Korean People's Army Ground Force

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조선인민군 륙군
朝鮮人民軍 陸軍
Korean People's Army Ground Force
Flag of the Korean People's Army Ground Force.svg
Founded August 20, 1947; 70 years ago (1947-08-20)
Country  North Korea
Allegiance Kim Jong-un[1]
Type Army
Size 950,000 active; 5,500,000 reserve
Part of Korean People's Army
Equipment 5,500 tanks
2,200 infantry fighting vehicles
8,600 artillery pieces
4,800 multiple rocket launcher systems
Engagements Korean War
Commanders
Commander-in-chief General Ri Myong-su
Notable
commanders
Choi Yong-kun, Kim Chaek
Former flag Flag of the Korean People's Army Ground Force (1992-2012).svg

The Korean People's Army Ground Force (KPAGF; Chosŏn'gŭl: 조선인민군 륙군; Hanja: 朝鮮人民軍 陸軍, literally "Korean People's Army Army") is the main branch of the Korean People's Army responsible for land-based military operations.

History[edit]

The Korean People's Army Ground Force was formed on August 20, 1947. It outnumbered and outgunned the South Korean Army on the outbreak of the Korean War in June 1950. North Korean ground forces formations which fought in the Korean War included the I Corps, the II and III Corps. The IV Corps and V Corps, VI and VII Corps were formed after the outbreak of war. Divisions included the 105th Armored Division, the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 12th, 19th, and 43rd Infantry Divisions. During the Korean War, it also contained a number of independent units such as the 766th Infantry Regiment.

Military parade in Pyongyang in 2015

In 1960, the KPAGF may have totaled fewer than 400,000 personnel and probably did not rise much above that figure before 1972. The force then massively expanded over the next two decades. In 1992, there were 950,000 personnel.[2] Before this expansion of the North Korean ground forces, the South Korean Army outnumbered the KPAGF. From the 1970s on, South Korea started exceeding North Korea in terms of economics. Thus, South Korea could modernize its forces, which in turn alerted North Korea and resulted in the expansion of the North Korean armed forces. The weaker of the two Koreas has maintained the larger armed force. The size, organization, disposition, and combat capabilities of the Ground Force give Pyongyang military, albeit technologically inferior, possible options both for limited offensive operations to assault the lower half of the peninsula or for limited defensive operations against any perceived threat from South Korea.

Scalapino and Lee's Communism in Korea: The Society gave an organisation chart in 1972 that showed the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th, and 7th Army Groups (p.940). The 1st, 2nd (five divs), and 5th had four divisions plus a brigade or regiment; the 3rd had four divisions, and the 7th three divisions and three brigades. Scalapino and Lee drew upon the South Korean-published The North Korean Yearbook. A declassified 1971 CIA document referring to a 1970 DIA assessment appear to indicate that the 1st Army Group included the 13th and 47th Infantry Divisions.

Yossef Bodansky's Crisis in Korea gives an account of the North Korean order of battle in 1984–88.[3] The 1st, 2nd (five divs, one brigade), and 5th Army Groups, each with four divisions and one independent brigade, covered the eastern, Western, and central sectors of the DMZ. The III, VI, and VII Corps were deployed around Wonsan and the coastal regions, with the IV Corps, recently converted from the 4th Army Group, around Pyongyang. All the corps had the virtually-standard four divisions and an independent brigade under command, apart from the VII Corps with three divisions and three brigades. The army groups were described as striking forces while the corps also had ground-holding responsibilities. The III, VI, and VII Corps began forming armoured and mechanised units in 1985.

Over time, this organization has adjusted to the unique circumstances of the military problem the KPA faces and to the evolution of North Korean military doctrine and thought.

