Korean Chinese cuisine
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|Korean Chinese cuisine|
|Revised Romanization||Junghwa yori|
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Korean Chinese cuisine (중화요리; 中華料理; Junghwa yori) is a hybrid cuisine developed by the ethnic Chinese and the ethnic Koreans in South Korea. Derived from Chinese cuisine, Korean Chinese cuisine consists of unique dishes with Korean flavors and ingredients. Most Korean Chinese restaurants in and outside South Korea are owned and operated by Koreans rather than ethnic Chinese. In South Korea, the food is usually delivered. In the United States, only Mandarin-style Chinese restaurants are familiar with Korean Chinese cuisine, as it is a hybrid of Korean and Mandarin Chinese cuisines; Szechuan-style restaurants largely do not serve this type of cuisine.
The cuisine was first developed during the 19th century in the port city of Incheon, where most of the ethnic Chinese population of Korea lived. Due to geographic proximity and the demographics of the Korean Chinese population, most Korean Chinese dishes are derived from (or influenced by) northern, eastern and northeastern Chinese dishes from Beijing and Shandong.
Chinese restaurants in Korea are unusual in that most are owned and operated by Koreans, rather than ethnic Chinese. This was because the assimilation of the ethnic Chinese into Korean culture and their emigration due to legal discrimination, particularly under the Park Chung-hee administration. Consequently, the most authentic Korean Chinese cuisine may be found in overseas Korean communities.
The food is primarily delivered, comparable to pizza delivery in the US or Indian take-away in the UK, and is similarly priced relative to other dining options. Chinese dishes, also popular in South Korea, are generally served at upscale Chinese restaurants rather than Korean Chinese establishments.
Three primarily-Chinese dishes are served in most Korean Chinese restaurants in South Korea and elsewhere:
- Jajangmyeon (자장면) is a noodle dish topped with a thick sauce made of sweet bean sauce (chunjang), diced pork or seafood, and vegetables. Derived from the Shandong zhájiàngmiàn (炸酱面), Korean jajangmyeon is distinct from the zhájiàngmiàn dishes served in China.
- Jjamppong (짬뽕) is a spicy noodle soup flavored with vegetables, meat or seafood, and chili oil. The dish derived from the Shandong chǎomǎmiàn (炒码面) and its name derived from chanpon, a Japanese Chinese dish derived from the Fujian mènmiàn (焖面). The addition of chili powder (gochugaru) and chili oil to jjamppong began during the 1960s.
- Tangsuyuk (탕수육) is a Korean version of a sweet and sour meat dish derived from the Shandong tángcùròu (糖醋肉). It can be made with pork or beef, coated with corn- or potato starch or glutinous rice flour. The dish is served with a sweet-and-sour sauce typically made with soy sauce, vinegar, sugar, corn- or potato starch and fruits and vegetables such as carrots, cucumbers, onions, wood ear mushrooms, apples and pineapples.
Other dishes often served in Korean Chinese restaurants include:
- Gochu-japchae (고추잡채)
- Jungguk-naengmyeon (중국냉면; 中國冷麵), literally "Chinese cold noodles", is enjoyed during the summer. Jungguk-naengmyeon is made with junghwa-myeon (Chinese noodles), shredded five-spice marinated beef or pork (五香醬肉), cucumber, crab sticks, jellyfish and a fried egg in a cold chicken broth seasoned with soy sauce and spices. A sauce, mixed with mustard and peanut sauce, gives it a nutty, spicy flavor.
- Kkanpunggi (깐풍기, derived from gàn pēng jī 干烹鸡/干烹鷄), fried chicken (with or without bones) glazed with a sweet, spicy sauce
- Kkanpung saeu (Korean: 깐풍새우): Deep-fried, breaded sweet-and-sour shrimp, with a mild spiciness distinct from tangsuyuk, tangsu saeu and the stir-fried Kung Pao shrimp served in Chinese restaurants. Kkanpung saeu is served with a sweet sauce, peas, carrots, green onions and red chilli peppers.
- Rajogi (라조기, derived from làjiāojī 辣椒鸡/辣椒鷄), similar to the Sichuan laziji, a Chinese chilli chicken dish
- Udong (우동), a noodle soup similar to jjamppong but with non-spicy white soup
- Ulmyeon (Korean: 울면), similar to udon, consists of wheat-flour noodles, chopped vegetables and seafood in a chowder-like broth thickened with cornstarch. It is derived from a Chinese dish, wēnlŭmiàn (溫滷麵).
Dumplings are also served at Korean Chinese restaurants, usually a pan-fried cross between a Japanese gyoza and a northern-Chinese dumpling. Koreans traditionally eat Chinese food with a side dish of danmuji (yellow pickled radishes) and raw onion dipped in chunjang. Kimchi, a Korean staple, is also eaten with Chinese food. Dried red-chili flakes are provided to season food or mixed with soy sauce.
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