Kohlrabi

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Kohlrabi
GreenKohlrabi.jpg
Kohlrabi stem with leaves
SpeciesBrassica oleracea
Cultivar groupGongylodes Group
Cultivar group membersMany; see text.
Kohlrabi, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
6.2 g
Sugars2.6 g
Dietary fiber3.6 g
0.1 g
1.7 g
VitaminsQuantity %DV
Vitamin A equiv.
0%
2 μg
Thiamine (B1)
4%
0.05 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
2%
0.02 mg
Niacin (B3)
3%
0.4 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
3%
0.165 mg
Vitamin B6
12%
0.15 mg
Folate (B9)
4%
16 μg
Vitamin B12
0%
0 μg
Vitamin C
75%
62 mg
Vitamin D
0%
0 μg
Vitamin E
3%
0.48 mg
Vitamin K
0%
0.1 μg
MineralsQuantity %DV
Calcium
2%
24 mg
Iron
3%
0.4 mg
Magnesium
5%
19 mg
Manganese
7%
0.139 mg
Phosphorus
7%
46 mg
Potassium
7%
350 mg
Selenium
1%
0.7 μg
Sodium
1%
20 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water91.00 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Kohlrabi (from the German for cabbage turnip; Brassica oleracea Gongylodes Group), also called German turnip, is a biennial vegetable, a low, stout cultivar of wild cabbage. It is the same species as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts, collard greens, savoy, and gai lan.

It can be eaten raw or cooked. Edible preparations are made with both the stem and the leaves. Despite its common names, it is not the same species as turnip.

Etymology[edit]

The name comes from the German Kohl ("cabbage") plus Rübe ~ Rabi (Swiss German variant) ("turnip"), because the swollen stem resembles the latter.[1] Kohlrabi is a commonly eaten vegetable in German-speaking countries and American states with large ancestral German populations such as Wisconsin, but is also very popular in the northern part of Vietnam where it is called su hào, and in eastern parts of India (West Bengal) and Bangladesh where it is called 'Ol Kopi'.[2][3] It is also found in the Kashmir valley in Northern India and is there known as 'Monj-hakh',[4] 'monj' being the round part, and 'hakh' being the leafy part. This vegetable is called 'Nol Khol' in Northern India,[5] 'Navalkol' in Maharashtra, 'Navilu Kosu' in Karnataka[6] and in Ceylon as 'Nol col' (the Turnip Cabbage).[7] It is also native in Cyprus where it is known as 'kouloumpra' ("κουλούμπρα").[8]

Description[edit]

Kohlrabi has been created by artificial selection for lateral meristem growth (a swollen, nearly spherical shape); its origin in nature is the same as that of cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, collard greens, and Brussels sprouts: they are all bred from, and are the same species as, the wild cabbage plant (Brassica oleracea).

The taste and texture of kohlrabi are similar to those of a broccoli stem or cabbage heart, but milder and sweeter, with a higher ratio of flesh to skin. The young stem in particular can be as crisp and juicy as an apple, although much less sweet.[9]

A basket of kohlrabi

Except for the Gigante cultivar, spring-grown kohlrabi much over 5 cm in size tend to be woody, as do full-grown kohlrabi much over perhaps 10 cm in size; the Gigante cultivar can achieve great size while remaining of good eating quality.[10] The plant matures in 55–60 days after sowing and has good standing ability for up to 30 days after maturity. The approximate weight is 150 g.

There are several varieties commonly available, including 'White Vienna',[11] 'Purple Vienna', 'Grand Duke', 'Gigante' (also known as "Superschmelz"), 'Purple Danube', and 'White Danube'. Coloration of the purple types is superficial: the edible parts are all pale yellow. The leafy greens can also be eaten. One commonly used variety grows without a swollen stem, having just leaves and a very thin stem, and is called Haakh. Haakh and Monj are popular Kashmiri dishes made using this vegetable. In the second year, the plant will bloom and develop seeds. Kohlrabi also comes in three different colors: white, purple, and pale green.

Kohlrabi grown in a flower pot, England
Blooming plant in the 2nd year

Preparation and use[edit]

Kohlrabi stems (the enlarged vegetal part) are surrounded by two distinct fibrous layers that do not soften appreciably when cooked. These layers are generally peeled away prior to cooking or serving raw, with the result that the stems often provide a smaller amount of food than one might assume from their intact appearance.

The bulbous kohlrabi stem is frequently used raw in salad or slaws. It has a texture similar to that of a broccoli stem, but with a flavor that is sweeter and less vegetal.

Kohlrabi leaves are edible and can be used interchangeably with collard greens and kale.

Kohlrabi is an important part of the Kashmiri cuisine and one of the most commonly cooked foods. It is prepared with its leaves and served with a light soup and eaten with rice.

In Cyprus it is popularly sprinkled with salt and lemon and served as an appetizer.

Some varieties are grown as feed for cattle.[12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Vegetable Dictionary - Kohlrabi". extension.illinois.edu. Retrieved 2016-05-09.
  2. ^ Ghosh, Ushnish. "OL KOPI (Nool Kol, Ganth Gobi, Kadam, Kohlrabi) WITH GREEN and PANEER (PUNJABI & KASHMIRI)". 8 December 2010. ushnish.blogspot.co.uk. Retrieved 11 May 2017.
  3. ^ "OL KOPI – KHOLRABI TORKARI". masalatize.com. Retrieved 11 May 2017.
  4. ^ Pandita, Anjali. "Monji Hakh". 22 December 2012. kashmirifood.com. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  5. ^ "Knol Khol F1 Hybrid - Seeds". nurserylive.com. Retrieved 11 May 2017.
  6. ^ "Kohlrabi Recipes - Navalkol subji".
  7. ^ John Whitchurch Bennett Ceylon and Its Capabilities (1843), p. 150, at Google Books
  8. ^ "Κουλούμπρα, Κούρβουλα". Cyprus Food Museum.
  9. ^ "Kohlrabi Is Weird! And Here's What You Can Do With It — Ingredient Spotlight". The Kitchn. Retrieved 2016-05-09.
  10. ^ "Growing Kohlrabi - Bonnie Plants". Bonnie Plants. Retrieved 2016-05-09.
  11. ^ "Early White Vienna Kohlrabi". rareseeds.com. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  12. ^ Bailey, L. H., (1912, republished in 1975). Kohlrabi for stock-feeding. In Cyclopedia of American Agriculture: Vol. II--crops. Macmillan Publishing, New York. p. 389-390. ISBN 0-405-06762-3. Google Book Search. Retrieved on June 15, 2008.

External links[edit]