Kodak Retina

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Kodak Retina (Nr. 117), 1934-1935 ("First Retina")
Kodak Retina I (Type 010), 1946-1949
Kodak Retina II (Type 014) 1949-1950
Kodak Retina IIIC (Type 028) 1957-1960

Retina was the brand-name of a long-running series of German-built Kodak 35mm cameras, produced from 1934 until 1969. Kodak Retina cameras were manufactured in Stuttgart-Wangen by the Kodak AG Dr. Nagel Werk which Kodak had acquired in December 1931.

The Retina line included a variety of folding and non-folding models, including the Retina Reflex single lens reflex camera. Retina cameras were noted for their compact size, high quality, and low cost compared to competitors. These cameras retain a strong following today, of both photographers and collectors.

Kodak AG also offered a companion line of less-expensive Retinette cameras, with similar looks and function.

History[edit]

August Nagel was a prolific cameras designer and entrepreneur who was one of the founders of Zeiss Ikon, when he merged his company, Contessa-Nettel AG, with Zeiss and others to form that group in 1919. As well as being an owner he was an active designer of fine Zeiss cameras including miniatures. He left Zeiss in 1928 to form his own firm Nagel Camera Werks AG, and produced the Nagel line of cameras, including glass plate, sheet-film, and roll-film cameras. Some of his notable designs are the: Vollenda, Duo-620, Pupille, Ranca, and Recomar cameras.

After selling Dr. August Nagel - Fabrik fuer Feinmechanik Werk in Stuttgart-Wangen to Kodak AG in December 1931, the new firm was designated "Kodak AG - Dr. Nagel Werk". Nagel continued to innovate including developing the Retina folding cameras around the new Kodak 135 preloaded 35mm cartridge. Prior to this, most 35mm film was loaded by the user into proprietary cartridges in a darkroom or light-tight bag.

Folding Kodak Retina Cameras[edit]

In the early 1930s August Nagel was developing a 35mm camera and a preloaded disposable 35mm film cartridge, which would also fit in Leica and Contax cameras. Nagel was an expert in miniature cameras; his Vollenda miniature folder, along with the Ranca and Pupille collapsible cameras were smaller than the Leica and Contax cameras, but could use 50mm f:3.5 Elmar and other similar Tessar formula lenses in Compur shutters to create a larger 30mm x 40mm image on 127 rollfilm. The advantage of 35mm would be the elimination of the paper-backer allowing more images per roll of film.

All of the Kodak Retina cameras from the mid 1930s to the late 1950s were folding cameras with a short self-erecting bellows, lens board, and folding metal door/cover. These folding Kodak Retina cameras are listed below with their respective years of manufacture. While the previous photohistorical literature gave both a pre-war 3-digit "Type" code for each Retina and Retinette model and a post-war 3 digit "Type" code for each Retina or Retinette model, recent research indicates that the term "Type" can only be found for the post-war Retina and Retinette cameras in the contemporary Kodak AG documents. In the pre-war times, a number ( nummer, Nr.) code was used for all Kodak AG cameras, not just the Retina and Retinette models. So, in the interest of historical accuracy, pre-war Retina and Retinette cameras have a "Nr." code and post-war Retina and Retinette cameras have a "Type" code.

Folding Kodak Retina I cameras by Model (pre-war - viewfinder only):

Nr. 117 Retina - 1934 to 1935

Nr. 118 Retina - 1935 to 1936

Nr. 119 Retina (I) - 1936 to 1938

Nr. 126 Retina (I) - 1936 to 1937

Nr. 141 Retina I - 1937 to 1939

Nr. 143 Retina I - 1938 to 1939

Nr. 148 Retina I - 1939 to 1941

Nr. 149 Retina I - 1939 to 1941

Nr. 167 Retina I - 1941

Folding Kodak Retina II cameras by Model (pre-war - with rangefinder):

Nr. 122 Retina II - 1936 to 1937

Nr. 142 Retina II - 1937 to 1939

Nr. 150 Retina IIa - 1939 to 1941

Folding Kodak Retina I cameras by Model (post-war - viewfinder only):

