Kukna language

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Canarese Konkani
कॅनराचॆं कोंकणी, Kanarachem Konknni, ಕ್ಯಾನರಾಚೆಂ ಕೊಂಕಣಿ, കേനരാചെം കൊങ്കണി
Pronunciation koŋkɳi
Native to India
Region Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala
Native speakers
110,000 (2001 census)[1]
Devanagari, Kannada, Malayalam
Official status
Recognised minority
language in
Language codes
ISO 639-3 kex
Glottolog kukn1238[2]
Distribution of native Canarese Konkani speakers in India

Kukna, also known as Canarese Konkani is a minority language spoken by the Konkani people of Karnataka and Kerala.[note 1][3]


The Karnataka dialects are referred to as Canarese Konkani or Karnataka Konkani. The Kerala dialects are referred to as Travancore Konkani or Kerala Konkani or simply Konkani from Kerala. Certain dialects like the Canara Saraswat dialects of the Gaud Saraswats and Bhanaps are called आमचीगॆलॆं āmcigelẽ (lit. ours) and the dialect of the Cochin Gaud Saraswats is called कॊच्चिमांय koccimā̃y (lit. mother Cochin) by the members of those communities.

The word Canara is a Portuguese corruption of the word Kannada. Konkani speaking communities from Canara usually distinguish themselves from their Goan counterparts by adding the prefix Canara. e.g. Saraswats from Canara are call themselves Canara Saraswats and Christians, Canara Christians.[according to whom?] The early Portuguese conquistadors referred to Konkani as lingoa Canarim as a reference to Canara.[4]

Geographic distribution[edit]

Canarese Konkani is mainly spoken as a minority language in the Indian States of Karnataka, Kerala, and some parts of Maharashtra. The speakers are concentrated in the districts of Uttara Kannada district, Udupi and Dakshina Kannada in Karnataka, and, in districts of Cochin, Ernakulam, Alapuzha, Kollam, Calicut, Kannur and Kasargod in Kerala.


Influx of Konkani speakers into Canara happened in three time-lines :

The people[edit]

According to the 1991 census of India, 40.1% Konkani speakers hail from the state of Karnataka. In Karnataka over 80% of them are from the coastal districts of North and South Canara, including Udupi. 3.6% of the Konkani speakers are from Kerala, and nearly half of them are from Ernakulam district.[5]

Based on local language influence, Konkani speaking people are classified into three main regions:

North Canara (Uttara Kannada district, Karnataka)[edit]

This is the region north of the Gangolli river, starts from the Kali river of Karwar. North Canarites are called baḍgikār[note 2] (Northerners) or simply baḍgi in Konkani. North Canara Konkani has more of Goan Konkani influence than Kannada influence compared to South Canara Konkani. The major Konkani speaking communities include:[6][7]

Karwar Konkani is different from Mangalorean or south Kanara konkani. It is similar to Goan Konkani but mixed with Kannada accented words.Although people of Karwar have their mother tongue as Konkani.Konkani speakers in North Canara are bilingual; they are well conversant in Kannada as well as Konkani. A few are conversant in Marathi too.

South Canara (Udupi and Mangalore districts, Karnataka)[edit]

This is the region south of the Gangolli river. South Canarites are called ṭenkikār [note 2](Southerner) tenkabagli or simply ṭenki in Konkani. The Rajapur Saraswat, Kudalkar, Daivajna, Kumbhar, Mangalorean Catholics, Gaud Saraswats and Chitrapur Saraswats are some of the Konkani speaking communities of this region. 33% of Dakshina Kannada speaks Konkani.[8] South Canara Saraswats, both Gaud Saraswat and Chitrapur Saraswat affectionately refer to their dialect as āmcigelẽ (Ours) This region has recently been bifurcated into Udupi and Dakshina Kannada districts.

Konkani speakers in South Canara are trilingual; they are conversant in Konkani, Kannada and Tulu. Some are also conversant in Malayalam, especially speakers south of mangalore in towns like Manjeshwar, Ullal, Someshwar. Some of the towns in South Canara have separate Konkani names. Udupi is called ūḍup and Mangalore is called koḍiyāl in Konkani.