In 1996, a significant portion of the staff, along with local government officials of the VI Corps was arrested and convicted of bribery and corruption.[4] The VI Corps HQ, which was in Chongjin, was in charge of military activities in the whole of North Hamgyong Province. It consisted of three infantry divisions, four rocket brigades and one artillery division. Joseph F. Bermudez reports in Shield of the Great Leader that the incident was not a coup, but it is often reported as such.[5] In any event, the corps was disbanded, and its units reallocated elsewhere, some to the IX Corps in North Hamgyong Province. The IX Corps now includes the 24th Division and the 42nd Division.

Current status[edit]

The overwhelming majority of active ground forces are deployed in three echelons — a forward operational echelon of four infantry corps; supported by a second operational echelon of two mechanized corps, the armor corps, and an artillery corps; and a strategic reserve of the two remaining mechanized corps and the other artillery corps.[6] These forces include the 806th and 815th Mechanized Corps and the 820th Armored Corps. These forces are garrisoned along major north-south lines of communication that provide rapid, easy access to avenues of approach into South Korea. The KPAGF has positioned massive numbers of artillery pieces, including some fakes,[citation needed] especially its longer-range systems, close to the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) that separates the two Koreas.

KPA soldiers at the DMZ

As of 2013, the US Department of Defense has reported the ground forces in number totals 950,000 in strength.[7]

Equipment[edit]

The Ground Forces have a mix of domestic and imported equipment in their inventory. Prior to the breakup of the Soviet Union, most of these items were Soviet made and later, from China.[8][9][10]

The annual report of North Korea's military capabilities by the U.S. Department of Defense, released in early 2014, identified the North Korean Army's strength at 950,000 personnel, 4,200 tanks, 2,200 armored vehicles, 8,600 artillery guns, and over 4,800 multiple rocket launchers.[11]

Armor[edit]

Today's KPA arsenal includes a mix of Soviet and Chinese products and locally produced armored vehicles.

Name Type Quantity Origin Photo Notes
Tanks
T-34 Main Battle Tank 650  Soviet Union T-34 tank monument, Shulyavska metro, Kiev.JPG
T-55 1,600[12] T-55 4.jpg Some 2000 T-55 and Type 59 Tanks are thought to currently be in service.
Can be equipped with spaced armor to defeat HEAT warheads.[13]
T-62 800[12] A T-62 tank of the Russian Ground Forces. Various variants including T-62D.[14] Capable of receiving later model Ch'onma-Ho upgrades.
T-72S Unknown T72 Georgia.jpg The Soviet Union reportedly sold T-72S tanks to North Korea in the early 1980s. The number sold and the number currently in service is unknown.
Type 59 175[12][15]  People's Republic of China Type 59 tank - front right.jpg Some 2,000 T-55 and Type 59 tanks are thought to currently be in service.
Ch'ŏnma-ho ~1,000[12]  North Korea Ch'onma-ho Render.png 1,000 manufactured (as of the early 1990s).
Chonma 215-216 ~1000+ in service as of 2017 Locally designed main battle tank. Korean analogue of a Soviet supplied T-72.
PT-76 Amphibious light tank 550  Soviet Union Verkhnyaya Pyshma Tank Museum 2012 0181.jpg Some PT-76 are in reserve status.
Type 63 N/A  People's Republic of China Type 63 tank - above.jpg [16]
PT-85 (Type-82) more than 50 tanks  North Korea Based on the VTT-323 APC chassis.
Armored Personnel Carriers & Infantry Fighting Vehicles
BMP-1 Infantry fighting vehicle 100  Soviet Union
 Ukraine
Finnish BMP1 Parola 2.jpg Designated as Korshun.
BTR-50P Armored personnel carrier N/A BTR-50-latrun-1-2.jpg
BTR-60PB 1,000[12] BTR-60PB front left.JPEG First ordered in 1966.
BTR-80A 35[12] BTR-80A (3).jpg Imported from Ukraine
BTR-152 N/A BTR-152-TCM-20-hatzerim-2.jpg
M-2010 (Chunma-D) N/A  North Korea Engineering Technologies - 2012 (3-14).jpg A modified clone of the BTR-80.[17]
M-2010 (6 x 6 version) N/A A shortened version of the M-2010.[18]
Type 55 N/A  People's Republic of China BTR-40-latrun-2.jpg
Type 63 APC 500[12]  North Korea Type 63 APC at the Beijing Military Museum - 1.jpg Variant VTT-323 based on Chinese A531.
M1992 N/A PL MWP Brdm2.JPG Locally designed APC based on the BRDM-2.[19] Armed with an AGS-17 grenade launcher and a 9K113 Konkurs ATGM.
VTT-323 (M-1973) 3,200 VTT 323.jpg Based on the YW-531.
Model 2009 (Chunma-D, or Junma-Le)[20] 3,200 VTT 323.jpg Based on the PT-85 light tank hull but fitted with a turret from a M-2010 personal carrier.[20]

