Korçë

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Korçë
Curceaua
Korytsa
Municipality
Korca, Albania 2017 - 2.jpg
Korçë
Stema e Bashkisë Korçë.svg
Seal
Korçë is located in Albania
Korçë
Korçë
Coordinates: 40°37′N 20°46′E / 40.617°N 20.767°E / 40.617; 20.767Coordinates: 40°37′N 20°46′E / 40.617°N 20.767°E / 40.617; 20.767
Country Albania Albania
County Korçë
Government
 • Mayor Sotiraq Filo (SP)
Area
 • Municipality 805.99 km2 (311.19 sq mi)
Elevation 850 m (2,790 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Municipality 75,994
 • Municipality density 94/km2 (240/sq mi)
 • Administrative Unit 51,152
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal Code 7001–7004
Area Code (0)82
Vehicle registration AL
Website Official Website

Korçë (IPA: [kɔɾtʃ]; (definite Albanian form: Korça), other names see below) is a city and municipality in southeastern Albania, and the seat of Korçë County. It was formed at the 2015 local government reform by the merger of the former municipalities Drenovë, Korçë, Lekas, Mollaj, Qendër Bulgarec, Vithkuq, Voskop and Voskopojë, that became municipal units. The seat of the municipality is the city Korçë.[1] The total population is 75,994 (2011 census), in a total area of 805.99 km2 (311.19 sq mi).[2] The population of the former municipality at the 2011 census was 51,152.[3] It is the sixth largest city in Albania. It stands on a plateau some 850 m (2,789 ft) above sea level, surrounded by the Morava Mountains.

Name[edit]

Korçë is named differently in other languages: Aromanian: Curceaua or Corceao; Bulgarian: Горица, Goritsa; Greek: Κορυτσά, Korytsa; Italian: Coriza; Macedonian: Горица, Goritsa; Turkish: Görice, Korytsa. The current name is of Slavic origin. The word "gorica" means "hill"[4] in South Slavic languages, and is a very common toponym in Albania and Slavic countries (e.g. Podgorica in Montenegro, Gorizia, Dolna Gorica in the Pustec municipality, and so on). It is diminutive of the Slavic toponym "gora", meaning mountain, which is also found in placenames throughout Slavic countries as well as non-Slavic countries like Albania, Greece and Italy.

History[edit]

Middle Ages and Ottoman period[edit]

Mirahori Mosque, Korçë. (Built in 1494 by Iljaz Bey Mirahor)

From the 13th century it was a small settlement called Episkopi (Greek: Επισκοπή, "bishopric").[5] The modern town dates from the 1480s, when Iljaz Hoxha, during the reign of Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II, developed Korçë after becoming its administrator and building a mosque bearing his name.[5][6] Korçë was a sandjak of the Manastir Vilayet in the Ottoman Empire as Görice.[7] The city started to flourish when the nearby town of Moscopole was raided by the Albanian troops of Ali Pasha at 1788.[8] [9] Korçë grew as part of its population came from nearby Moscopole.[10] Korçë went from having a population of 8,200 (1875) to 18,000 (1905) and of those 14,000 were regarded as Greek and the rest as Albanian.[10] Of those considered as Greek in Korçë, this was because they adhered to Orthodox Christianity, but Michael Palairet argues that most were Aromanians (Vlachs).[10] Greek was the language of the elite and the majority of the Aromanian population engaged in commerce, crafts and international trade becoming one of the wealthiest communities in Epirus and Macedonia.[10] Albanians of Korçë engaged mostly in stockbreeding, agriculture and were poor.[10] Korçë's cultural isolation was reduced due to Greek schools and subsequently Muslim Albanian revolutionary intellectuals from the city emerged in the 1840s that wanted to preserve a Muslim Albania within a reformed Ottoman state.[11] Due to increasing Hellenisation by the 1870s, those sentiments became replaced with the concept of an Albanian nation based on linguistic and cultural factors through struggle against a collapsing Ottoman Empire.[11] During the late Ottoman era, Orthodox Albanians involved in the Albanian National Awakening came mainly from Korçë and its surrounding areas.[12] On the other hand, the city council of Korçë, known as demogerontia (Greek: Δημογεροντία), and the metropolitan bishop of the city who identified as Greeks sent a secret memorandum to the foreign office department of Greece suggesting various ways to tackle activities by Albanian nationalists.[13] In the late Ottoman period, inhabitants from Korçë and surrounding areas emigrated abroad for economic opportunities, often by the Orthodox community who mainly as qualified craftsmen went to Romania, Greece and Bulgaria while Muslims went to Istanbul performing mainly menial labour work.[14]

Modern era[edit]

Flag of the Autonomous Albanian Republic of Korçë from 1916 to 1920. (left) Flag of the Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus on a postage stamp issued in Korçë at 1914. (right)