Type 010 (early) Retina I - 1945 to 1946

Type 010 Retina I - 1946 to 1949

Type 013 Retina I - 1949 to 1950

Type 015 Retina Ia - 1951 to 1954

Type 018 Retina Ib - 1954 to 1957

Type 019 Ausf. I Retina IB - 1957 to 1958

Type 019 Aust. II Retina IB - 1958 to 1960

Folding Kodak Retina II cameras by Model (post-war - with rangefinder):

Type 011 Retina II - 1946 to 1949

Type 014 Retina II - 1949 to 1950

Type 016 Retina IIa - 1951 to 1954

Type 020 Retina IIc - 1954 to 1957

Type 029 Retina IIC - 1957 to 1958

Folding Kodak Retina III cameras by Model (post-war - with rangefinder and exposure meter):

Type 021 Ausf. I Retina IIIc - 1954 to 1957

Type 021 Ausf. II Retina IIIc - 1957

Type 028 Retina IIIC - 1957 to 1960

1930s[edit]

The first Retina, Nr. 117, was introduced in late July 1934. The successive model: Nr 118 Retina followed in 1935 with minor modifications to the Nr. 117. The Nr. 119 Retina (I) and the more expensive Nr. 126 Retina (I) follow in 1936. Nr. 117, Nr. 118 and Nr. 119 Retina cameras all had black lacquered top housings, black lacquered body edges and nickel-plated control surfaces. Nr. 126 Retina (I) was the first with a chrome-plated finish to the top housing, chrome-plated top deck below the rewind knob and chrome-plated control surfaces with the body edges being polished aluminum alloy with a clear lacquer coat. Nr. 122 Retina II was introduced in 1936 with a separate coupled rangefinder and viewfinder and at this point, Nr. 119 and Nr. 126 Retina cameras were designated as "Retina I" cameras. The Nr. 122 Retina II had a problematic film advance lever and was replaced in June 1937 by the Nr. 142 Retina II with a return to the knob advance. Nr. 141 Retina I is a chrome finished model with a shutter release on the top body which was introduced in late 1937. Nr. 143 Retina I was the black lacquer/nickel-plated version of the Nr. 141 Retina I introduced in early 1938. The identification of Retina I cameras is based on the finish and configuration of the top housings of each camera and should NOT be based on lens/shutter or serial number, as lenses, shutters and back doors can be easily interchanged by repairman. In 1939 a Nr. 150 Retina IIa was introduced to replace the Nr. 142 Retina II, but it was unrelated to the flash capable Type 016 Retina IIa series of the early 1950s. Also in 1939, the Nr. 148 Retina I and the Nr. 149 Retina I with double exposure prevention are introduced. Late versions of the Type 148 Retina I have a black lacquer finish to the body edges. The last pre-war Retina I is the Nr. 167 Retina I which was manufactured in July 1941 and was for export only. The Nr. 167 Retina I was a "Retina" version of the Nr. 160 Retinette II with basically the same body, but with "Retina" embossed on the back door and a chrome-plated top housing and chrome-plated deck under the rewind knob.

HSRC Retina I identification diagram

Prewar lens/shutter combinations[edit]

These lens/shutter combinations were available on the following pre-war Kodak Retina cameras:

Retina I lens/shutter combinations:

