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Kolkata-class destroyer

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INS Kolkata entering Mombasa, Kenya.jpg
INS Kolkata entering Mombasa, Kenya in September 2016
Class overview
Name: Kolkata class
Builders: Mazagon Dock Limited
Operators:  Indian Navy
Preceded by: Delhi class
Succeeded by: Visakhapatnam class
Built: 2003 - 2015
In commission: 2014 - present
Planned: 3
Completed: 3
Active: 3
General characteristics
Type: Stealth guided missile destroyer
Displacement: 7,400 t (7,300 long tons; 8,200 short tons) full load[1]
Length: 163 m (535 ft)
Beam: 17.4 m (57 ft)
Draft: 6.5 m (21 ft)
Propulsion: Combined gas and gas system: 4 × Zorya-Mashproekt DT-59 reversible gas turbines[2][3]
Speed: 30 knots (56 km/h)
Range: 8,000 nmi (15,000 km) at 18 kn (33 km/h)
Complement: 40 Officers and 350 Sailors[4][5]
Sensors and
processing systems:
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
Armament:
Aircraft carried: 2 × Sea King or HAL Dhruv helicopters
Aviation facilities: Dual Enclosed hangar

The Kolkata class (Project 15A) are a class of stealth guided missile destroyers constructed for the Indian Navy. The class comprises three ships – Kolkata, Kochi and Chennai, all of which were built by Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) in India, and are the largest destroyers to be operated by the Indian Navy. Due to delays in their construction, and a problem found during the sea trials, the initial commissioning date of the first ship of the class had been pushed back from 2010 to 2014.[12] The final ship commissioned was Chennai, in November 2016.[13]

The destroyers are a follow-on of the Project 15 Delhi-class destroyers, but are considerably more capable due to major improvements in the design, the addition of substantial land-attack capabilities, and the fitting-out of modern sensors and weapons systems.[14]

Development[edit]

In 1986, the Cabinet Committee on Political Affairs (CCPA) approved a follow-on class of the earlier Project 15 Delhi-class destroyers. The aim was that the follow-on class would incorporate a higher level of air-defence, land attack, anti-submarine and anti-ship capabilities than the preceding class. However, the Indian Navy did not initially take up the option.[11] By the year 2000, the Indian Navy had redesigned the follow-on Kolkata class to incorporate even higher levels of technology (including modern stealth characteristics) and in May of that year, approval for the construction was given. Concept and function for Project 15A was framed by the navy's Directorate of Naval Design, while the detailed design was developed by Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL).[15][16][17]

Initially in 2008, the total program cost with long-term spare parts was expected to cost 3,800 crore (US$550 million),[15] but the construction costs escalated about 225%, and by 2011, cost of the program became 11,662 crore (US$1.7 billion), with each ship costing 3,900 crore (US$570 million).[18] The Defense Minister A. K. Antony cited the causes being the delay in supply of warship-grade steel by Russia, increase in costs of Russian specialists due to inflation during the build period, wage revision due from October 2003 and delay in finalisation of cost of weapons and sensors.[19][20] A Comptroller and Auditor General of India report published in 2010 blamed the Navy for delays, criticizing the late decisions for replacement of surface to air missile system with Barak, change of gun mount, inclusion of a sonar dome and modification of helicopter hangar to accommodate HAL Dhruv.[21][22]

Construction[edit]

Hull of a 15A destroyer being built at Mazagon Docks.

Construction of three Kolkata-class ships was sanctioned by the Government of India in May 2000, and steel for the lead ship was cut in March 2003. Construction began in September 2003 at Mazagon Docks, Mumbai, with an initial expectation that the first of the class would be handed over to the navy by 2010. However, since then the Kolkata class has suffered consecutive delays, slow construction procedures and technical problems which saw the first ship of the class enter service during mid 2014. The delays in the construction programme have been attributed to persistent design changes made by the Indian Navy to incorporate new weapons systems and sensors, failure by a Ukrainian shipyard to deliver the ship's propellers and shafts and the contract later being awarded to a Russian firm,[23] and finally the delay in the delivery of the Barak 8 anti-air missiles, which are still in the final stages of completion with Israel Aerospace Industries and the Defence Research and Development Organisation.[24]

The Kolkata class are the largest destroyers ever to be constructed at Mazagon Docks, and as of 2013, all three ships of the class have been launched and are being fitted out.[25] Technical problems were found during the sea trials of the lead ship Kolkata, which delayed the project by six months to early 2014.[12]

Design and description[edit]

The Kolkata class share similar dimensions to the previous Delhi class, however they have 2,363 modifications which include major upgrades in weaponry, sensors and helicopter systems.[21] With a standard displacement of 6,800 t (6,700 long tons; 7,500 short tons) and a full-load displacement of 7,400 t (7,300 long tons; 8,200 short tons), they are the largest destroyers ever operated by the Indian Navy.[1] Some media reports have even given a full-load displacement of 7,500 t (7,400 long tons; 8,300 short tons).[26] These are the first stealth destroyers being built by India and marked a significant development in India's shipbuilding technology. The ships would incorporate modern weapons and sensors, and will have an advanced information warfare suite, an auxiliary control system with a sophisticated power distribution architecture, and modular crew quarters.[27]