In the late Ottoman period the city of Korçë had a religious majority of 14,000 Orthodox Christians or Greeks (total population being around 18,000) of which Palairet says the majority were "probably" Aromanians[dubious ] as well as a sizable non-Orthodox minority that was Albanian, while Greek was the language spoken by the elite.[10] Ottoman rule over Korçë lasted until 1912; although the city and its surroundings were supposed to become part of the Principality of Bulgaria according to the Treaty of San Stefano in 1878, the Treaty of Berlin of the same year returned the area to Ottoman rule.[15] In 1910 the Orthodox Alliance of Korçë led by Mihal Grameno proclaimed the establishment of an Albanian church, but the Ottoman authorities refused to recognize it.[16] Korçë's proximity to Greece, which claimed the entire Orthodox population as Greek, led to its being fiercely contested in the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913. Greek forces captured Korçë from the Ottomans on 6 December 1912 and afterwards proceeded to imprison the Albanian nationalists of the town.[17] Its incorporation into Albania in 1913 was disputed by Greece, who claimed it as part of a region called 'Northern Epirus', and resulted in a rebellion by the Greek population residing in the region of Korçë, who asked the intervention of the Greek army.[18] This rebellion was initially suppressed by the Dutch commanders of the Albanian gendarmerie, that consisted of 100 Albanians led by the Orthodox Albanian nationalist Themistokli Gërmenji, and as a result the local Greek-Orthodox bishop Germanos and other members of the town council were arrested and expelled by the Dutch.[19][20]

The Old Bazaar of Korçë was mostly rebuilt in 1879.

However, under the terms of the Protocol of Corfu (May 1914), the city became part of the Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus inside the borders of the principality of Albania,[21] while on 10 July 1914 the Greek Northern Epirote forces took over the city.[22]

In October 1914 the city came again under Greek administration. During the period of the National Schism (1916) in Greece, a local revolt broke out, and with military and local support Korçë came under the control of Eleftherios Venizelos' Movement of National Defence, overthrowing the royalist forces.[23] However, due to developments in the Macedonian Front of World War I the city came soon under French control (1916–1920). The French initially awarded control of Korçë and the surrounding area to Greek allies, and Albanian guerilla bands led by Themistokli Gërmenji and Sali Butka fought for Albanian self-administration.[24] The French gave into those demands and fourteen representatives of Korçë and Colonel Descoins signed a protocol that proclaimed the Autonomous Albanian Republic of Korçë under the military protection of the French army and with Themistokli Gërmenji as president on December 10th, 1916.[19][24][25] The French pursued polices which strengthened expressions of Albanian nationalism.[26] Greek schools were closed down, Greek clergy and pro-Greek notables expelled while allowing Albanian education and promoting Albanian self-government through the autonomous Korçë republic.[26] Another factor that reinforced Albanian sentiments among the population was the return of 20-30,000 Orthodox Albanian emigrants mainly to Korçë and the surrounding region who had attained Albanian nationalist sentiments abroad.[27] The Conference of ambassadors considering Albania's claims to the area commissioned a League of Nations report consisting of three on the ground commissioners in December 1921.[28] One commissioner, Finnish professor J. Sederholm, possibly based on biased pro-Albanian reports,[29] noted in 1922 that Korçë's population was "entirely Albanian; the numbers of Greeks being insignificant".[28] It ultimately remained part of Albania, as determined by the International Boundary Commission, which affirmed the country's 1913 borders. Although assurances were given in the Paris Peace Conference by Albanian officials for the recognition of the Greek minority, during the 1920s Greek speech was prohibited in local education and religious life within Korçë.[30][31] At November 1921 the Albanian authorities expelled the Greek Orthodox metropolitan bishop Jakob. This event triggered demonstrations by the Orthodox community of the city.[32]

Education[edit]

Students in front of the first officially recognized Albanian school in modern Albania, in 1899.
The building of former Albanian school that now serves as a museum.

At beginning of the 18th century the inhabitants of Korçë attended the schools of nearby Moscopole.[33] The first school, a Greek language school, in the city was established in 1724 with the support of residents of nearby Vithkuq.[33][34] This school was destroyed during the Greek War of Independence but it reopened in 1830. In 1857 a Greek school for girls was operating in the city.[35] During the 19th century various local benefactors such as Ioannis Pangas and Anastasios Avramidis-Liaktsis donated money for the promotion of Greek education and culture in Korçë, such as the Bangas Gymnasium.[36][37] Greek education was also financed by members of the diaspora in Egypt.[33] Similarly, kindergartens, boarding and urban schools, were also operating in the city during this period.[33] Under these developments, a special community fund, named the Lasso fund, was established in 1850 by the local Orthodox bishop Neophytos,[38] in order to support Greek cultural activity in Korçë.[39] At the eve of the Balkan Wars (1912) the total number of students attending Greek education in the city numbered 2,115.[40]