  • Schneider Xenar f:3,5 F=5 cm / COMPUR - Nr. 117 Retina & Nr. 118 Retina.
  • Schneider Xenar f:3,5 F=5 cm / COMPUR-RAPID - Nr. 117 Retina & Nr. 118 Retina.
  • Schneider Retina-Xenar f:3,5 F=5 cm / COMPUR - Nr. 118 Retina, Nr. 119 Retina (I), Nr. 143 Retina I & Nr. 149 Retina I.
  • Schneider Retina-Xenar f:3,5 F=5 cm / COMPUR-RAPID - Nr. 118 Retina, Nr. 119 Retina (I) & Nr. 143 Retina I.
  • Kodak-Anastigmat f:3,5 F=5 cm / COMPUR - Nr. 117 Retina & Nr. 167 Retina I.
  • Kodak-Anastigmat f:3,5 F=5 cm / COMPUR-RAPID - Nr. 118 Retina & Nr. 119 Retina (I).
  • Kodak-Anastigmat f:4,5 F=5 cm / AGC K4S - Nr. 167 Retina I
  • KODAK ANASTIGMAT 1:3.5 f=5cms (French-made lens) / COMPUR-RAPID - Nr. 118 Retina, Nr. 126 Retina (I) & Nr. 141 Retina I.
  • Kodak-Anastigmat Ektar f3,5 F=5 cm / COMPUR - Nr. 141 Retina I, Nr. 148 Retina I & Nr. 149 Retina I.
  • Kodak-Anastigmat Ektar f3,5 F=5 cm / COMPUR-RAPID - Nr. 126 Retina (I), Nr. 141 Retina I & Nr. 148 Retina I.
  • Kodak-Anastigmat EKTAR f:3,5 F=5 cm / COMPUR-RAPID - Nr. 126 Retina (I), Nr. 141 Retina I & Nr. 148 Retina I (EKC-USA market).
  • Carl Zeiss Jena Tessar 1:3,5 f=5 cm / COMPUR - Nr. 118 Retina, Nr. 119 Retina (I), Nr. 141 Retina I & Nr. 148 Retina I.
  • Carl Zeiss Jena Tessar 1:3,5 f=5 cm / COMPUR-RAPID - Nr. 118 Retina, Nr. 119 Retina (I), Nr. 126 Retina (I), Nr. 141 Retina I & Nr. 148 Retina I.

Retina II lens/shutter combinations:

  • Schneider Xenon f2,8 F=5 cm / COMPUR-RAPID - Nr. 122 Retina II.
  • Schneider Retina-Xenon f:2,8 F=5 cm / COMPUR-RAPID- Nr. 122 Retina II, Nr. 142 Retina II & Nr. 150 Retina IIa
  • Schneider Xenon f2 F=5 cm / COMPUR-RAPID - Nr. 122 Retina II.
  • Schneider Retina-Xenon f:2 F=5 cm / COMPUR-RAPID - Nr. 142 Retina II & Nr. 150 Retina IIa
  • Kodak-Ektar f:3,5 F=5 cm / COMPUR-RAPID - Nr. 122 Retina II, Nr. 142 Retina II & Nr. 150 Retina IIa
  • Retina-Ektar F;3,5 F=5 cm / COMPUR-RAPID - Nr. 142 Retina II

Pre-war lens descriptions:

  • The Carl Zeiss Jena Tessar 1:3.5 f=5 cm lens was offered only on export pre-war Retina I models and was not marketed in Germany.
  • The Schneider Xenar f:3,5 F=5 cm and the Schneider Retina-Xenar f:3,5 F=5 cm lenses were made with 4 elements in three groups and had "Tessar-like" lens formulas. Retina-Xenar f:3,5 F=5 cm represented an improved lens formula over the previous Xenar f:3,5 F=5 cm lens.
  • There were pre-war lenses labeled as "Kodak-Ektar", "Retina-Ektar", "Kodak-Anastigmat Ektar" and "Kodak-Anastigmat EKTAR" and all were manufactured by Schneider. All are 4 elements in 3 groups and all had the identical lens formula of Retina-Xenar f:3,5 F=5 cm lenses.
  • Schneider Retina-Xenon f:2,8 F=5 cm lenses on pre-war Retina II cameras are actually 5 element "Xenar" lens formulas.

WWII and 1940s[edit]