Travancore (Cochin and Ernakulam district, Kerala)[edit]

Konkani speakers are found predominantly in the Cochin and Ernakulam Alappuzha, Kollam districts of Kerala, the earstwhile kingdom of Travancore. Gaud Saraswat, Kudumbis, Vaishya Vani of Cochin, Daivajna and Mangalorean Catholics are the major communities. The Konkani dialect of the Gaud Saraswats is affectionately referred to as koccimā̃y by members of that community.

The Gaud Saraswats of Cochin were part of the group of sāṣṭikārs who migrated from Goa during the Inquisition hence their dialect is, but for usage of certain Malayalam words, similar to the dialect spoken by Gaud Saraswats of South Canara.[9]

Konkani speakers in this region are bilingual; they are conversant in Konkani as well as Malayalam. Konkani in this region is peppered with Malayalam words.


Konkani in Karnataka has been in contact with Kannada, Tulu and Malayalam to some extent, thus showing Dravidian influence on its syntax.[10]

The phonetics, sounds, nasalization, grammar, syntax and in turn vocabulary obviously differs from Goan Konkani.[10]

There was a small population of Konkani speakers in Canara even before the first exodus from Goa. This group was responsible for the Shravanabelagola inscription. There was a large scale migration of Konkani communities from Goa to the coastal districts of North Canara, South Canara and Udupi as also the Shimoga district of Malnad region. This migration, caused by the persecution of the Bahamani and Portuguese rulers, took place between the twelfth and seventeenth centuries. Most of these migrants were merchants, craftsmen and artisans. These migrants were either Hindus, Muslims or Christians and their linguistic practices were influenced by this factor also. Each dialect is influenced by its geographical antecedents.

There are subtle differences in the way that Konkani is spoken in different regions: “In Karwar and Ankola, they emphasize the syllables, and in Kumta-Honavar, they use consonants in abundance. The Konkani spoken by Nawayatis of Bhatkal incorporates Persian and Arabic words."[11] People of South Kanara do not distinguish between some nouns of Kannada and Konkani origin, and have developed a very business practical language. They sometimes add Tulu words also. It is but natural that Konkani has many social variations also because it is spoken by many communities such as Sonar, Serugar, Mestri, Sutar, Gabeet, Kharvi, Samgar, Nawayati, etc. The Konkani dialects spoken in Ernakulam incorporates Malayalam words.

There is a slight difference between the Konkani dialects spoken by the Christian and the Hindu communities. They are, however, mutually intelligible.[12]

Continuous inter action between the Konkani speaking communities with Dravidian Languages over a period of time has resulted in influences at the levels of morphology, syntax, vocabulary and larger semantic units such as proverbs and idioms.[13] This phenomenon is illustrated by Nadkarni, Bernd Heine and Tanya Kuteva in their writings.

Many Kannada words such as duḍḍu (money), baḍḍi (stick) and bāgilu (door) have found permanent places in Canarese Konkani. Canarese Konkani from Kerala has Malayalam words like sari/śeri (correct), etc.

These influences do not take away the fact that Konkani is not a Dravidian language.

Dialect Variation

Differences between North Canara, South Canara and Cochin Konkani[citation needed]
Phrase North Canara South Canara Cochin
What happened? kitẽ/kasal dzālẽ kasan / kalẽ dzālẽ kasal dzāllẽ
correct samma samma sari/ śeri
We are coming āmi yetāti āmmi yettāti / yettāci/ yetā̃v āmmi yettāci
Come here hekkaḍe/henga yo hāṅgā yo hāṅgā yo

From the above table we see that South Canara and Kerala Hindu dialects undergo doubling of consonants āppaytā (calls), dzāllẽ (done), kellẽ (did), vhaṇṇi (sister in law) where Canara Catholic and North Canara Hindu dialects use the un-doubled ones āpaytā, dzālẽ, kelẽ, vhaṇi' . The Gaud Saraswat and Kudumbi Kochi dialects uses ca and ja in place tsa and dza respectively.

