Korean alcoholic beverages

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Korean name
Hangul
Hanja n/a
Revised Romanization sul
McCune–Reischauer sul
IPA [sul]
Suffix
Hangul -술
Hanja n/a
Revised Romanization -sul
McCune–Reischauer -sul
IPA [sul]
Suffix 2
Hangul -주
Hanja
Revised Romanization -ju
McCune–Reischauer -chu
IPA [tɕu]

Korean culture has a wide variety of traditional alcoholic beverages, called sul (). Most of these beverages end with the Sino-Korean word -ju (; ), while some alcoholic beverages end with the native Korean word -sul; the Sino-Korean ju is not used as an independent noun.

It is said that there are over 1,000 different kinds of alcoholic beverages in Korea. According to the Yin Yang philosophy, different types of alcohol are served for different occasions, such as marriage, harvest, longevity, and so on. Most Korean alcohols are made from rice, of both glutinous and non-glutinous variety, which are fermented with the aid of yeast and nuruk (a wheat-based source of the enzyme amylase). Fruits, flowers, herbs and other natural ingredients have also been used to craft traditional Korean alcoholic beverages. There are 6 distinguished flavors in Korean alcohol; Sweet, Sour, Pungent, Roasted, Bitter and Spicy tastes. When these 6 flavors are all harmonized and in balance, the alcohol is considered to be a quality liquor. Korean alcohol is divided into three categories: Gwasilju (Fruit Liquor), Jeungryuju (Distilled Liquor), and Takju/Yakju (Rice Liquor).

Origin[edit]

Goguryeo was the northernmost of the three kingdoms on the Korean peninsula from the 3rd century to the 7th century (the Three Kingdoms Era). Archaeological evidence indicates that the Goguryeo culture had a highly developed tradition of fermented foods and drink. At that time, they made drinks using nuruk (fermentation starter) and malt. The methods used today were developed 5,000 years ago. Recorded methods of making sul date from as early as A.D. 430.

Baekje was the second of the Three Kingdoms and it dominated the southwestern part of the peninsula. Sul was introduced to Japan from Baekje by a Susubori (Korean for brewer) named Inbon,[1][2] who became the Japanese god of drink.[3] According to an old Japanese archival text "Ground Rice," Susubori offered sul to a Japanese king. This was the king's first taste of alcohol and it made him joyous and he sang aloud.

Silla was the third of the Three Kingdoms, dominating in the southeast region and eventually unifying the peninsula in the 7th century. Silla was a younger state and was at first less developed than Goguryeo and Baekje. This included their sul making techniques. However, Silla rapidly caught up with its older neighbors in all areas. The Silla text 'Jibung Yuseol' gives evidence of Silla's sul making tradition.

In Jewang ungi, a history book during the Goryeo Dynasty, a myth regarding the origin of alcoholic drinks appears. Once upon a time, there was a king who enjoyed using alcohol to tempt a woman to want to have many children. When their son was born, they named him Sul. The word sul (hangul: 술), referring to alcoholic beverages, came from a blending of the words "su" (hangul: 수; hanja: ) and "bul" (hangul: 불), meaning "water" and "fire", respectively. That is, "firewater" originated from the boiling liquid.[4] This is popular etymology at best.

The production and demand for traditional Korean wines and liquors declined sharply beginning during the Japanese forced occupation. In 1986, in an effort to remedy this situation, the Cultural Heritage Administration of South Korea selected 86 varieties of traditionally brewed alcoholic beverages as cultural properties, with twelve types selected as Important Intangible Cultural Properties of Korea, each hailing from its own locality.

History[edit]

The history of Korean alcohol goes back to as early as A.D. 430 in the 5,000-year-long history of Korea. The main ingredients then were ‘nuruk' (Korean fermentation starter) and malt, however, the methods used today were developed about 1,700 years ago as the record indicates. A variety of alcohol was widely enjoyed by many Korean people; in fact, approximately 1 in 7 homes in Korea used to produce alcohol until the Japanese forced occupation began in 1910.[5] Under Japanese rule, home brewing was prohibited, and Korean alcoholic beverage brewing became industrialized. During the occupation and Korean War, many kinds of Korean alcohol were lost. However, after the Korean government approved home brewing in 1995, Korean traditional alcoholic beverages began to get their tradition and reputation back.[5]

Varieties[edit]

In Korea, the major crop has historically been rice, and thus most Korean traditional alcoholic beverages are rice wines, made from both glutinous rice and non-glutinous rice. These are fermented with the aid of yeast and nuruk (fermentation starter), a wheat-based source of the enzyme amylase. Additionally, Koreans often use fruits, flowers, herbs, and other ingredients to flavor these beverages, to a much greater extent than Chinese wines.

