|Named after||Hermann Kolbe
|Reaction type||Addition reaction|
|Organic Chemistry Portal|
|RSC ontology ID|
The Kolbe–Schmitt reaction or Kolbe process (named after Hermann Kolbe and Rudolf Schmitt) is a carboxylation chemical reaction that proceeds by heating sodium phenoxide (the sodium salt of phenol) with carbon dioxide under pressure (100 atm, 125 °C), then treating the product with sulfuric acid. The final product is an aromatic hydroxy acid which is also known as salicylic acid (the precursor to aspirin).
The Kolbe–Schmitt reaction proceeds via the nucleophile addition of a phenoxide, classically sodium phenoxide (NaOC6H5), to carbon dioxide to give the salicylate. The final step is reaction of the salicylate with acid to form the desired salicylic acid.
- Hermann Kolbe (1860). "Ueber Synthese der Salicylsäure" [On the synthesis of salicylic acid]. Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie. 113 (1): 125–127. doi:10.1002/jlac.18601130120.
- R. Schmitt (1885). "Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Kolbe'schen Salicylsäure Synthese" [Contribution to [our] knowledge of Kolbe's synthesis of salicylic acid]. Journal für Praktische Chemie. 2nd series. 31 (1): 397–411. doi:10.1002/prac.18850310130.
- A. S. Lindsey and H. Jeskey (1957). "The Kolbe-Schmitt Reaction". Chem. Rev. 57 (4): 583–620. doi:10.1021/cr50016a001. (Review)