Language structure[edit]

Konkani speakers in Karnataka, having interacted with Kannada speakers in North Canara, Kannada and Tulu speakers in South Canara and Malayalam speakers in Kerala, their dialects have been influenced by Kannada, Tulu and Malayalam. This has resulted in Dravidian influence on their syntax.[10] According to the linguists, Konkani in Karnataka has undergone a process of degenitivization, and is moving towards dativization on the pattern of Dravidian languages. Degenitivization means the loss or replacement of the genitives, and dativization means replacement of the genitive in the donor language (i.e. Konkani) by the dative case marker in the recipient language (i.e. Kannada).[10] E.g.:

  • rāmācẽ/-lẽ/-gelẽ kellelẽ kām. Red XN
  • rāmānẽ kellelẽ kām. Green tickY
In the Goan dialects, both statements are grammatically correct. In the Karnataka dialects, only the second statement is grammatically correct.

In Karnataka Konkani present continuous tense is strikingly observable, which is not so prominent in Goan Konkani.[14] Present indefinite of the auxiliary is fused with present participle of the primary verb, and the auxiliary is partially dropped.[14] This difference became more prominent in dialects spoken in Karnataka, which came in contact with Dravidian languages, whereas Goan Konkani still retains the original form.

  • In Goan Konkani "I eat", as well as "I am eating", translates to hā̃v khātā.
  • In Kanara Konkani, "I eat" translates to hā̃v khātā and "I am eating" translates to hā̃v khātoāsā or hā̃v khāter āsā


Early Konkani literature in Goa, Karnataka and Kerala has been found in the Nāgarī Script. At present however, Konkani in the Devanagari script has been promulgated as an Official Language[note 3]. Nevertheless, Konkani is also written in the Roman, Kannada and Persian scripts.


Early literature[edit]

Amongst the inscriptions at the foot of the colossal statue of Bahubali at Shravanabelagola in Karnataka are two lines reading thus:

The first line was inscribed circa 981 AD and the second line in 116-17 AD.[15] The language of these lines is Konkani according to Dr. S.B. Kulkarni (former head of Department of Marathi, Nagpur University) and Dr. Jose Pereira (former professor, Fordham University, US). Considering these arguments, these inscriptions at Sravanabelegola may be considered the earliest Konkani[16] inscriptions in the Nāgarī script.

A piece of poetry attributed to the twelfth century and worded in Konkani runs as follows,

  1. The One who brought up the Vedas in the form of a fish from the bottom of the Oceans,
  2. (and) gave it to Manu,
  3. He shall deliver the world,
  4. To me, He is the protector, Lord Narayan.[16]

Medieval Literature[edit]

Konkani in the Old Nagari Script

It can be said beyond doubt, that nothing has been written for a long period up to 1900 which is an awareness, is perceived in the case of Konkani. The wilderness may be attributed to the lack of consciousness, amongst the Konkani speaking people, as to the importance of the preservation of records[6]

The earliest known Konkani epigraphy is the rock inscription at Shravanabelagola, Karnataka. Another writing of antiquity is a रायसपत्र Rāyasapatra (writ) By Srimad Sumatindra Tirtha swamiji to his disciples.

Goḍḍe Rāmāyaṇ

In Konkani, Ramayana narration is found in both verse and prose. The story has been told in full or part in folksongs of the Kudubis and ritualistic forms like goḍḍe rāmāyaṇ of Kochi, sītā suddi and sītā kalyāṇa of Northern Kerala/South Canara and the rāmāyaṇa raṇmāḷe of Cancon. Some other texts of Ramayana too are available in written form in Konkani. rāmāyaṇācyo kāṇiyo, ascribed to Krishnadas Shama is in 16th century prose. During 1930s Late Kamalammal wrote the raghurāmāyaṇa in vhōvi[note 5] style verse. There have also been an adapted version by late Narahari Vittal Prabhu of Gokarn and recently, the translation of rāmacaritramānasa by Kochi Ananta Bhat of Kochi.[6][17]

Hortus Malabaricus
The Hortus Malabaricus Konkani Document corrected for contemporary grammar

Hortus Malabaricus (meaning Garden of Malabar) is a comprehensive treatise that deals with the medicinal properties of the flora in the Indian state of Kerala. Originally written in Latin, it was compiled over a period of nearly 30 years and published from Amsterdam during 1678–1693. The book was conceived by Hendrik van Rheede, who was the Governor of the Dutch administration in Kochi (formerly Cochin) at the time.