Vehicles[edit]

Name Type In Service Notes
Transportation and logistics
Mercedes G-Class Utility vehicle Seen during the funeral of Kim Jong-il[21]
UAZ-3151 Utility vehicle
Iveco 90.17 WM General-purpose truck
Ural-4320 General-purpose truck
FAW MV3 General-purpose truck
MAN TGA Tractor truck Supplemented by Sinotruk HOWO A7
Iveco Stralis Tractor truck Supplemented by Sinotruk HOWO A7
Renault Premium Tractor truck Supplemented by Sinotruk HOWO A7
Ambulance Ambulance
MAZ-7310 Missile system carrier
WS-51200 TEL Transporter erector launcher platform 10

Artillery[edit]

The KPA-GF artillery pool include both imports and locally produced guns.

Name Type In Service Notes
Howitzers
M-1985 152 mm gun-howitzer D-20/M1955; Type 83
M-1981 122 mm self-propelled gun Type 54 SPH
M-1978 170 mm SP gun-howitzer Largest caliber self-propelled howitzer in KPA service
180 mm gun S-23[22] 180mm howitzer Largest caliber howitzer in KPA
M-1975 130 mm self-propelled gun
M-1974 152 mm SP gun-howitzer
M-1992 130 mm self-propelled gun
M-1991 122 mm self-propelled howitzer
M-1992 120 mm self-propelled combination gun
SU-100 100 mm SP assault gun
Mortars
Mortars Various North Korea is known to have some 10,000 mortars of different types and origin in its inventory
Rocket Artillery
Type 63 107 mm multiple rocket launcher 4,000 delivered between 1964–1990
M-1985 122 mm multiple rocket launcher
M-1993 122 mm multiple rocket launcher
BM-11 122 mm multiple rocket launcher
RM-70 122 mm multiple rocket launcher [23]
BMD-20 200 mm multiple rocket launcher 200 delivered in mid-1950s[24]
BM-24 240 mm multiple rocket launcher 500 delivered in 1955
M1985/M1991 240 mm rocket launcher Estimated 200+ in service between both models[25][26] Range estimates of 30–43–60–70 km (19–27–37–43 mi)[27][28]
KN-09 300 mm guided rocket launcher [29][30]

Crucially, the North Korean Army has large numbers of heavy artillery in positions close to the DMZ and near Seoul, the capital of South Korea, a city having a population of approximately 25 million people, around 50% of the total population of South Korea. These artillery pieces can reach the northern parts of Seoul, and are often considered to be a more significant threat than North Korea's nuclear weapons.[31] North Korea's threat of a 'sea of fire' upon Seoul is usually taken to refer to the use of this artillery.[32]

Studies have differed over the number of casualties these artillery can inflict; one 2011 study suggests that the North Korean artillery, firing so as to cause maximum civilian casualties instead of for military effect, could inflict "only" about 3,000 – 30,000 casualties in the first day of a conflict, after which the population would evacuate or find shelter and the North Korean artillery pieces were themselves substantially destroyed.[33]

Weapons[edit]

Anti-tank weapons[edit]

