Koilocytes may have the following cellular changes:
- Nuclear enlargement (two to three times normal size)
- Irregularity of the nuclear membrane contour
- A darker than normal staining pattern in the nucleus, known as Hyperchromasia
- A clear area around the nucleus, known as a perinuclear halo.
When examining cytologic specimens, mild koilocytosis is characteristic of ASC-US (atypical squamous cells - undetermined significance). A more undifferentiated koilocyte, possessing a more hyperchromatic and enlarged nucleus, and a higher degree of cytoplasmic clearing with a discernible peripheral rim favor an interpretation of LSIL (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion).
- Nucci MR, Oliva E, eds. (2009). Gynecologic pathology: A volume in the series - Foundations in diagnostic Pathology. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 978-0-443-06920-8.
- DeMay, Richard M. (2007). Practical Principles of Cytopathology Revised. American Society for Clinical Pathology. ISBN 0-89189-549-3.
- Krawczyk E, Suprynowicz FA, Liu X, et al. (September 2008). "Koilocytosis: a cooperative interaction between the human papillomavirus E5 and E6 oncoproteins". Am. J. Pathol. 173 (3): 682–8. doi:10.2353/ajpath.2008.080280. PMC . PMID 18688031.
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