WWII began in Europe in September 1939. The parent company, Eastman Kodak Company, lost any communication for financial information from Kodak AG in late 1939 (this information which can be found in the 1939 Eastman Kodak Company Annual Report to the EKC stockholders). In late 1941, all camera production stopped at Kodak A.G. At war's end, Stuttgart was in the American sector of West Germany and the US Military Government took control of the Kodak AG plant in Stuttgart at the end of the war. This US Military Government control continued until late 1947 and early 1948. During this time, the vast majority of Retina cameras (Type 010(early) Retina I, Type 010 Retina I and Type 011 Retina II) were manufactured for the US Military Post-Exchange system (PX system) and sold to US Military Personnel. Eastman Kodak Co. regains control of Kodak AG in 1948 and this explains why the Type 010 Retina I and Type 011 Retina II cameras are not imported in the USA until early 1949. Post-war production resumed in 1945 with the first production Type 010 (early) Retina I cameras coming off the final assembly line in November 1945. Standard Type 010 Retina I cameras begin production in early 1946. Type 011 Retina II beginning production followed in the autumn of 1946. In late summer of 1949, the Type 013 Retina I and Type 014 Retina II were introduced. These were substantially similar to the prior Retinas I and II cameras, but with flash synchronized COMPUR-RAPID shutters on the majority of cameras and a film type indicator dial at the base of the rewind knob. The depth of field scale was moved to the outside of the shutter housing opposite the actual focusing ring.

1950s[edit]

In January 1951 the Type 015 Retina Ia and Type 016 Retina IIa Type 016 are introduced with COMPUR-RAPID flash synch. shutters. Synchro-Compur shutters with MX flash synch shutters are introduced on the Type 016 Retina IIa in early spring of 1951 and on the Type 015 Retina Ia in June 1951. Production of these two camera continues until spring of 1954.

The Type 018 Retina Ib, Type 020 Retina IIc and Type 021 Ausf I. Retina IIIc are introduced in the spring of 1954 at Photokina in Cologne, Germany. Both the Retina IIc and Retina IIIc had interchangeable front lens elements with f:5,6 35mm and f:4 80mm front lens components available; however, the cameras could not be folded closed with the accessory lenses. Both Retina-Xenon C or Retina-Heligon C lenses were offered on the Type 020 and Type 021 Ausf I. Type 021 Ausf II Retina IIIc was introduced in summer of 1957 with a single range exposure meter. Type 019 Ausf. I Retina IB was also introduced at this time.

The fifth and final generation of folding Retina cameras (with capital-letter B or C suffix) was introduced in 1957, the same year as the Type 025 Retina Reflex system. These last Retina folders included the Type 019 Ausf II Retina IB, Type 029 Retina IIC, and Type 028 Retina IIIC. This group had slightly taller top housings, with upgraded single range exposure meters and the addition of a larger, bright-line viewfinder. The fixed-lens Type 019 Ausf I / Ausf II Retina IB featured an exposure meter, which was not included on the Type 018 Retina Ib. The Type 029 Retina IIC had a rangefinder but no meter though it was also taller housing than the Retina IIc; it was of limited production from 1957 to 1958 and not imported to the USA by Eastman Kodak Co.

Postwar lens/shutter combinations[edit]

These lens/shutter combinations were available on the following postwar folding Retina I Models:

  • Rodenstock Ysar 1:3,5 F=5 cm / COMPUR - Type 010 Retina I
  • Rodenstock Ysar 1:3,5 F=5 cm / COMPUR-RAPID - Type 010 Retina I
  • Kodak-Anastigmat f:3,5 F=5 cm / COMPUR - Type 010 Retina I
  • Kodak-Anastigmat Ektar f:3,5 F=5 cm / COMPUR - Type 010 Retina I
  • Kodak-Anastigmat Ektar f:3,5 F=5 cm / COMPUR-RAPID - Type 010 Retina I
  • Schneider Retina-Xenar f:3,5 F=5 cm (uncoated) / COMPUR - Type 010 (early) Retina I & Type 010 Retina I
  • Schneider Retina-Xenar f:3,5 F=5 cm (uncoated) / COMPUR-RAPID - Type 010 Retina I
  • Schneider Retina-Xenar f;3,5 F=5 cm (coated) / COMPUR-RAPID - Type 010 Retina I
  • Schneider Retina-Xenar 3,5/5 cm (uncoated) COMPUR-RAPID - Type 010 Retina I
  • Schneider Retina-Xenar 3,5/5 cm (coated) / COMPUR-RAPID - Type 010 Retina I
  • Kodak Ektar F:3.5 50mm "Made in USA" / COMPUR - Type 010 Retina I
  • Kodak Ektar F:3.5 50mm "Made in USA" / COMPUR-RAPID - Type 010 Retina I
  • /
  • Schneider Retina-Xenar 3,5/5 cm (coated) / COMPUR-RAPID (flash sync) - Type 013 Retina I
  • Schneider Retina-Xenar 1:3,5/50mm / COMPUR-RAPID (no flash sync) - Type 013 Retina I
  • Schneider Retina-Xenar f:3,5/50mm / COMPUR-RAPID (flash sync) - Type 013 Retina I & Type 015 Retina Ia
  • Schneider Retina-Xenar f:2,8/50mm / COMPUR-RAPID (flash sync) - Type 013 Retina I & Type 015 Retina Ia
  • Schneider Retina-Xenar f:2,8/50mm / SYNCHRO-COMPUR - Type 015 Retina Ia
  • Kodak Ektar F:3.5 50mm "Made in USA" / COMPUR-RAPID (flash sync) - Type 013 Retina I & Type 015 Retina Ia.
  • Kodak Ektar F:3.5 50mm "Made in USA" / SYNCHRO-COMPUR - Type 015 Retina Ia.
  • /
  • Schneider Retina-Xenar f:2,8/50mm / SYNCHRO-COMPUR - Type 018 Retina Ib, Type 019 Ausf. I Retina IB & Type 019 Ausf II Retina IB