Name
Man-portable anti-tank
RPG-2
RPG-7 (Local production with tandem warhead)
Type 69 RPG (Chinese rocket-propelled grenade)
RPO-A (Local production?)
ATGMs
AT-1 Snapper (Retired)
AT-2 Swatter (In reserve)
AT-3 Sagger (Local production as Bulsae-1)
AT-4 Spigot (Local production as Bulsae-2)
AT-5 Spandrel (Local production(?) used on Type 85 Susang)
AT-7 Metis
AT-9 Spiral-2 [34]
AT-14 Spriggan (Local production as Bulsae-3)[35]
Recoilless Rifles
B-10 recoilless rifle
B-11 recoilless rifle
SPG-9 (Local production)
Self-propelled ATGMs
Type 85 Susang

Anti-aircraft weapons[edit]

Name
MANPADS
SA-7 MANPADS (Locally produced)
SA-14 MANPADS (Locally produced)
SA-16 MANPADS (Locally produced)
Anti-aircraft artillery
ZPU-4 (Locally produced)
ZU-23-2
M1939
SPAAG
ZSU-57-2
ZSU-23-4
M1984 14.5mm (Locally produced)
M1985 57 mm (Locally produced)
M1992 30 mm (Locally produced)
M1992 37 mm (Locally produced)

Small arms[edit]

In South Korea, many of North Korean small arms are showcased in many war museums, such as War Memorial of Korea, tourist sites of North Korean infiltration tunnels, or for the purpose of inspiring patriotism to citizens. The Korean Defense Intelligence Command (KDIC) displays North Korean equipment (most of them used by Special Forces) on an exhibition van in various military-related events place such as military units or public establishments.[36]

Name Country of origin Notes
Semi-automatic pistols
Type 64  Belgium /  DPRK Unlicensed copy of FN Browning M1900
Type 66  Soviet Union /  DPRK Indigenous copy of Makarov pistol
Type 68  Soviet Union /  DPRK Indigenous copy of TT-30 pistol.
Type 70  DPRK Self-designed and produced; Modeled after the FN M1900; chambered in .32 ACP[37]
BaekDuSan  Czechoslovakia /  DPRK Issued to high-ranking officers, pilots, and special force members
Norinco NZ-75  PRC /  DPRK
FN Baby Browning  Belgium Issued to spies
CZ 82  Czech Republic Issued to senior officers
Inglis Hi-Power  Canada Issued to spies and special force members
Sub-machine guns
PPS-43  Soviet Union /  PRC Both Soviet PPS submachine guns and Chinese Type 54s
M3  United States M3 was captured and used during the Korean War. Still used Limited supply used for Spies.
M56  Yugoslavia
Sterling submachine gun  United Kingdom Very limited use. Issued to elite special operations force units and spies for infiltration combat missions in South Korea.
PP-19 Bizon  Russia Extremely rare. Issued to elite special operations force units.
vz.61  Czechoslovakia Used by special force units, and spies.
Shotguns
KS-23  Soviet Union
Assault rifles
vz. 58  Czechoslovakia
Type 56  PRC
Type 63  PRC
Norinco CQ  PRC  PRK Limited use, issued to special force members
M16A1  United States Limited use, unlicensed locally made copies, issued to special force members. Seen in use by North Korean Commandos in the Gangneung incident in 1996.[38][39]
K2  South Korea Limited use, unlicensed locally made copies, issued to special force members at least since 1990s.[40] North Korean Commandos with Imitation ROK Military Digital camo Uniform and K2 Rifle Copies has been observed by ROK Army Soldiers during the 2015 North Korea's Shelling of South Korea across Western Front.
Type 58  DPRK Standard issue of KPA reserve forces
Type 68  Soviet Union /  DPRK Standard issue among North Korean infantry and being slowly supplanted by the Type 88 or 98
Type 88  DPRK Slowly supplanting the Type 68 as the future standard issue rifle of the KPA. Type 88-1 uses a side folding stock. Type 88-2 uses an overfolding stock and is modified and has a shorter AK-74U style muzzle brake and barrel. It is designed to use a new NK-designed helical magazine that can hold between 100-150 5.45 x 39 mm cartridges.[41]
?  DPRK OICW-Type, assault rifle chambered to fire the 5.45 mm round, as well as (23-30 mm?) airburst shells from its bullpup bolt-action over-barrel launcher with magazine containing 3 to 5 rounds[42]
Sniper rifles
Dragunov SVD  Soviet Union
PSL  Romania
Chogyok-Pochong  Yugoslavia /  North Korea
Light machine guns
Type 64  Soviet Union
Type 82 GPMG  Soviet Union
RPD  DPRK
Type 73  DPRK Indigenous design based on the Vz. 52 machine gun and the Kalashnikov PK machine gun design
Nikonov machine gun  Soviet Union
RP-46  Soviet Union
Gun-2?  DPRK Indigenous gatling-type, chambered to fire 7;62x54mmR
Heavy machine guns
DShKM  Soviet Union /  DPRK Standard issue
KPV  Soviet Union /  DPRK
Indigenous 14.5x114mm gatling gun  DPRK
Grenade launchers
GP-25  Soviet Union  DPRK
AGS-17  Soviet Union  DPRK [43]
AGS-30  Russia  DPRK Seen on Chonma-Ho 216 model 2017[44]

