Kolb's experiential learning
Kolb's experiential learning theory (ELT) is a learning theory developed by David A. Kolb, who published his model in 1984. He was inspired by the work of Kurt Lewin, who was a gestalt psychologist in Berlin. ELT is a method where a person's skills and job requirements can be assessed in the same language that its commensurability can be measured. Kolb's experiential learning theory works on two levels: a four-stage cycle of learning and four separate learning styles. Kolb's theory has a holistic perspective which includes experience, perception, cognition and behavior.
The experiential learning cycle
The learning cycle basically involves four stages, namely: concrete learning, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization and active experimentation. Effective learning can be seen when the learner progresses through the cycle. The learner can also enter the cycle at any stage of the cycle with logical sequence.
The first stage is concrete learning, where the learner encounters a new experience or reinterprets an existing experience. This is followed by the next stage, reflective observation, where the learner reflects on the experience on a personal basis. After this comes abstract conceptualization, where the learner forms new ideas, or modifies existing abstract ideas, based on the reflections arising from the reflective observation stage. Lastly, the active experimentation stage is where the learner applies the new ideas to his surroundings to see if there are any modifications in the next appearance of the experience. This second experience becomes the concrete experience for the beginning of the next cycle, beginning at the first stage. This process can happen over a short or long time.
Kolb's learning styles
Kolb's learning style is explained on the basis of two dimensions: they are how a person understands and processes the information. This perceived information is then classified as concrete experience or abstract conceptualization, and processed information as active experimentation or reflective observation.
Diverging: Individuals of this kind of learning style look at things in a different perspective. They prefer watching to doing, also they have strong imagination capacity, emotional, strong in arts, prefer to work in groups, open minded to take feedback and they have broad interests in different cultures and people. The learning characteristic is of concrete experience and reflective observation.
Assimilating: People of this kind of learning style prefer good clear information, they can logically format the given information and explore analytic models. They are more interested in concepts and abstracts than in people. Characteristics include abstract conceptualization and reflective observation.
Converging: Converging type of learners solve problems. They apply their learning to practical issues. Also, they prefer technical tasks, and they experiment with new ideas. They tend to be unemotional. The learning characteristics are abstract conceptualization and active experimentation.
Accommodating: Individuals with this kind of learning style prefer to do things practically. They are attracted to new challenges and solve problems intuitively. The learning characteristics are concrete experience and active experimentation. 
The educational implications of the experiential learning theory are that ELT:
- helps teachers develop more appropriate learning opportunities for target learners;
- helps teachers design activities that will give opportunities to learners to learn in ways that suit the learners' learning styles; and
- focuses on activities that enable learners to go through each of the four stages of the experiential learning cycle.
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- Lu, Hong; Gong, Shu-Hong; Clarke, Bruce. "The Relationship of Kolb Learning Styles, Online Learning Behaviors and Learning Outcomes". Journal of Educational Technology and Society. 10: 187–196. JSTOR jeductechsoci.10.4.187.
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