These lens/shutter combinations were available on the following postwar folding Retina II Models:

  • Kodak Ektar F:2 47mm "Made in USA" / COMPUR-RAPID - Type 011 Retina II
  • Schneider Retina-Xenon f:2 F=5 cm (uncoated) / COMPUR-RAPID - Type 011 Retina II
  • Schneider Retina-Xenon f:2 F=5 cm (coated) / COMPUR-RAPID - Type 011 Retina II
  • Schneider Retina-Xenon f:2/50mm (coated) / COMPUR-RAPID - Type 011 Retina II
  • Rodenstock-Heligon 1:2 f=5 cm (uncoated) / COMPUR-RAPID - Type 011 Retina II
  • /
  • Schneider Retina-Xenon f:2/50mm / COMPUR-RAPID (no flash sync) - Type 014 Retina II
  • Schneider Retina-Xenon f:2/50mm / COMPUR-RAPID (flash sync) - Type 014 Retina II & Type 016 Retina IIa
  • Schneider Retina-Xenon f:2/50mm / SYNCHRO-COMPUR - Type 016 Retina IIa
  • Rodenstock-Heligon 1:2 F=5 cm (coated) / COMPUR-RAPID (flash sync) - Type 014 Retina II
  • Rodenstock Retina-Heligon f:2/50mm / COMPUR-RAPID (flash sync) - Type 014 Retina II & Type 016 Retina IIa
  • Rodenstock Retina-Heligon f:2/50mm / SYNCHRO-COMPUR - Type 016 Retina IIa
  • /
  • Schneider Retina-Xenon C F:2,8/50mm / SYNCHRO-COMPUR – Type 020 Retina IIIc & Type 029 Retina IIC
  • Rodenstock Retina-Heligon C F:2,8/50mm / SYNCHRO-COMPUR - Type 020 Retina IIIc & Type 029 Retina IIC

These lens/shutter combinations were available on the following postwar folding Retina III Models:

  • Schneider Retina-Xenon C F:2,0/50mm / SYNCHRO-COMPUR – Type 021 Ausf I Retina IIIc, Type 021 Ausf II Retina IIIc & Type 028 Retina IIIC
  • Rodenstock Retina-Heligon C F:2/50mm / SYNCHRO-COMPUR - Type 021 Ausf I Retina IIIc, Type 021 Ausf II Retina IIIc & Type 028 Retina IIIC

Retina Reflex (SLR)[edit]

The Retina Reflex SLR camera systems were introduced in 1957 and produced in several iterations to 1966. The first model, Type 025 Retina Reflex, shared the "C" series interchangeable front element lenses with the interchangeable Type 020 Retina IIc and Type 021 Ausf I Retina IIIc (35mm, 50mm, and 80mm). Type 025 Retina Reflex had the same uncoupled single range exposure meter of the Type 019 Ausf I Retina IB and the Type 021 Ausf. II Retina IIc, which is later mounted on the Type 019 Ausf. II Retina IB and Type 028 Retina IIIC.