Reserve small arms[edit]

(Mostly used by Worker-Peasant Red Guards).

  • TT pistol – Soviet-made Tokarev batches, replaced by the locally-made Type 68 pistol.
  • Type 54 pistol – Chinese-made Tokarev batches, replaced by the locally-made Type 68 pistol.
  • PPSh-41 – Under the designation Type 49.[45]
  • Type 100 – Japanese sub-machine gun, captured during World War II and used in the Korean War.
  • Mosin–Nagant – Now used for ceremonial purposes only.
  • M1903 Springfield - American bolt action rifle captured during the Korean War. Used by Worker-Peasant Red Guard units. Sometimes used with a suppressor attached.
  • Murata Rifle – Captured from the Japanese in 1905. Still used today by Worker-Peasant Red Guard units.
  • Nambu Pistol – Captured from the Japanese during the Jeungmi Righteous War in 1907. Now in use with Worker-Peasant Red Guard officers.
  • PPD-40
  • SVT-40
  • SG-43 Goryunov
  • DP
  • Type 63 Rifle – Locally produced variant of the Soviet SKS carbine. Now used by ceremonial and reserve forces of the KPA.
  • Shin guntō – Japanese sword, captured during World War II and used in the Korean War.
  • Luger P08 – Unlicensed copy given to offices.

Ranks and uniforms[edit]

Ranks[edit]

Korean People's Army Ground Forces has six categories of ranks; marshals, general officers, senior officers, junior officers, Non-commissioned Officers, and soldiers.

Enlisted[edit]

Equivalent
NATO Code
OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
North Korea North Korea
(Edit)
Chief Master Sergeant rank insignia North Korea-V.svg Senior Sergeant rank insignia North Korea-V.svg Sergeant rank insignia North Korea-V.svg Junior Sergeant rank insignia North Korea-V.svg Senior Corporal rank insignia North Korea-V.svg Corporal rank insignia North Korea-V.svg Lance Corporal rank insignia North Korea-V.svg Private rank insignia North Korea-V.svg No equivalent
T'ŭkmu-sangsa
특무상사
Sangsa
상사
Chungsa
중사
Hasa
하사
Sanggŭp-pyŏngsa
상급병사
Chungŭp-pyŏngsa
중급병사
Hagŭp-pyŏngsa
하급병사
Chŏnsa
전사
Sergeant Major Master Sergeant Sergeant First Class Staff Sergeant Sergeant Corporal Lance Corporal Private

Officers[edit]