Around 1850, Naum Veqilharxhi created an Albanian alphabet in which a few small books were published and the script briefly flourished in Korçë, although he is thought to have been poisoned by the Greek Patriarch.[10] At the end of the 19th century local Albanians expressed a growing need to be educated in their native language.[41] The Albanian intellectual diaspora from Istanbul and Bucharest initially tried to avoid antagonism towards the notables of Korçë, who were in favor of Greek culture. Thus they suggested the introduction of Albanian language in the existing Greek Orthodox schools, a proposal which was discussed with the local bishop and the city council; the Demogeronteia (Greek: Δημογεροντεία) and finally rejected by the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.[42] In the late 1870s the Albanian Committee of Patriots devised a Latin-based Albanian script which was also adopted by British and U.S. Protestant missionaries [10] A wealthy Aromanian emigre Anastasios Avramidis-Liaktsis planned on awarding his fortune to the inhabitants of Korçë for their benefit[10] and the Committee of Albanian Patriots approached him for funds to open an Albanian school.[10] The project for a school caused intercommunal tensions and Avramidis-Liaktsis proposed for a Greek school with Albanian being taught twice a week, but even this diluted proposal was set aside.[10]

Students and teachers of the Greek Urban School, 1897. left and Bangas Gymnasium, early 20th century of the several institutions sponsored by the community Lasso fund. right

The Central Committee for Defending Albanian Rights founded in the late 1870s promoting Albanian cultural development set up an Albanian secondary school for boys.[10] The founding in 1884 of the boy's secondary school is regarded as the first Albanian school in Korçë[10] and established in 1887 by the Drita (English: Light) organization and funded by notable local individuals. Its first director was Pandeli Sotiri.[42][43] Naim Frashëri, the national poet of Albania played a great role in the opening of the school.[44] As a high-ranking statesman in the ministry of education of the Ottoman Empire he managed to get official permission for the school.[44] The Ottoman authorities gave permission only for Christian children to be educated in Albanian, but the Albanians did not follow this restriction and allowed also Muslim children to attend.[44] It survived until 1902 under the teachers Leonidis and Naum Naça who were arrested and declared as traitors by Ottoman authorities at the request of Greek clergy with the school being closed down, vandalised and wrecked.[10] Albanian efforts for an Albanian school are represented in Greek sources as a failure due to weak demand and limited funding, but Palairet notes that Greek interference undermined the school.[10][44] In the late 1880s Gjerasim Qiriazi began his Protestant mission in the city. He and fellow members of the Kyrias family established Albanian speaking institutions in Korçë, with his sister Sevasti Qiriazi founding the first Albanian girls school in 1891.[14] It was started by Gjerasim Qiriazi and later run by his sisters, Sevasti and Parashqevi Qiriazi, together with Polikseni Luarasi (Dhespoti). Later collaborators were the Rev. & Mrs. Grigor Çilka and Rev & Mrs. Phineas Kennedy of the Congregational Mission Board of Boston. Both schools were closed by the Ottoman authorities during 1902-1904.[45]

When the city was under French administration in 1916 (the Republic of Korçë), Greek schools were closed and 200 Albanian and French language schools[citation needed] were opened.[dubious ] A few months later Greek schools were reopened as a reward and result of Greece's adhesion to the Entente alliance along with France.[46] Particularly relevant was the opening in 1917 of the Albanian National Lyceum.

The city is home to Fan Noli University, founded in 1971, which offers several degrees in the humanities, sciences and business. The University includes a school in Agriculture, Teaching, Business, Nursing, and Tourism.

With the prohibition of Greek education in the city, at c. 1922, there was a constant demand for the reopening a Greek school.[47] After the collapse of the Socialist Republic, part of the local communities expressed a growing need to revive their cultural past, in particular with the reopenning of Greek language institutions.[33] In April 2005 the first bilingual Greek-Albanian school opened in Korçë after 60 years of prohibition of Greek education.[48] In addition, a total of 17 Greek language institutes are functioning in the city.[33]


Communism and Post-communism[edit]

View of the Resurrection Cathedral at night.

Italian forces occupied Korçë in 1939, along with the rest of the country. During the Greco-Italian War it became the main forward base of the Italian air force. Nevertheless, the city came under the control of the advancing Greek forces, on November 22, 1940, during the first phase of the Greek counter-offensive.[49] Korçë remained under Greek control until the German invasion of Greece in April 1941. After Italy's withdrawal from the war in 1943, the Germans occupied the town until October 24, 1944.

During the occupation, the city became a major centre of Communist-inspired resistance to the Axis occupation of Albania. The establishment of the Albanian Party of Labour—the Communist Party—was formally proclaimed in Korçë in 1941. Albanian rule was restored in 1944 following the withdrawal of German forces.

The period of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania was a difficult time in the region. President Enver Hoxha targeted the rich, despite the fact that they had fought for the creation of the communist state by fighting against the Fascist occupations. Right after World War II many people fled to Boston, United States joining a community of the Albanian-Americans, who had previously emigrated there.[50]

After 1990 Korçë was one of the six cities where the New Democratic Party won all the constituencies. Popular revolts in February 1991 ended with the tearing down of Hoxha's statue. After the fall of communism, the city fell into disregard in many aspects. However following the 2000s, the city experienced a makeover as main streets and alleys started to be reconstructed, locals began to renovate their historic villas, a calendar of events was introduced, building façades painted, and city parks reinvigorated. The European Union is financing the renovation of the Korca Old Bazaar while the city centre was redesigned, and a watch tower constructed.

Geography[edit]

Climate[edit]

Korçë has a transitional Mediterranean climate (or continental Mediterranean climate) with high temperature amplitudes. The hottest month is August (25 °C (77 °F)) while January (2 °C (36 °F)) is the coldest. The city receives around 710 millimeters (28 in) annual precipitation with summer minimum and winter maximum, which makes it easily the driest major city in generally humid Albania, owing to the rain shadow of the coastal mountains. The temperatures in Korçë generally remain cooler than the western part of Albania, due to the middle altitude of the plain in which it is situated, but it receives about 2300 hours of solar radiation per year, so its temperatures are higher than those in Northeastern Albania. Temperatures can still reach up to 40 °C (104 °F) or higher on occasions.

Climate data for Korçë
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 4
(40)
7
(45)
8
(46)
14
(57)
19
(66)
24
(75)
28
(82)
29
(84)
22
(72)
17
(62)
10
(50)
6
(43)
16
(60)
Average low °C (°F) −3
(27)
−2
(29)
−1
(30)
4
(39)
9
(48)
12
(53)
14
(57)
15
(59)
11
(51)
7
(44)
3
(38)
−1
(31)
6
(42)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 58
(2.3)
89
(3.5)
50
(2)
53
(2.1)
99
(3.9)
30
(1)
18
(0.7)
10
(0.4)
50
(2)
81
(3.2)
132
(5.2)
53
(2.1)
719
(28.3)
Source: Weatherbase [51]

Demographics[edit]

Korçë is the 7th populous city in Albania and the largest city in the Korçë County. In 2007, the population of the city was about 86.176 inhabitants. According to the Institute of Statistics (INSTAT), the city of Korçë include 51.683 (25.478 male; 26.205 female) people as of the 2011 Census.[52] The city of Korçë has a large Greek population [53] and is one of the major centres of the Greek minority in southern Albania.[54] Aromanians of Korçë live mainly in one neighborhood[which?] of the city where they speak Aromanian, have Aromanian cultural associations that are divided between pro-Romanian and Greek factions, church liturgy in Aromanian and maintain cultural and economic connections to Romania and Greece.[55] Romani also inhabit the city, in particular the Kulla e Hirit neighborhood and their presence in the city mainly dates to the early 20th century when they migrated from Turkey to Florina and ultimately Korçë.[56]

Religion[edit]

Resurrection Cathedral of Korçë is the main church of the city left The Mirahori Mosque was built in 1494 right

For centuries Korçë has been an important religious centre for both Orthodox Christians and Muslims[57], hosting a large Orthodox community as well as large Sunni and Bektashi communities in and around the city. The main centre of the Bektashis of the area is the Turan Tekke.

The city was initially part of the Metropolis of Kastoria (15th century), but in the early 17th century became the seat of an Orthodox bishop and in 1670 was elevated to metropolitan bishopric.[58][59] The city remained entirely Christian until the first half of the 16th century.[59] The Orthodox cathedral of saint George, a significant landmark in the city, was demolished by the authorities of the People's Republic of Albania during the atheistic campaign.[60] Funding for the construction of an Orthodox church came from Romanian and Aromanian businessmen.[55]

Islam entered the city in the 15th century through Iljaz Hoxha, an Albanian jannissary, who actively participated in the Fall of Constantinople.[61] One of the oldest mosques in Albania was built by Iljaz Hoxha in 1484, the Iliaz Mirahori Mosque.[62] The Romani population of Korçë consists of Muslims, who in the 1920s maintained their own mosques in the city, while there are also Orthodox Christian Roma in the city's Varosh neighbourhood.[56]

Economy[edit]

During the 20th century, Korçë gained a substantial industrial capacity in addition to its historic role as a commercial and agricultural centre. The plateau on which the city stands is highly fertile and is one of Albania's main wheat-growing areas. Local industries include the manufacture of knitwear, rugs, textiles, flour-milling, brewing, and sugar-refining. Deposits of lignite coal are mined in the mountains nearby such as Mborje-Drenovë. The city is home to the nationally famous Birra Korça.

According to official reports the city enjoys one of the lowest unemployment rates in the country. The majority of foreign investment comes from Greeks, as well as joint Albanian-Greek enterprises.[33][63]

Culture[edit]

Museums[edit]

Bifora with a relief of the aerial flight of Alexander the Great, National Museum of Medieval Art.

Korçë is referred to as the city of museums. The city hosts two major museums such as the National Museum of Medieval Art and National Museum of Archeology. The National Museum of Medieval Art has rich archives of about 7000 icons and 500 other objects in textile, stone and metal. The first Albanian School as well as the residence and gallery of painter Vangjush Mio function as museums. The Bratko Museum and the Oriental Museum are also located in the city.

Korçë has a city theatre, the Andon Zako Çajupi Theatre, which started its shows in 1950 and has been working uninterruptedly since.[64]

Sport[edit]

One of Korçë's most popular sport is football. Its most popular soccer club is Skënderbeu Korçë and was formed on 15 April 1909 under the name Vllazëria by politician and poet Hilë Mosi.[65] They were Albanian Champions in 1933 and recently, in 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016. In 2015 the club became the first Albanian side to reach the play-off round of the UEFA Champions League but they lost to Dinamo Zagreb and dropped into the UEFA Europa League, and became the first Albanian club to qualify for the group stage of European competition.

Panorama[edit]

Korçe in 1914
Korçe in 1914

Notable people[edit]

International relations[edit]

Korçë is twinned with:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Law nr. 115/2014
  2. ^ Interactive map administrative territorial reform
  3. ^ 2011 census results
  4. ^ Law, Gwilim (2010). Administrative Subdivisions of Countries. Page 22
  5. ^ a b Taylor, Stephen (1932). Handbook of Central and East Europe: 1932–33. Zürich: Central European Times Publishing Company. p. 21. "It was an unimportant little village, named Episkopi until in 1487, when the Albanian Kodja Mirahor Ilias Bey became its administrator and founded the mosque called after him 
  6. ^ "Korçë". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 15 January 2016. 
  7. ^ Masud, Muhammad (2006). Dispensing justice in Islam: Qadis and their judgements. BRILL. p. 283. ISBN 90-04-14067-0. 
  8. ^ Princeton University. Dept. of Near Eastern Studies. Princeton papers: interdisciplinary journal of Middle Eastern studies. Markus Wiener Publishers, 2002. ISSN 1084-5666, p. 100.
  9. ^ Fleming Katherine Elizabeth. The Bonaparte: diplomacy and orientalism in Ali Pasha's Greece. Princeton University Press, 1999. ISBN 978-0-691-00194-4, p. 36: "...Moschopolis, destroyed by resentful Muslim Albanians in 1788"
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Palairet, Michael (2016). Macedonia: A Voyage through History (Vol. 2, From the Fifteenth Century to the Present). Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 114–115. ISBN 9781443888493. Of these, 14,000 were "Greek", the rest Albanian. "Greek" means that they adhered to the Orthodox Church, but they were probably predominantly Vlach, and enjoyed strong links with Romania...Progress was "spurred on by a climate of ethnic rivalry with lethal characteristics". A pioneering effort by one Vekilcharje in about 1850 produced an Albanian alphabet, in which a few small books were printed. It flourished briefly at Korçë, but its creator is believed to have been poisoned by the Greek Patriarch. Subsequent impetus for Albanian language education came from the American and British Protestant missions. In the late 1870s, a Latin-based Albanian alphabet was devised by a Committee of Albanian Patriots based on Constantinople, and was adopted by the British and Foreign Bible Study. In the early 1880s, a rich Vlach emigre named Anastasios Avramidis-Liaktis announced his intention of making over his fortune for the benefit of people of Korçë, and Albanians (presumably the Committee) approached him for funds to open an Albanian school there. The project caused inter-communal tension which led to the donor proposing instead a Greek school with Albanian teaching twice a week. Even this diluted scheme was dropped, as Avramidis-Liaktis learned to act "according to a purely Greek consciousness". Despite this, in 1884 the Albanian Committee set up a boys school. Greek sources represent Albanian efforts to compete in establishing schools as failing because of weaker demand for education and smaller funding, but once more, Greek interference undermined the school: it "struggled in the face of Greek anathemas". It is, however, the first Albanian school to be founded, and the building in Korçë (or a facsimile thereof) is preserved as a museum. It survived till 1902, under teachers Naum and Leonidas Natcha, but they were incarcerated as traitors (to the Ottoman state) at the behest of the Greek clergy, and their school was wrecked and vandalized. An American inspired Protestant school was founded, also at Korçë in 1889, but it struggled in the face of similar pressrues. 
  11. ^ a b Turnock, David (2004). The economy of East Central Europe, 1815-1989: Stages of transformation in a peripheral region. London: Routledge. p. 52. ISBN 9781134678761. 
  12. ^ Pipa, Arshi (1989). The politics of language in socialist Albania. Boulder: East European Monographs. p. 196. ISBN 9780880331685.  "Most of the Tosk Orthodox patriots came from Korçë and its regions."
  13. ^ Skoulidas, Ilias. "The Relations between the Greeks and the Albanians during the 19th Century: Political Aspirations and Visions (1875 - 1897)". didaktorika.gr (in Greek). University of Ioannina: 252-253. doi:10.12681/eadd/12856. Retrieved 24 June 2017. κέντρου για την προώθηση των σχεδίων των αλβανών εθνικιστών, προκάλεσε την αντίδραση του μητροπολίτη της πόλης καθώς και των μελών της δημογεροντίας που είχαν ελληνική εθνική συνείδηση. ...πάρουν οι σχετικές ενέργειε 
  14. ^ a b Pistrick, Eckehard (2015). Performing nostalgia: Migration culture and creativity in south Albania. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing. p. 54. ISBN 9781472449535. 
  15. ^ "History of Albania, 1878–1912". World History at KMLA. Retrieved 2008-10-08. 
  16. ^ Blumi, Isa (2001). "Teaching Loyalty in the Late Ottoman Balkans: Educational Reform in the Vilayets of Manastir and Yanya, 1878–1912". Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East. 21 (1–2): 19. doi:10.1215/1089201x-21-1-2-15. 
  17. ^ Pearson, Owen (2004). Albania and King Zog: independence, republic and monarchy 1908–1939. Albania in the twentieth century. 1. I. B. Tauris. p. 35. ISBN 1-84511-013-7. 
  18. ^ Roudometof, Victor (2002). Collective memory, national identity, and ethnic conflict: Greece, Bulgaria, and the Macedonian question. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 155. ISBN 0-275-97648-3. Subsequently, the Greeks in the regions of Gyrocaster (Argyrokastro) and Korce (Korytza) revolted and asked Greek troops to intervene 
  19. ^ a b Pearson, Owen (2004). Albania and King Zog: independence, republic and monarchy 1908–1939. I.B.Tauris. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-84511-013-0. Retrieved 4 November 2010. 
  20. ^ Kondis Basil. Greece and Albania, 1908–1914. Institute for Balkan Studies, 1976, p. 130: "The Dutch, having proof that Metropolitan Germanos was chuef instigator of the rising, arrested him and other members of the town council and sent them to Elbasan."
  21. ^ Valeria Heuberger; Arnold Suppan; Elisabeth Vyslonzil (1996). Brennpunkt Osteuropa: Minderheiten im Kreuzfeuer des Nationalismus (in German). Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag. p. 69. ISBN 978-3-486-56182-1. 
  22. ^ The Ottoman Empire and Its Successors, 1801–1927. William Miller, 1966. ISBN 0-7146-1974-4
  23. ^ Kondis Basil. The Greeks of Northern Epirus and Greek-Albanian relations. Hestia, 1995, p. 32: ""a rebellion broke out in Korytsa... their loyalty to the National Defence movement."
  24. ^ a b Besier, Gerhard; Stokłosa, Katarzyna (2014). European Dictatorships: A Comparative History of the Twentieth Century. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 237. ISBN 9781443855211. 
  25. ^ Schmidt-Neke, Michael (1987). Enstehung und Ausbau der Königsdiktatur in Albanien, 1912–1939. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag. p. 43. ISBN 978-3-486-54321-6. Retrieved 8 November 2010. 
  26. ^ a b Psomas 2008, pp. 263–264, 272, 280.
  27. ^ Psomas, Lambros (2008). "The Religious and Ethnographic Synthesis of the Population of Southern Albania (Northern Epirus) in the Beginning of the 20th Century" (PDF). Theologia. 79 (1): 263–264, 268, 280–281. 
  28. ^ a b Austin, Robert Clegg (2012). Founding a Balkan State: Albania's Experiment with Democracy, 1920-1925. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p. 93. ISBN 9781442644359.  "One commissioner from the delegation Sederholm noted the population of Korçë being “entirely Albanian” with “the number of Greeks there” being “quite insignificant”.... "Joseph Emerson Haven, a U.S. diplomat based in Italy on special detail in Albania during the spring of 1919, had already come to a similar conclusion. In his detailed report on the political situation in the country, Haven suggested that the disputed province of Korçë had roughly 60,000 inhabitants, roughly 18 per cent of whom were in favour of Greek sovereignty. Of those 18 per cent, he argued, half were seeking that end out of fear or had been promised material gain in the form of Moslem land and property.... Haven found that the ‘most intense hatred and loathing exists in Southern Albania for Greece, this hatred being shown by both Orthodox Christians and Musselmen. The cry is “We are Albanians first and religionists second.” With the exception of comparatively few residents in the province of Coritsa [Korçë] and a few towns in the region of Chimara [Himarë], the country is absolutely Albanian in sentiment."
  29. ^ Psomas, Lampros (3 July 2015). "A Spy in Albania: Southern Albanian Oil and Morton Frederic Eden". International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence. 28 (3): 16, 19, 590–609. ISSN 0885-0607. doi:10.1080/08850607.2015.992762. Retrieved 29 June 2017. He then probably returned to Korçë, where in January 1922 he, possibly, misinformed Sederholm about Bishop Jacob’s deportation in November 1921.... The image depicted here presents an individual with strong pro-Albanian sympathies and with particular interest in Southern Albania. ... ..He returned to Albania and showed particular interest for Southern Albania passing misleading pro-Albanian information to Ambassador Eyres and, probably, even Commissioner Sederholm. 
  30. ^ Winnifrith, Tom (2002). Badlands, Borderlands: A History of Northern Epirus/Southern Albania. Duckworth. p. 135. ISBN 9780715632017. The Albanians in general and Fan Noli in particular at the time of the Paris Peace Conference had promised to recognize the peculiar status of the Greek minority. This pledge was not honoured. Greek schools were allowed, but only in certain areas. Korce and Permet were excluded. 
  31. ^ Manta, Eleftheria (2005). "Aspects of the Italian Influence upon Greek - Albanian Relations during the Interwar Period". didaktorika.gr (in Greek). University of Thessaloniki: 56–57. doi:10.12681/eadd/23718. Retrieved 27 June 2017. 
  32. ^ Psomas, Lampros (3 July 2015). "A Spy in Albania: Southern Albanian Oil and Morton Frederic Eden". International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence. 28 (3): 10, 19, 590–609. ISSN 0885-0607. doi:10.1080/08850607.2015.992762. Retrieved 29 June 2017. ...the Albanian authorities, acting fast and without any warning,... Though the reports by locals that reached the League of Nations refuted their assertions 
  33. ^ a b c d e f g Καγιά, Έβις (2006). Το Ζήτημα της Εκπαίδευσης στην Ελληνική Μειονότητα και οι Δίγλωσσοι Μετανάστες Μαθητές στα Ελληνικά Ιδιωτκά Σχολεία στην Αλβανία (in Greek). University of Thessaloniki. pp. 118–121. Retrieved 6 February 2013. 
  34. ^ Basil Kondis. The Greeks of Northern Epirus and Greek-Albanian relations. Hestia, 1995, p. 9: ""The first school of the Hellenic type in Korytsa opened in 1724"
  35. ^ Sakellariou M. V., Epirus, 4000 years of Greek history and civilization. Ekdotikē Athēnōn, 1997, ISBN 978-960-213-371-2, p. 308
  36. ^ Basil Kondis. The Greeks of Northern Epirus and Greek-Albanian relations. Hestia, 1995, p. 9 "With the money bequeathed by An. Avramidis two schools of the Hellenic type, a girls' school, and three primary schools were founded"
  37. ^ Ismyrliadou, Adela; Karathanasis, Athanasios (1999). "Koritsa: Education-Benefactors-Economy 1850–1908". Balkan Studies. 1 (40): 224–228. Among them benefactors Ioanis Bangas (1814–1895) and Anastasios Avramidis Liaktsis have a definite place...", "General Rules for Public Institutions in the town of Koritsa were drawn up and changed for the better the functioning of the educational estamblishments. 
  38. ^ Ismyrliadou, Adela (1996). "Educational and Economic Activities in the Greek Community of Koritsa during the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century". Balkan Studies. 1 (37): 235–255. 
  39. ^ Sakellariou, M. V. (1997). Epirus, 4000 years of Greek history and civilization. Ekdotike Athenon. p. 255. ISBN 978-960-213-371-2. 
  40. ^ Ismyrliadou, Adela (1996). "Educational and Economic Activities in the Greek Community of Koritsa during the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century". Balkan Studies. 1 (37): 235–255. ... shortly before the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, a second girls’ school opened in Koritsa and the number of pupils rose to 2.115. 
  41. ^ Zhelyazkova, Antonina (1999). "Albanian identities". International centre for minority study and intercultural relations: Sofia, Bulgaria 1999. Page 23-24: "The question of educating Albanians in their mother tongue was raised frequently in the reports of American religious missionaries in the Balkans. In June 1896 Reverend Lewis Bond reported that lessons at the Korça (Korcë) school were conducted in modern Greek, while the local people loved their own tongue, only spoken at home. "The question of the education of the Albanians in their own language was a problem posed many times in the reports of American religious missionaries in the Balkans. In June 1896 Reverend Lewis Bond reported that lessons at the Korça (Korcë) school were conducted in modern Greek, while the local people loved their own tongue which they spoke only at their homes. "Can we do anything for them", asked Reverend Bond. His question obviously remained rhetorical, because three years later he sent another, much more extensive, statement on the issues of the language and education of the Albanians in Korça. He wrote that only at the girls' school, set up by the Protestant community, the training was in Albanian and once more claimed there was no American who would not sympathise with the Albanians and their desire to use their own language."
  42. ^ a b Skendi, Stavro (1967). The Albanian national awakening, 1878–1912. Princeton University Press. p. 134. 
  43. ^ Clayer, Natalie (2007). Aux origines du nationalisme albanais: la naissance d'une nation majoritairement musulmane en Europe (in French). KARTHALA Editions. pp. 301–10. ISBN 2-84586-816-2. 
  44. ^ a b c d Özdalga, Elisabeth (2005). SOAS/Routledge Curzon studies on the Middle East. 3. Routledge. pp. 264–265. ISBN 0-415-34164-7. 
  45. ^ Skendi, Stavro (1967). The Albanian national awakening, 1878-1912. Princeton University Press. p. 136-137. 
  46. ^ Stickney, Edith Pierpont (1924). Southern Albania, 1912–1923. pp. 69–70. ISBN 978-0-8047-6171-0. several months later, Greek schools were reopened as a result of Greek influence 
  47. ^ Καγιά, Έβις (2006). Το Ζήτημα της Εκπαίδευσης στην Ελληνική Μειονότητα και οι Δίγλωσσοι Μετανάστες Μαθητές στα Ελληνικά Ιδιωτκά Σχολεία στην Αλβανία (in Greek). University of Thessaloniki. p. 123. 
  48. ^ "Albanische Hefte. Parlamentswahlen 2005 in Albanien" (PDF) (in German). Deutsch-Albanischen Freundschaftsgesellschaft e.V. 2005. p. 32. 
  49. ^ Jr, Samuel W. Mitcham, (2007). Eagles of the Third Reich men of the Luftwaffe in World War II. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. p. 114. ISBN 9780811744515. On the 22d they routed the Italian ninth Army at Koritsa (Korçë) and overran their principal forward air base 
  50. ^ Korça – Çelësi turistik (Fatos Baxhaku ed.). Tirana: Botim i Çelësi. 2008. ISBN 978-99956-677-3-3. 
  51. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Korçë, Albania". Weatherbase. 2011.  Retrieved on November 24, 2011.
  52. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 January 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-21. 
  53. ^ Bugajski, Janusz (1995). Ethnic politics in Eastern Europe: A guide to nationality policies, organizations, and parties. Armonk: ME Sharpe. p. 271. ISBN 9780765619112. ...linguistic rights were largely absent in several cities heavily populated by Greeks, such as Korçë, Himarë, Tepelenë, Fier, Vlorë, Shkodër, Berat, Permët, and Elbasan.  Reprint available here : [[1]]
  54. ^ King, Russell; Mai, Nicola (2008). Out of Albania: From Crisis Migration to Social Inclusion in Italy. Berghahn Books. p. 32. ISBN 9781845455446. Greek troops entered southern Albania, capturing Korce and Gjirokaster, centres of the Greek-speaking minority in Albania. 
  55. ^ a b Schwandner-Sievers, Stephanie (2002). "Dawn for a 'Sleeping Beauty Nation' – Aromanian Identity Politics and Conflicts in Post-Communist Albania". In Kressing, Frank; Kaser, Karl. Albania–a country in transition. Aspects of changing identities in a south-east European country (PDF). Baden-Baden: Nomos-Verlag. pp. 152–153, 158–159. ISBN 9783789076701. 
  56. ^ a b De Soto, Hermine; Beddies, Sabine; Gedeshi, Ilir (2005). Roma and Egyptians in Albania: From social exclusion to social inclusion. Washington D.C: World Bank Publications. pp. 9, 231. ISBN 9780821361719. 
  57. ^ John Paxton (1 January 2000). The Penguin encyclopedia of places. Penguin. p. 489. ISBN 978-0-14-051275-5. Cap. of the Korce region and district in the SE. Pop. (1991) 67,100. Market town in a cereal-growing area. Industries inc. knitwear, flour-milling, brewing and sugar-refining. It was an important Orthodox and Muslim religious centre. The fifth . 
  58. ^ Christopoulos], [publ.: George A. (2000). The splendour of Orthodoxy. Athens: Ekdotike Athenon. p. 492. ISBN 9789602133989. Even before the town itself was built, in 1490, the district of Korytsa belonged the metropolis of Kastoria, which had itself subordinate to the archbishopric of Ohrid. The metropolis of Korytsa was established early in the seventeenth century, incorporating the sees of Kolonia, Debolis, and Selasphoro (Sevdas). The first well- known bishop of Korytsa (1624 and 1628) was Neophytos. In the year 1670 Parthenios, archbishop of Ohrid, a native of Korytsa, elevated his mother town to a metropolitan seat, its occupant bearing the title of bishop of Korytsa, Selapsphoro and Moshopolis 
  59. ^ a b Schmitt, Oliver Jens (2010). Religion und Kultur im albanischsprachigen Südosteuropa (1 ed.). Frankfurt am Main: Lang. pp. 37, 79. ISBN 9783631602959. 
  60. ^ Leustean, Lucian; Leustean, Senior Lecturer in Politics and International Relations Lucian. Eastern Christianity and the Cold War, 1945-91. Routledge. p. 151. ISBN 9781135233822. Some landmark churches such as the Saint George Orthodox Cathedral in Korce were raized.1 
  61. ^ "Iljaz Bej Mirahori". Archived from the original on 2010-01-17. Retrieved 2010-03-25. 
  62. ^ Petersen, Andrew (1994). Dictionary of Islamic architecture. Routledge. p. 10. ISBN 0-415-06084-2. Retrieved 2010-06-13. 
  63. ^ Hermine De Soto (2002). Poverty in Albania : a qualitative assessment. Washington, DC: World Bank. p. 32. ISBN 9780821351093. 
  64. ^ History of the A. Z. Çajupi Theatre (Korçë municipality website)
  65. ^ Historiku i Klubit (Official website) Archived 2015-08-16 at the Wayback Machine.
  66. ^ "Twinning Cities". City of Ioannina. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 
  67. ^ "Twinning Cities". City of Thessaloniki. Archived from the original on 2009-03-31. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 
  68. ^ a b Korçë Municipality. "Twin cities" (in Albanian). Korçë Municipality. Retrieved 30 July 2010. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Blocal, Giulia (29 September 2014). "Korça and the hinterlands of South-Eastern Albania". Blocal Travel blog. 
  • Municipality of Korçë
  • N. G. L. Hammond, "Alexander's Campaign in Illyria", The Journal of Hellenic Studies, pp. 4–25. 1974
  • James Pettifer, Albania & Kosovo, A & C Black, London (2001, ISBN 0-7136-5016-8)
  • François Pouqueville, Voyage en Morée, à Constantinople, an Albanie, et dans plusieurs autres parties de l'Empire othoman, pendant les années 1798, 1799, 1800 et 1801. (1805)
  • T. J. Winnifrith Badlands-Borderlands A History of Northern Epirus/Southern Albania (2003)

External links[edit]