Though the book was the result of the indomitable will power of Hendrik Van Rheede, all the basic work and the original compilation of plant properties was done by three Konkani Physicians of Kochi, namely Ranga Bhat, Vināyaka Pandit and Appu Bhat.[18] The three have themselves certified this in their joint certificate in Konkani, which appears as such at the start of the first volume of the book.

This book also contains the Konkani names of each plant, tree and creeper are also included throughout the book, in all 12 volumes, both in its descriptive parts and alongside their respective drawings. While the names are in Roman script in the descriptive part, the names alongside the diagrams are in original Nāgarī script itself, indicated as Bramanical characters.[18]

KonkaniNames of Plants in the Hortus Malabaricus

The 17th century certificate was etched in the manner and style of those times, which may appear unfamiliar now. Further to this, some writing notations (mostly anuswara) are seen missing in the print. Hence, to make it easily readable, the body matter is reproduced herein with enhanced clarity, modern-day spacing between words, and with the missing notations added back, for the sake of coherence and comprehension.

Christian Literature

The credit for documenting Konkani in Canara goes to The Italian Jesuit Fr. Angelus Francis Xavier Maffei, who studied the Konkani language of the Mangalorean Catholics of South Canara. He wrote two books, English-Konkani dictionary and thereafter a book on Konkani Grammar, in 1882. In 1883 he wrote koṅkaṇi rānāntulo sōbīt sundar tāḷo (A sweet voice from the Konkani Desert ) in 1893.

The captivity of sixty thousand Kanara Christians in 1784 by Tipu Sultan and their deportation and shipment in Srirangapatnam for more than 15 years testified as a boon in disguise for evolvement of Konkani literature in Karnataka. Several of the prisoners carried along with them hymns and other folklore to keep them going amidst dreadful surroundings. The well known hymn riglo jedzu maḷeyānt (Jesus entered the garden of Gethsemane) was most likely composed by Fr Joachim Miranda in the 18th century. Foundation of Konkani literature was primarily laid in these hymns. By the middle of the 19th century, Konkani Christians had grounded themselves into a well-knit and well-to-do community in and around the city of Mangalore.

Bhakti Movement
This rare Konkani lithograph manuscript, dated 1904 was printed in Mangalore. It contains devotional songs in Konkani in the glory of popular Hindu deities.

The Dvaita seer Madhavacharya converted Smartha Konkani Gaud Saraswats to Dvaitism. This Dvaita Gaud Saraswat community was instrumental in kīrtanasāhitya and haridāsasāhitya. Vasudev Prabhu was a very famous Konkani poet of the Bhakti Movement. He wrote many devotional songs in Konkani and also translated Kannada devotional poetry of Vyāsarāya, Naraharitirtha, Puranadaradāsa, Kanakadāsa. These Konkani songs were, later, sung by nārāyantirtha[19]

Contemporary Literature[edit]

The year 1912 witnessed the birth of the first periodical in Mangalore, the Konkani Dirvem, under the very much advancing and shining Konkani literature in Karnataka. Louis Mascarenhas and U Kannappa were the founders of this periodical. In 1938, the periodical named Rakhno was started in Mangalore. The year 1950 remained a witness to the birth of the first full-length, original social nover Angel by Joaquim Santan Alvares. He in fact had revolutionised the field of fiction in Konkani literature from Karnataka and subsequently penned numerous awe-inspiring novels. V J P Saldanha, popularly acknowledged as Khadap, has authored novels pretty much containing a powerful plot, characterisation and style of diction. Chafra, also acknowledged as C F D'Costa, has made applaudable contribution in the genres of poetry and plays. Some other prominent writers in Konkani literature from Karnataka comprise: A T Lobo, Edwin D Souza, Stan Ageira, Gabriel D'Souza or Gabbu, Ronald Pereira, Jerry Kulshekar, Irene Pinto, Tina D'Mello, Mic Max, Vitor Rodrigues, Francis Saldanha, Hemachandra, etc.

