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Kalashnik (Ukrainian: Калашник) is a Ukrainian occupational surname, meaning "maker of kalaches". A man who made kalaches was called a калачник (kalachnik), which sometimes by sandhi effect became калашник (kalashnik), and such a man's descendants thus got the surname Калачник (Kalachnik) or Калашник (Kalashnik). In Russian language the Ukrainian variant morphed into Калашников (Kalashnikov) (with the suffix -ов meaning "belonging to", "son of"). Its English-spelling derivations could include Kalashnik, Kalachnik, Kalashnyk, Kalachnyk, Kalačnik, Kalašnik, Kalasnik or Kolashnik, Kolachnik, Kolashnyk, Kolachnyk, Kolačnik, Kolašnik, Kolasnik.

It may refer to the following individuals:

There are also several villages in Ukraine that derive from this surname: