Korean Chinese cuisine
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|Korean Chinese cuisine|
|Revised Romanization||Junghwa yori|
|This article is part of a series on|
|This article is part of the series|
Korean Chinese Cuisine (중화요리; 中華料理; Junghwa yori) is a hybrid cuisine developed by both the ethnic Chinese and the ethnic Koreans in South Korea. Although first derived from Chinese cuisine, Korean Chinese cuisine consists of unique dishes that represent Korean taste and ingredients. Most Korean Chinese restaurants in and outside South Korea are owned and run by Koreans rather than ethnic Chinese. In South Korea, delivery is the primary means through which it is put in front of diners.
The cuisine was first developed in the port city of Incheon in 19th century, where the majority of the ethnic Chinese population in Korea has been living. Due to the geographical proximity and the demographics of Korean Chinese population, most Korean Chinese dishes are derived from or influenced by the Northern, Eastern, and Northeastern Chinese dishes, from Beijing and from Shandong cuisines.
However, Chinese restaurants in Korea are unusual as most of them are owned and run by Koreans rather than ethnic Chinese. The latter development came in part due to the assimilation of the ethnic Chinese in Korea into the Korean culture as well as due to their outward migration due to legal discrimination they were subject to, especially under the Park Chung-hee administration. Consequently, the most authentic Korean Chinese cuisine can also be found in centers of overseas Korean communities.
In South Korea there is a unique aspect of this cuisine. Delivery is the primary means through which it is put in front of diners. As such Korean Chinese cuisine is analogous to pizza delivery in the US or to the Indian take-away in the UK, and every South Korean urban household is served by no fewer than two such establishments. The cuisine also occupies the same economic position to the two aforementioned analogues in terms of relative pricing vis-a-vis other dining options. Authentic Chinese dishes, also popular in South Korea, tend to be served at upscale gourmet Chinese restaurants rather than Korean Chinese restaurants, which serves cheaper, delivery-oriented Korean Chinese dishes.
There are three primary Chinese menu items served in the majority of Korean Chinese restaurants in South Korea and elsewhere:
- Jajangmyeon (자장면) is a savory noodle dish topped with a thick sauce made of chunjang (sweet bean sauce), diced pork or seafood, and vegetables. Although derived from Shandong-style zhájiàngmiàn (炸酱面), Korean jajangmyeon is distinctly different from any zhájiàngmiàn dishes served in mainland China and Taiwan.
- Jjamppong (짬뽕) is a spicy noodle soup flavored with assorted vegetables, meat or seafood, and chili oil. The dish derived from Shandong-style chǎomǎmiàn (炒码面), but the dish's name derived from chanpon, a Japanese Chinese dish derived from Fujian-style mènmiàn (焖面). The addition of gochugaru (chili powder) and chili oil in jjamppong began in the 1960s.
- Tangsuyuk (탕수육) is a Koreanized version of sweet and sour meat dish, derived from Shandong-style tángcùròu (糖醋肉). The dish can be made with either pork or beef, that is coated with either corn/potato starch or glutinous rice flour. It is served with sweet and sour sauce that is typically made with soy sauce, vinegar, sugar, corn/potato startch, and variety of fruits and vegetables like carrots, cucumbers, onions, wood ear mushrooms, apples and pineapples.
Additionally, several other dishes are often served in Korean Chinese restaurants:
- Giseu-myeon (기스면 ← jī sī miàn 鸡丝面/鷄絲麵)
- Gochu-japchae (고추잡채)
- Haepari-naengchae (해파리냉채)
- Japchae-bap (잡채밥)
- Japtang-bap (잡탕밥)
- Junghwa-naengmyeon (중화냉면; 中華冷麵), literally "Chinese cold noodles." It is favored in Chinese restaurants in South Korea during the summer. Junghwa naengmyeon is made with junghwamyeon (lit. "Chinese noodles"), shredded five-spice marinated beef or pork (五香醬肉), cucumber, crab stick, jellyfish, and a fried egg in a cold chicken broth seasoned with soy sauce and various spices. A sauce mixed with mustard and peanut sauce is topped over the dish to impart a nutty and spicy flavor.
- Kkanpunggi (깐풍기 ← gàn pēng jī 干烹鸡/干烹鷄), a type of fried chicken glazed in sweet and spicy sauce. It can be served with the bones or with boneless chicken.
- Kkanpung saeu (Korean: 깐풍새우), deep-fried breaded sweet and sour shrimp with a bit of hot and spicy flavor unlike tangsuyuk and tangsu saeu. It is different from Kung Pao shrimp served in typical Chinese restaurants because kkanpung saeu is breaded and deep fried, as opposed to stir-fried. It is served with a sweet sauce, peas, carrots, green onions, and red chilli peppers.
- Nanja-wanseu (난자완스 ← nán jiān wánzi 南煎丸子)
- Ohyang-jangyuk (오향장육; 五香醬肉)
- Palbo-chae (팔보채; 八寶菜)
- Rajogi (라조기 ← làjiāojī 辣椒鸡/辣椒鷄), derived from
- Udong (우동)
- Ulmyeon (Korean: 울면), similar to Udon, is a dish consisting of wheat flour noodles, chopped vegetables, and seafood in a chowder-like broth that is thickened with cornstarch. It is derived from a Chinese dish called wēnlŭmiàn (溫滷麵). 
- Yangjangpi (양장피; 兩張皮)
- Yusanseul (유산슬)
Koreans traditionally eat Chinese food with a side serving of danmuji (yellow pickled radish), and raw onion dipped in chunjang. Kimchi, a staple Korean food, is also eaten with Chinese food. Dried red chili flakes are provided to season food or mixed in with the soy sauce.
Korean Chinese gun-mandu (pan-fried dumplings)
Korean Chinese naengmyeon (cold noodles)
Korean Chinese udong
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