Pedro John D'Souza, Faustin D'Souza, J U Rego, J C Viegas, Nandini D' costa, C G Pereira, Sylvester DSouza, Francis Saldanha and other have penned emphatic short stories under Konkani literature in Karnataka. Another hugely captivating factor in this Karnataka Konkani literature is their supreme interest in poetry, which is acknowledged to be verily deep rooted. The early groundbreakers in this field were in actuality, the Catholic priests, who had sailed long long time back. They have handed down to their succeeding generations numerous hymns, which were poems in effect. They were further passed down to the other generations by word of mouth. Louis Mascarenhas was a great poet, in the context of Konkani literature from early Karnataka. Other prominent poets from this Konkani genre comprise: Fr P L Notelho, Fr Sylvester Menezes, Fr Anthony John D'Souza, Fr Pratap Naik, Ambrose D'Souza, Lancelot Pinto, Elo D'Souza, J B Sequeira, Ambrose D'Souza, J B Rasquina and Henry D'Silva, J B Moraes, C F D'Costa.

Contemporary Konkani literature in Kerala made a rather late entry, as compared to its other concentrated states like Karnataka. However, according to historical annals, there can be established no exact evidence to relate exactly when Konkani language and literature began its predominating journey in Kerala. But a possible contact and interlinking between Goa with Kerala cannot be thrown to the wind, as collaborators in foreign trade. G Kamalammal is known to have contributed whole-heartedly to Konkani literature, in the domain of devotional writing. V. Krishna Vadyar, Bhakta R Kanhangad, S. T Chandrakala, S Kamat are some of the most renowned novelists in the Konkani dialect. Moving further ahead, V Venkates, K Narayan Naik, N Prakash and others have penned forceful short stories; P G Kamath has contributed to the sphere of essay writing.

Some of the most great and legendary poets in Konkani literature from Kerala, comprise: K Anant Bhat, N Purushottam Mallya, R Gopal Prabhu, P N S Sivanand Shenoy, N N Anandan, R S Bhaskar etc. Translations, folklore, criticism also have enriched the Konkani literature in Kerala.Stepping aside a little bit and directing the attention towards analytic and detailed study, Konkani literature in Kerala has been legendary and celebrated to have formulated dictionaries and encyclopedias in considerable numbers.

Culture, media and arts[edit]

Konkani speakers have retained their language and culture in Karnataka and Kerala. Music, theatre and periodicals keep these communities in touch with the language.

Notable periodicals are rākṇo, pāntskadāyi, divo, paiṇāri and sansakār bōdh.

Konkani theatre made a rather late entry into the Indian art scenario. Konkani thearte groups like rangakarmi kumbaḷe śrīnivās bhaṭ pratiṣṭhān, sant judze nāṭak sabhe, raṅgayōgi rāmānand cūryā vēdike, māṇḍ sobhāṇ played an instrumental role in bringing Konkani theatre to the masses. raṅgakarmi Kumble Shrinivas Bhat, Late Hosad Babuti Naik, Late Cha. Fra. D’Costa, Late Late K. Balakrishna Pai (kuḷḷāppu), Sujeer Srinivas Rao (cinna kāsaragōḍ) and Vinod Gangolli are some noteworthy names. Ramananda Choorya was an eminent artist who encouraged people to develop Konkani theatre. He wrote the famous play dōni ghaḍi hāssunu kāḍi. Some other notable theatre-plays are paiśāntso sansār , jêkpoṭ jana, bā‌vuḷẽ phūl, tsōru guru tsāṇḍāḷa śiṣya, kāḷki rāta, śānti nivās, dharmam śaraṇam gacchāmi, gāṇṭi, kāḷakā phāṭlẽ udzvāḍa, hāsanātilo to piso.