Equivalent
NATO code
OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) and student officer
North Korea North Korea
(Edit)
Marshal of the PKA Vice Marshal Captain General Superior General Middle General Junior General Captain Commander Superior Commander Middle Commander Junior Commander Captain Lieutenant Superior Lieutenant Middle Lieutenant Junior Lieutenant Unknown
Marshal of the KPA
(인민군원수)
Vice Marshal
(차수)
General of the Army
(대장)
Colonel General
(상장)
Lieutenant General
(중장)
Major General
(소장)
Senior Colonel
(Brigadier)
(대좌)
Colonel
(상좌)
Lieutenant Colonel
(중좌)
Major
(소좌)
Captain
(대위)
Senior Lieutenant
(상위)
Lieutenant
(중위)
Junior Lieutenant
(소위)

Marshals[edit]

Supreme commanders Marshals
Generalissimo rank insignia (North Korea).svg Marshal of the DPRK rank insignia.svg Marshal of the KPA rank insignia.svg Vice-Marshal rank insignia (North Korea).svg
Ranks in Korean Tae wonsu
대원수
Konghwaguk Wonsu
공화국원수
Wonsu
원수
Ch'asu
차수
Ranks Generalissimo Marshal of the DPRK Marshal of the KPA Vice Marshal

Uniform[edit]

KPA officers and soldiers are most often seen wearing a mix of olive green or tan uniforms. The basic dress uniform consists of a tunic and pants (white tunics for general officers in special occasions); female soldiers wear knee length skirts but can sometimes wear pants.

Caps or peaked caps, especially for officers (and sometimes berets for women) are worn in spring and summer months and a Russian style fur hat (the Ushanka hats) in winter. A variant of the Disruptive Pattern Material, the Disruptive Pattern Combat Uniform (green), the ERDL pattern, the M81 Woodland and the Tigerstripe is also being worn by a few and rare images of North Korean army officers and service personnel. In Non-Dress uniforms, a steel helmet (Soviet SSh-68 combat helmet) seems to be the most common headgear, and is sometimes worn with a camouflage covering.

Standard military boots are worn for combat, women wear low heel shoes or heel boots for formal parades.

