Kolb's experiential learning

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Kolb's experiential learning theory (ELT) was given by David A. Kolb, who published his model in 1984. He was inspired by the work of Kurt Lewin who was a gestalt psychologist in Berlin. ELT it is a method where a person's skills and job requirements can be assessed in same language that is commensurability can be measured.[1] Kolb's experiential learning theory works on two levels :a four-stage cycle of learning and four separate learning styles.[2] Kolb's theory has a holistic perspective which includes experience, perception, cognition and behavior.

The experiential learning cycle[edit]

The learning cycle basically involves four stages namely: concrete learning, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization and active experimentation. Effective learning can be seen when the learner progresses through the cycle. The learner can also enter the cycle at any stage of the cycle with logical sequence.


The first stage is concrete learning, where there is encounter of a new experience or reinterpretation of existing experience. Then it is followed by next stage, reflective observation, where one reflects on the experience on a personal basis. After this abstract conceptualization, where new ideas are formed based on the reflection or could be modifications of the existing abstract ideas. Lastly, active experimentation stage is where a learner will apply the ideas to his surroundings to see if there are any modifications in the next appearance of the experience. All this will lead to the next concrete experience. This can happen over a short duration or over a long duration of time.[4]

Kolb's learning styles[edit]

Kolb's learning style is explained on the basis of two dimensions: they are how a person understands and processes the information. This perceived information is then classified as concrete experience or abstract conceptualization, and processed information as active experimentation or reflective observation.[5]

Diverging: Individuals of this kind of learning style look at things in a different perspective. They prefer watching than doing, also they have strong imagination capacity, emotional, strong in arts, prefer to work in groups, open minded to take feedback and they have broad interests in different cultures and people. The learning characteristic is of concrete experience and reflective observation.

Assimilating: People of this kind of learning style prefer good clear information, they can logically format the given information and exploring analytic models. They are more interested in concepts and abstracts than in people. Characteristics include abstract conceptualization and reflective observation.

Converging: Converging type of learners solve problems. They apply their learning to practical issues. Also, they prefer technical tasks, and they experiment with new ideas. They tend to be unemotional. The learning characteristics are abstract conceptualization and active experimentation.

Accommodating: Individuals with this kind of learning styles prefer to do things practically. They are attracted to new challenges and solve problems intuitively. The learning characteristics are concrete experience and active experimentation. [6]

Educational implications[edit]

The educational implications of the experiential learning theory are:

  • It helps the teacher to develop more appropriate learning opportunities for the target learners.
  • Teachers should design activities that will give opportunities to all the learners to learn in the best way that suits them.
  • The activities carried out should enable the learner to go through the whole process of the experiential learning cycle.[3]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Sims, Ronald R (1983). "Kolb's Experiential LearningTheory:A Framework for Assessing Person-Job Interaction". Academy of Management Review. 8: 501–508. doi:10.5465/amr.1983.4284610.
  2. ^ "ERIC - Using Kolb's Learning Cycle to Improve Student Learning., Engineering Education, 1987". ed.gov.
  3. ^ a b McLeod, S. A. (2013). Kolb - Learning Styles. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/learning-kolb.html
  4. ^ Atherton J S (2013) Learning and Teaching; Experiential Learning [On-line: UK] retrieved 6 September 2015 from http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/experience.htm
  5. ^ Lu, Hong; Gong, Shu-Hong; Clarke, Bruce. "The Relationship of Kolb Learning Styles, Online Learning Behaviors and Learning Outcomes". Journal of Educational Technology and Society. 10: 187–196. JSTOR jeductechsoci.10.4.187.
  6. ^ Smith, M. K. (2001, 2010). ‘David A. Kolb on experiential learning’, the encyclopedia of informal education. Retrieved:9/24/2015