Pan language

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Native toNigeria
RegionPlateau State
Native speakers
110,000 (2000)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3kwl

Pan is an Afro-Asiatic dialect cluster spoken in Plateau State, Nigeria.


Dialects are Bwol, Dimmuk (Doemak), Gworam, Jipal, Kofyar (Kwong), Kwagallak (Kwolla), and Mirriam (Mernyang).[1]

Blench (2019) lists the following language varieties in the Pan cluster.[3] Village locations are cited by Blench (2019) from Hon, et al. (2014).[4]

  • Mernyang: spoken in Dokan Kasuwa, Dokan Tofa, Kwaning, Laardang, Kwang, Kwa, Miket villages
  • Doemak: spoken in Kofyar Doemak, Goechim, Ba'ap, Kopar, Doemak villages
  • Tèŋ (Teng): spoken in Nteng, Gyeer, Ɗoop, Kelaghan, Loon, Kwakii, Zhep Morop, Gorom villages[5]
  • Kwagallak: spoken in Tim, Kopfogon, Chim, Yitiar, Kwoor, Kwalla, Shangfuup, Kopbepang, Moeda villages
  • Bwol (Bwall): spoken in Dungras, Nakum, Tanba, Bwall, Goepil villages
  • Gworam
  • Jipal: spoken in Katul, Kabum, Kanjing, Kaburuk, Shawk, Kaper, rundum, Jipal, Bul, Kwa, Male, Zwakal villages
  • Shindai

Note that in the villages names, orthographic oe stands for the mid central vowel ə, a practice that had been adopted by missionaries in the Shendam area during the 1930s, such as Father E. Sirlinger.[6][7][8]


  1. ^ a b Kofyar at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Pan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Blench, Roger (2019). An Atlas of Nigerian Languages (4th ed.). Cambridge: Kay Williamson Educational Foundation.
  4. ^ Hon, Luther; Gobak, Fittokka; Agwom, Izang; Muniru, John; Nweke, Uche S. 2014. A Sociolinguistic Survey of the Kofyar (Koffiar) of Plateau State, Nigeria. Ms. Jos, Nigeria: Language Development Facilitators.
  5. ^ Blench, Roger (2019). "Nteng: an undocumented language of Central Nigeria".
  6. ^ Blench, Roger. 2017. Current research on the A3 West Chadic languages.
  7. ^ Sirlinger, Father E. 1937. Dictionary of the Goemai Language. Prefecture Apostolic of Jos. Typescript.
  8. ^ Sirlinger, Father E. 1942. A grammar of the Goemai Language. Prefecture Apostolic of Jos. Typescript.