The second generation Type 034 Retina Reflex S of 1959 shared "S" type lenses with the Type 027 Retina IIIS (below), and offered fully coupled metering. With these the entire lens detached allowing for a wider range of focal lengths, 28mm to 200mm. At this point economical Japanese SLRs were becoming available and the Nikon F of 1959 would set the standard for future camera system.

The Reflex III of 1961 and Reflex IV of 1964 brought minor improvements with the former offering a metering needle visible in the finder, and the latter allowing shutter and aperture settings to be visible in the finder. The Reflex IV was produced until 1967. From 1968 to 1974 Kodak AG produced an Instamatic Reflex (SLR) based on the Retina Reflex, accepting the S series lenses, but using instamatic 126 film cartridges and instamatic style flash cubes.

Non-folding Retinas[edit]

Kodak produced a series of non-folding (rangefinder and viewfinder) cameras under the Retina label between 1958 and 1966. The initial models were very similar to the last folding Retinas, 5th generation (capital letters series). The IIIS Type 27 had interchangeable lenses; however these used the S-Type series lenses of the Retina later Reflex SLRs rather than the more limited C series used by the later folders. The IIS was slightly smaller (Retinette frame) with similar features but did not have interchangeable lenses.

Several models of "Automatic" Retinas followed, on the IIS frame, without interchangeable lenses, but with coupled (automatic)metering, where in auto-mode the meter adjusted the aperture. The Automatic II and Automatic III had an upgraded lens and shutter from the Automatic I. The Automatic I and Automatic II did not have a rangefinder, but the Automatic III had a coupled rangefinder.

The last cameras labeled as Retinas were the plastic-bodied viewfinder Type 060 Retina S1 and Type 061 Retina S2, produced from 1966 to 1969. These were reasonable amateur cameras but not of the quality of prior Retina cameras. The fixed lens/shutters are adjustable for speed, aperture, and focus. Neither offers a rangefinder, though the S2 offers coupled metering.

Retinettes[edit]

Kodak also manufactured the Retinette series of lesser-featured cameras from 1939 to 1960 in a variety of folding and rigid models.

Models[edit]

Images of Folding Retina cameras[edit]

Non-folding Kodak Retina cameras[edit]

  • Type 027 Retina IIIS (1958-1960), (accepted interchangeable Retina S-Type lenses)
  • Type 024 Retina IIS (1959-1960)
  • Type 038 Retina Automatic I (1960-1962)
  • Type 032 Retina Automatic II (1960-1962)
  • Type 039 Retina Automatic III (1960-1963)
  • Type 040 Retina I BS (1962-1963)
  • Type 046 Retina IF (1963-1964)
  • Type 047 Retina IIF (1963-1964)
  • Type 060 Retina S1 (1966-1969)
  • Type 061 Retina S2 (1966-1969)

SLR[edit]

Main article: Kodak Retina Reflex

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Kalton C. Lahue, Joseph A. Bailey, Glass, Brass, and Chrome: The American 35mm Miniature Camera, University of Oklahoma Press (April 15, 2002) ISBN 0806134348
  • Brian Coe, Kodak Cameras: The First Hundred Years, Steyning Photo Books LLP; 2nd edition (August 11, 2003) ISBN 1874707375
  • Douglas Collins, The Story of Kodak, Harry N Abrams; First Edition edition (October 1990), ISBN 0810912228
  • Mina Fisher Hammer, History of the Kodak, and its continuations ..., The House of Little Books (1940), ASIN: B0013AOG9M
  • Kalton C. Lahue, Collector's Guide: Kodak Retina Cameras, Petersen Publishing Co. (1973) ASIN: B001UUP1LC
  • Mike Levy and Michael Levy, Selecting and Using Classic Cameras: A User's Guide to Evaluating Features, Condition & Usability of Classic Cameras, Amherst Media (July 1, 2001), ISBN 1584280549