Konkani films are rarely made in Karnataka and Kerala. tapasvini and jana mana, ujwadu are the only three films in the āmcigelẽ dialect. 'mog āni mayapās, bhogasāṇe, kāzārā uprānt, pādri are films in the South Kanara Christian dialect. The First Konkani shortfilm from Kerala was created after 2010 "SITHA KORNDO"(Tiffinbox), by initiative from Vaishya Vani community kerala. This shortfilm had made a space in the entire Malayalee film lovers hardly, and the effect reflected in the last 4 to 6 Malayalam film included KONKANI language speaking situations even a full movie was launched starring MAMMOOTY and DILEEP named Kammath and Kammath.

Konkani in schools[edit]

Konkani has been initiated as the third language in Karnataka and Kerala due to efforts by Konkani promoting organisations. Government of Karnataka has introduced Konkani as a subject and provided textbooks. However due to lack of qualification, avenues hereto to Konkani teachers, it has not provided grants to schools for appointing Konkani Language teachers.

The Mangalore-based Konkani Language and Culture Foundation is approaching this issue with a two prong approach and hopes to achieve government grants to schools to appoint teachers for Konkani language.

  • World Konkani Centre Teacher Grant to Schools to Introduce Konkani Language

Though the Government of Karnataka has introduced Konkani as a subject (optional third language 6th Std onwards) in some schools of a few districts of Karnataka, it does not give any grant to appoint teachers for teaching Konkani. This has been an obstacle in promoting the Konkani language in schools.

The Konkani Language and Cultural Foundation has initiated a project to appoint Konkani teachers to teach Konkani in schools managed by Konkani people in Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Uttara Kannada.

Beginning of academic year 2010–11, the Foundation will appoint 10 teachers on a trial basis and lend their services to Konkani management schools. The teachers will be given regular training and coaching on monthly basis. These teachers will not only teach Konkani language but also train the students in Konkani art and culture i.e. singing, dance and acting in Konkani drama.

This scheme will involve:

    • The World Konkani Centre,
    • Management associations and school managements.

Though the World Konkani Centre will appoint the teachers and disburse monthly salaries, school managements look after the discipline, attendance, quality of teaching and attitude of the teacher allotted to their schools.

  • Project for Developing Resource Material For Konkani Methodology Of Teaching To Be Introduced Into D.Ed Syllabus

This project looks at establishing an academic base to Konkani in the School Education System. The Teacher Education dimension of the Konkani Language is evolved afresh and strengthened adequately through a systematic scholastic exercise. In order to achieve this, a series of thinking is prescribed which could be treated as a Road Map for setting up disciplinary status to Konkani Teaching Methodology in Teacher Training Institutes and thus pave the way for producing efficient Konkani Teachers through preliminary meetings with scholars and academicians. A series of workshops will be organised to develop the resource material for Konkani teaching methodology.

In Kerala 2009 Aug. Govt. has instructed to SCERT to prepare curriculum and textbook to introduce Konkani from standard V to X. Also Govt. expects to introduce the same in 2011–12 academic year in std V.

Konkani organisations in Karnataka and Kerala[edit]

Konkani well wishers in Kerala established the Kochi based Kerala Konkani Academy in 1980. Konkani language in the state of Karnataka is regulated by the Karnataka Konkani Sahitya Academy, Mangalore established by the government of Karnataka in 1994. Co-ordinating and liaising with these are private and semi-governmental organisations like Konkani Bhashoddhara Trust, Konkani Parishad (Kumta), Karnataka State Konkani Linguistic Minority Educational Institutions Association, Dr T.M.A. Pai Foundation, Konkani Bhasha Mandal, Karnataka, Mand Sobhann (Kalangann) in Karnataka, and Konkani Bhasha Prachar Sabha (Kochi), Konkani Bhasha Pratisthan (Kozhikode) in Kerala.The Mumbai based Konkani Bhasha Mandal is a private organisation in Maharashtra.

Govt. of Kerala has taken a step ahead to establish Konkani Sahithya Akademy (Konkani Akademy) by issuing a G.O in Oct 2011, to constitute an Advisory committee which includes 16 persons from Kerala.

