Kocel

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Principality of Lower Pannonia under Kocel

Kocel[a] (fl. 861–874) was a Slavic ruler of Lower Pannonia, a polity known in historiography as the Balaton principality. He was an East Frankish vassal titled comes (count), and is believed to have ruled between 861 or 864 and 876.

Life[edit]

Kocel was the son of Pribina, a Slavic dux installed by the Franks in Lower Pannonia in ca. 838[1] or 840.[2] Bowlus believes he was born in ca. 820.[1] In 861, Kocel made a significant donation to the Freising monastery, showing that he had a solid social and political standing.[3] According to Bowlus, this document indicates that Pribina had died, and Kocel succeeded him.[4] Louis the German installed Kocel as a ruler in Lower Pannonia in 864.[5] Kocel held "Lower Pannonia" (Pannonia inferioris) in 865, when Archbishop Adalwin of Salzburg visited his lands twice.[6] In 869, Kocel had requested for Byzantine missionary Methodius to be sent into Pannonia as a papal legate.[7] In midsummer, Kocel sent Methodius to Rome with twenty men to petition for his elevation to bishop.[7] Hadrian II appointed Methodius the archbishop of Sirmium, and sent confirmations to, among others, Kocel, whose land lay within the jurisdiction.[8] Frankish Pannonia was held by Kocel and Bavarian margraves in 871; Kocel enjoyed independence, as evident from his talks with the pope.[9] In 874, following the Moravian conflict, Kocel continued to rule the Drava Valley, presumably under Carloman of the March of Pannonia.[7] Kocel disappears from sources after 874,[1] and was either dead or removed from his office in ca. 876,[10] certainly dead by 880.[11]

Titles[edit]

  • "Count of Slavs" (comes de Sclavis nomine Chezul), 861 Latin gift deed.[3]
  • "Duke" (Chezil dux), posthumously between 876 and 880.[12]

Annotations[edit]

  1. ^ He is known from Bavarian and Papal documents mostly as Chozil, Chezil, Chezul, and Gozil.[3] Conversio Bagoariorum et Carantanorum uses Chozil, Chezil, and Chezilo.[13] The most used rendering is Kocel. His name is also spellt Koceľ in Slovak,[14] Kocelj (Коцељ) in Slovenian and Serbo-Croatian,[15] and Kotzeles in Greek.[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Bowlus 1995, p. 203.
  2. ^ Bowlus 1995, p. 325.
  3. ^ a b c Hellēnikē Hetaireia Slavikōn Meletōn 1999, p. 92.
  4. ^ Bowlus 1995, p. 139.
  5. ^ Goldberg 2006, pp. 273–274.
  6. ^ Bowlus 1995, p. 156.
  7. ^ a b c Bowlus 1995, p. 184.
  8. ^ Bowlus 1995, p. 185.
  9. ^ Bowlus 1995, p. 176.
  10. ^ Bowlus 1995, p. 201.
  11. ^ Bowlus 1995, p. 192.
  12. ^ Bowlus 1995, p. 207.
  13. ^ John Tuzson (2002). István II (1116-1131): A Chapter in Medieval Hungarian History. East Europe Monographs. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-88033-500-3. 
  14. ^ Elena Mannová (2000). Studia Historica Slovaca. 21. Historický ústav SAV. p. 23. ISBN 978-80-88880-42-4. 
  15. ^ a b Vatroslav Jagić (1866). Književnik. Brzotiskom Dragutina Albrechta. pp. 100–. 

Sources[edit]