  21. ^ KYLE (2010-12-15). "Feds OK Knik Arm bridge route, but big obstacles remain | Knik Arm Bridge". Archived from the original on 2012-08-19. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
  22. ^ [3] Archived February 22, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ "Press Release: 2011-09-22 - Six Major Private Groups Show Interest in Knik Arm Crossing - 27th AK Legislature House Majority". Archived from the original on 2012-06-30. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
  24. ^ "Bill History/Action for 27th Legislature". Retrieved 2012-11-02.
  25. ^ "Bill History/Action for 27th Legislature". Retrieved 2012-11-02.
  26. ^ SEAN (2011-02-12). "Supporters seek $150 million for the Knik Arm bridge | Knik Arm Bridge". Archived from the original on 2012-08-25. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
  27. ^ Mauer, Richard House panel votes to turn Knik Arm bridge over to AHFC Archived April 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Anchorage Daily News, 4/11/2013
  28. ^ Mauer, Richard House passed Knik Bridge bill Archived April 15, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Anchorage Daily News, 4/12/2013

External links[edit]