In addition to these there are educational institutions which have Konkani language departments, notable amongst which are Department of Konkani Studies (1992) at St. Aloysius College (Mangalore) and Saraswat Education Society's (1870) Ganapathi High School. Sukrathindra Oriental Research Institute (1974) is a Notable Kochi based organisation.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The Constitution Act 1992 (71st Amendment)
  2. ^ a b Term used by Konkani speaking Gaud Saraswats and Chitrapur Sarasawts
  3. ^ On 20 August 1992 Parliament of India by effecting the 78th amendment to the Constitution of India, Konkani in Devanagari script has been included in VIIIth Schedule of Constitution of India.
  4. ^ Chavundaraya was the military chief of the Ganga dynasty King Gangaraya. This inscription on the Bahubali statue draws attention to a Basadi (Jain Temple) initially built by him and then modified by Gangaraya in the 12th century CE Ref: S. Settar in Adiga (2006), p256
  5. ^ A vhōvi is song made of a collection two or three liner stanzas typically sung during weddings by ladies


  1. ^ Canarese Konkani at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Kukna". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ "Issues of Linguistic Minorities, Language Use in Administration and National Integration" (Press release). Central Institute of Indian Languages. 19 October 2004. 
  4. ^ Mohan Lal (2001). The Encyclopaedia Of Indian Literature (Volume Five (Sasay To Zorgot), Volume 5. New Delhi: Kendra Sahitya Academy. p. 4182. ISBN 81-260-1221-8. 
  5. ^ Cardona, George; Dhanesh Jain (2007). "20:Konkani". The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge language family series. Rocky V. Miranda (illustrated ed.). Routledge. p. 1088. ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5. 
  6. ^ a b c Sardessaya, Manoharraya (2000). A History of Konkani literature: from 1500 to 1992. New Delhi: Kendra Sahitya Akademi. pp. 7,9,298. ISBN 978-81-7201-664-7. 
  7. ^ Chithra Salam (14 October 2009). "Uttara Kannada Jilla Parishada". Konkani Census. Open Publishing. Retrieved 5 March 2011. 
  8. ^ "District Census Handbook, Dakshina Kannada District," (Press release). Govt. of Karnataka. 2001. 
  9. ^ Kerala District Gazetteer. Thiruvananthapuram: Govt. Of Kerala. 1965. pp. 32–57. 
  10. ^ a b c d Bhaskararao, Peri; Karumuri V. Subbarao (2004). "Non-nominative subjects in Dakkhani and Konkani". Non-nominative subjects,. Grammar, Comparative and general. Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 332. ISBN 978-90-272-2970-0. 
  11. ^ D'Souza, V.S. (1955). The Navayats of Kanara- study in Cultural Contacts. Dharwad: Kannada Research Institute. pp. 12–20. 
  12. ^ Miranda, Rocky V. (October 2009). "Caste, Religion and Dialect Differentiation in the Konkani Area". International Journal of the Sociology of Language 1978 (16): 77–92. doi:10.1515/ijsl.1978.16.77. 
  13. ^ V.Nithyanantha Bhat, Ela Suneethabai (2004). The Konkani Language: Historical and Linguistic Perspectives. Kochi: Sukriteendra, Oriental Research Institute. pp. 5–27. 
  14. ^ a b Janardhan, Pandarinath Bhuvanendra (1991). A Higher Konkani grammar. P.B. Janardhan. p. 317. 
  15. ^ "Konkani Language and Cultural Foundation". Konkani History. Open Publishing. 5 March 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2011. 
  16. ^ a b Ayyappapanicker, K. (1999). Medieval Indian literature: an anthology. Volume 3. New Delhi: Kendra Sahitya Akademi. pp. 257–260. ISBN 81-260-0788-5. 
  17. ^ Custom Report. Mangalore: Konkani Language and Cultural Foundation. 2007. pp. 2, 3. 
  18. ^ a b Manilal, K.S. (2003). Hortus Malabaricus - Vol. I. Thiruvananthapuram: Dept. of publications, University of Kerala. pp. 5–23. ISBN 81-86397-57-4. 
  19. ^ Prabhu, Vasudev (1904). padāñcẽ pustaka. Mangalore: Mangalore Trading Association's Sharada Press. pp. 4–23. 

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