Camouflage uniforms are slowly becoming more common in the KPA. During the April 15, 2012 parade, Kevlar helmets were displayed in certain KPA units.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "North Korean military takes oath of loyalty". www.enca.com. 
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-04-15. Retrieved 2008-02-14. 
  3. ^ Yossef., Bodansky, (1994). Crisis in, Korea. New York, N.Y.: S.P.I. Books. pp. 87–88. ISBN 9781561713325. OCLC 30641772. 
  4. ^ Joseph F. Bermudez, Shield of the Great Leader, 2001, 59.
  5. ^ "Remembering the Coup d'etat in 1996". Daily NK. Retrieved 2017-01-12. 
  6. ^ Hodge, Homer T., "North Korea's Military Strategy", Hodge: 2003.
  7. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-03-07. Retrieved 2014-03-07. 
  8. ^ John Pike. "Equipment Holdings – Korean People's Army". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2017-01-12. 
  9. ^ "About this Collection – Country Studies | Digital Collections | Library of Congress" (PDF). Lcweb2.loc.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-12. 
  10. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-09-03. 
  11. ^ "Military and Security Developments Involving the Democratic People's Republic of Korea" (PDF). Defense.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-12. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g "SIPRI arms transfer database". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. 6 November 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2016. 
  13. ^ "Vol. 2, No. 12 – December 2013". Kpajournal.com. Retrieved 2017-01-12. 
  14. ^ James Warford: "The Ch'ŏnma-ho Main Battle Tank: A Look at the Present and Future of North Korea's
  15. ^ Christopher F Foss. Jane's Armour and Artillery 2005–2006. 
  16. ^ North Korean Army Tanks, Vehicles and Artillery Since 1950. Military Factory. 9 May 2014. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  17. ^ "North Korean M-2012 8x8 APC derived from BTR-80". www.massimotessitori.altervista.org. Retrieved 2017-01-14. 
  18. ^ "North Korean M-2012 6x6 APC derived from BTR-80". www.massimotessitori.altervista.org. Retrieved 2017-01-14. 
  19. ^ ARG. "M1992 Armored Personnel Carrier – Military-Today.com". 
  20. ^ a b "M-2009 Chunma-D North Korean IFV". www.massimotessitori.altervista.org. Retrieved 2017-01-14. 
  21. ^ IBtimes.com "Kim Jong-il's Funeral Held in N. Korea"
  22. ^ "S-23 (Nywka C-23) 180mm Towed Artillery System - Soviet Union". 
  23. ^ Analysis: New combat vehicles and tanks at military parade in North Korea by Army Recognition Archived 2017-04-18 at the Wayback Machine. – Armyrecognition.com, 17 April 2017
  24. ^ "BMD-20 Multiple Launch Rocket Systems". Military-Today.com. Retrieved 2017-01-12. 
  25. ^ The North Korean M1985 MLRS & M1991 MLRS – Tanknutdave.com
  26. ^ "M1985 Multiple Launch Rocket System". Military-Today.com. Retrieved 2017-01-12. 
  27. ^ M-1991 240 mm Juche 100 MRLS Multiple Rocket launcher System Armyrecognition.com
  28. ^ North Korea deploys new 240 mm artillery rocket launcher systems along border with South Korea Armyrecognition.com, 30 June 2013
  29. ^ The threat of North Korea’s new rocket artillery – NKnews.org, 13 March 2014
  30. ^ "Document says North now has guided 300mm launchers". Korea JoongAng Daily. 
  31. ^ Mizokami, Kyle. "North Korea's Ultimate Weapon Isn't Nuclear Weapons (Think 'Big Guns')". The National Interest. Retrieved 29 September 2017. 
  32. ^ CNN Wire Staff. "North Korea threatens 'a sea of fire' upon South Korea". CNN. Retrieved 29 September 2017. 
  33. ^ Cavazos, Roger. "Mind the Gap Between Rhetoric and Reality". The Nautilus Institute for Security and Sustainability. Retrieved 29 September 2017. 
  34. ^ ARG. "Ataka Anti-Tank Guided Missile - Military-Today.com". www.military-today.com. 
  35. ^ 1977, Роман. "Корейская народная армия. Противотанковое вооружение". 
  36. ^ "N. Korean special operation forces infiltration van showcased for 19th ESC senior leader development". DVIDS – Defense Video & Imagery Distribution System. 4 Aug 2014. 
  37. ^ Forgotten Weapons (8 April 2015). "North Korean Type 70 Pistol at RIA" – via YouTube. 
  38. ^ "A Weapon Displayed From North Korea Special Forces and their Submarine". MBC News. 25 September 1996. 
  39. ^ "Equipment of North Korean Special Forces and Espionage". Yu Yong-won's Military World, Chosun Ilbo. 16 April 2013. 
  40. ^ "시사저널 - 북한 5만 특공대, 저공 침투 대기중". sisapress.com. 19 September 1996. Archived from the original on 3 June 2018. 
  41. ^ "North Korean Helical AK Magazines". www.armamentresearch.com. February 4, 2014. 
  42. ^ F, Nathaniel (21 April 2017). "North Korean "OICW" Combined Assault Rifle and Automatic Grenade Launcher Revealed During Day of the Sun Parade – The Firearm Blog". The Firearm Blog. Archived from the original on 19 June 2017. 
  43. ^ "North Korean Small Arms". Small Arms Defense Journal. 
  44. ^ https://cdn.inquisitr.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/North-korean-battle-tanks.jpg
  45. ^ US Department of Defense. "North Korea Country Handbook 1997, Appendix A: Equipment Recognition, PPSH 1943 SUBMACHINEGUN (TYPE-50 CHINA/MODEL-49 DPRK) p. A-79" (PDF). 

External links[edit]