The class have a length of 163 m (535 ft), a beam of 17.4 m (57 ft) and a draught of 6.5 m (21 ft). The ship's power and propulsion features a combined gas and gas system utilizing four DT-59 reversible gas turbines. This configuration allows the ship to reach speeds in excess of 30 kn (56 km/h; 35 mph).[28] Aviation facilities include a large flight deck, which was re-designed to handle larger helicopters than the Delhi-class, and an enclosed hangar for up to two maritime helicopters.[21]

The EL/M-2248 MF-STAR AESA is the primary radar of the Kolkata class

The primary radar sensor of the class is the EL/M-2248 MF-STAR multi-mission AESA.[6] It is also equipped with Thales LW-08 long range volume search radar and EL/M-2238 S-band STAR surveillance radar from Israel Aerospace Industries. A bow-mounted sonar HUMSA-NG (hull-mounted sonar array - new generation) are carried for sub-surface surveillance.

The ship's main air-defence armament is composed of two 4x8-cell vertical launching systems (VLS) allowing for up to 32 Barak 8 (medium-long range) air-defence missiles.[9] In addition, four AK-630 CIWS are fitted for close-in defence.

INS Kolkata and the British Royal Navy destroyer HMS Defender in the background during International Fleet Review 2016.

The supersonic BrahMos anti-ship and land-attack missiles are the primary offensive armament of the Kolkata-class.[29] The BrahMos missiles are fitted into a 16-cell Universal Vertical Launcher Module (UVLM) allowing one missile per launch silo, and all 16 missiles can be fired in salvo.[30] Perhaps the most distinctive and noticeable armament of the Kolkata class is its 76 mm (3.0 in) naval gun located forward of the bridge. The 76 mm gun provides limited anti-shipping capability and anti-air capability in addition to its naval gun fire-support role for land based operations. For anti-submarine warfare, the Kolkata-class are equipped with a torpedo launching system via four torpedo tubes and two RBU-6000 anti-submarine rocket launchers.[31] BEL's Electronic Modular Command & Control Applications (EMCCA) Mk4 provides combat management.[6]

Four million lines of codes have been written to develop the advanced combat management system onboard INS Kochi. The system is designed so that all the data about the surrounding threat comes in one place, along with analysis about the kind of threat. The system also advises the commanding officer about the kind of weaponry he should use to tackle the threat. Obviously, all this happens in real-time.[32] The Ship is equipped with sophisticated digital networks, such as Asynchronous Transfer Mode based Integrated Ship Data Network (AISDN), Combat Management System (CMS), Automatic Power Management System (APMS) and Auxiliary Control System (ACS). The AISDN is the information highway on which data from all the sensors and weapon ride. The CMS is used to integrate information from other platforms using indigenous data-link system, to provide Maritime Domain Awareness. The intricate power supply management is done using APMS, and remote control and monitoring of machinery is achieved through the ACS.[33]

Ships of the class[edit]

INS Kolkata commissioning ceremony
Name Pennant Yard No. Builder Laid Down Launched Commissioned Homeport Status
INS Kolkata D63 701[34]:4 Mazagon Dock Limited 26 September 2003[35] 30 March 2006[36][37] 16 August 2014[38] Mumbai Active
INS Kochi D64 702[34][page needed] 25 October 2005[39] 18 September 2009[39] 30 September 2015[40]
INS Chennai D65 703[34][page needed] 21 February 2006[41] 1 April 2010[25] 21 November 2016[13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "INS Kolkata". indiannavy.nic.in. Indian Navy. Archived from the original on 16 June 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015. 
  2. ^ Siddiqui, Huma (5 October 2015). "INS Kochi turbocharged". The Financial Express. Archived from the original on 4 February 2018. 
  3. ^ Bedi, Rahul (18 August 2014). "India commissions first-of-class destroyer Kolkata". IHS Jane's Navy International. Archived from the original on 21 August 2014. 
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 June 2016. Retrieved 5 May 2016. 
  5. ^ "INS Kochi commissioned at Mumbai | Indian Navy". indiannavy.nic.in. Archived from the original on 3 August 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2016. 
  6. ^ a b c d "Country's most potent indigenous warship joins service this month". SP's Naval Forces. 8 June 2014. Archived from the original on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 8 June 2014. 
  7. ^ "Bharat Electronics Ltd. awards LW08 contract to Thales". Thalesgroup.com. 2 July 2008. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  8. ^ a b Som, Vishnu (29 September 2015). "Inside India's New and Deadliest Warship". NDTV. Archived from the original on 18 July 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017. 
  9. ^ a b Som, Vishnu (16 August 2014). "On INS Kolkata, PM is Only Partially Correct". NDTV. Archived from the original on 8 June 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2015. At the moment, she is designed to carry only 32 Barak surface-to-air missiles... 
  10. ^ Bedi, Rahul (29 September 2015). "India commissions second Kolkata-class destroyer". IHS Jane's Defence Weekly. Archived from the original on 2 October 2015. Retrieved 30 December 2015. 
  11. ^ a b Kolkata-class destroyer Archived 4 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine. GlobalSecurity.org
  12. ^ a b "Navy's ongoing hunt for heavy torpedoes leads to delay in modernisation process". India Today. 10 June 2013. Archived from the original on 17 July 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2013. 
  13. ^ a b "Guided Missile Destroyer INS Chennai Joins the Indian Navy" (Press release). Indian Navy. 21 November 2016. Archived from the original on 21 November 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2016. 
  14. ^ Toshi Yoshihara; James Holmes. James R. Holmes, ed. Strategy in the second nuclear age : power, ambition, and the ultimate weapon. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. p. 143. ISBN 1589019288. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. 
  15. ^ a b Shukla, Ajai (15 April 2008). "World-class warships at Indian prices". Business Standard. Archived from the original on 14 May 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  16. ^ Bhatt, Arunkumar (27 September 2003). "Mazagon Dock lays keel of destroyer". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  17. ^ "Mazagon Dock Annual Report" (PDF). Mdlindia.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 December 2007. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  18. ^ Ajai Shukla (2 May 2014). "INS Kolkata, navy's most powerful warship, to be delivered next month". Business-standard. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 23 July 2014. 
  19. ^ "Indian warships' costs escalate over 225%". StratPost. 5 September 2011. Archived from the original on 14 May 2014. Retrieved 20 July 2013. 
  20. ^ "Delay in Indigenous Warship Projects of Navy". Press Information Bureau. 3 August 2011. Archived from the original on 14 May 2014. Retrieved 23 July 2013. 
  21. ^ a b c Shukla, Ajai (20 August 2012). "Dangerous consequences of warships built in India". Rediff News. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2014. 
  22. ^ "Report No. 32 of 2010 - Performance Audit of Indigenous Construction of Indian Naval Warships" (PDF). Comptroller and Auditor General of India. p. 41. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 February 2018. 
  23. ^ Shukla, Ajai (1 April 2009). "Russia steps in to bail out sinking Project 15-A". Business Standard. Archived from the original on 22 September 2010. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  24. ^ Shukla, Ajai (20 August 2012). "Navy's wavering delaying warships by years". Business Standard. Archived from the original on 13 April 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2012. 
  25. ^ a b "India's 3rd indigenous naval destroyer launched". CNN-News18. 1 April 2010. Archived from the original on 3 February 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2013. 
  26. ^ "Navy gets its largest destroyer". The Hindu. 13 July 2014. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 15 July 2014. 
  27. ^ "INS Chennai adds to Naval might". Zee News. 1 April 2010. Archived from the original on 5 June 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2013. 
  28. ^ "Project 15-A destroyer, INS Kochi To be launched on 18 Sep 2009". PIB. Archived from the original on 21 July 2012. Retrieved 16 June 2013. 
  29. ^ "First test of BrahMos land-attack variant from the sea". India today. 5 March 2008. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013. 
  30. ^ "BrahMos missile test-fired from warship INS Kolkata". The Times of India. 9 June 2014. Archived from the original on 9 June 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2014. 
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  32. ^ "INS Kochi is proof India good at integrating different systems on one platform". sunday guardian. Archived from the original on 9 October 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2015. 
  33. ^ "INS Kochi commissioned at Mumbai | Indian Navy". indiannavy.nic.in. Archived from the original on 3 June 2016. Retrieved 5 May 2016. 
  34. ^ a b c "MDL Annual Report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 August 2016. 
  35. ^ Bhatt, Arunkumar (27 September 2003). "Mazagon Dock lays keel of destroyer". The Hindu. The Hindu Group. 
  36. ^ Rasquinha, Reagan Gavin (1 April 2006). "Queen of the high seas". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  37. ^ Bhatt, Arunkumar (1 April 2006). "A lethal combination of stealth and strength". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  38. ^ Pandit, Rajat (16 August 2014). "PM Modi inducts India's largest indigenously built warship INS Kolkata". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 4 February 2018. 
  39. ^ a b Ved, Mahendra (8 October 2015). "Make in India at Indian Navy". The Hans India. Archived from the original on 23 February 2018. 
  40. ^ "INS Kochi, largest India-made warship, commissioned". The Times of India. TNN. 30 September 2015. Archived from the original on 4 February 2018. 
  41. ^ Commodore Stephen Saunders, ed. (2016). "India". Jane's Fighting Ships 2016–2017 (119th ed.). Coulsdon: Jane's Information Group. p. 346. ISBN 978-0710631855. 

External links[edit]

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