There are six main types of Korean alcoholic beverages: yakju, distilled liquors (including soju), takju, fruit wines, flower wines, and medicinal wines.

Yakju[edit]

Daepo, a branded yakju

Yakju (hangul: 약주; hanja: ; literally "medicinal alcohol") is a refined rice wine made from steamed rice that has gone through several fermentation stages. It is also called myeongyakju or beopju and is distinguished from takju by its relative clarity.

Varieties include baekhaju (백하주), which is made from glutinous rice and Korean nuruk (fermentation starter), [2] and Heukmeeju (hangul: 흑미주; hanja: 黑米酒; literally "black rice wine"), which is made from black rice. [3]

Yakju is brewed with hard boiled rice, yeast, and water. If chrysanthemum is included, it is called Gukhwaju; if azalea is added, it is called Dugyeonju; if pine sprout is used, it is called Songsunju; if lotus leaves are added, it is called Ywonyeopju; if gingeng is used, it is called Insamju. In addition, takju or cheongju or yakju is distilled and various medicinal herbs are put into the distilled liquor. That is called mixed liquor, which is brewed to use the medicinal effects of the herbs. It is good for health ands allegedly treats diseases.

Cheongju[edit]

Cheongju (hangul: 청주; hanja: ; literally "clear wine" or "clear liquor") is a clear rice wine similar to Japanese sake. One popular brand of cheongju is Chung Ha (청하), which is widely available at Korean restaurants. There are various local variations, including beopju, which is brewed in the ancient city of Gyeongju.[6]

Distilled liquors[edit]

Korean distilled liquors include goryangju (hangul: 고량주; hanja: 高梁酒; also spelled koryangju; made from sorghum and similar to Chinese gaoliang jiu) and okroju (hangul: 옥로주; hanja: ; made from rice and Job's Tears).[4] Another variety, called munbaeju (문배주), has the distinction of being South Korea's Important Intangible Cultural Property Number 86‑1. Munbaeju is a traditional aged distilled liquor made of malted millet, sorghum, wheat, rice, and nuruk (fermentation starter), with a strength of 40 percent alcohol by volume. It originates in the Pyongyang region of North Korea and is noted for its fragrance, which is said to resemble the flower of the munbae tree (similar to a pear).[6][7]

Soju[edit]

Bottle and glass of Jinro soju

Soju (hangul: 소주; hanja: ; lit. "burnt liquor"), a clear, slightly sweet distilled spirit, is by far the most popular Korean liquor. Koreans call soju "a friend of life" and "common people's drink". It is made from grains such as rice, barley and wheat, or from starches such as potatoes, sweet potatoes and tapioca. Soju is often compared to vodka, but it has a sweet taste due to the added sugar. The drink is usually served neat and in a shot glass, and it should be drunk as a shot or sipped on. It is smooth and clean in taste, which makes it easy to pair with a variety of Korean dishes. It is generally inexpensive. A typical bottle of soju costs about 1,000 won, less than 1 dollar. It typically has an alcohol content of 40 proof (20% alc. by volume). There is a version with top notch ingredients distilled using traditional methods that hails from the city of Andong that is 90 to 100 proof (45 - 50% alc. by volume). This version has a government protection/regulation seal, as Andong has historically been known as a center of fine soju among other things. While all soju in Korea are priced almost identically (inexpensively as previously mentioned), Andong soju commands more than 20 times that price. It is the cognac to commercial soju's vin du pays.

In the 13th century, during the Goryeo Dynasty ruling, Mongol invaders brought their soju, known as "araki" with them. "Araki" comes from the Arabian term "araq", which means distilled liquor. Thus soju was originally developed in Arabia and passed through Mongolia before it made its way to Korea. Koreans had never before encountered distilled liquor, as they were accustomed to drinking fermented alcoholic beverages such as makgeolli. Mongol base camps, such as Kaesong, Andong, and Jeju Island, are now famous soju producing regions. ("Koreana:A Quarterly on Korean Art & Culture", 2016).

In the late 20th century soju flavored with Lemon or Green tea became available. Soju mixed with beer is called somaek (소맥) and is widely popular.[citation needed] The Japanese version is called Shōchū.

Yagyongjeungryuju, medicinal distilled liquor

Leegangju is an alcoholic beverage usually brewed in Jeolla Provinces and Hwanghae Province from the mid-Joseon Dynasty period. Curcuma tuber and cinnamon flavor and pear refreshment are well harmonized to give delicate scent. It has straw color.

Gamhongro is a traditional liquor in light pink and it is well known in Pyeongyang and Gwanseo Region in Korea. Various medicinal herbs are added and fermented. This liquor is distilled three times and aged for 120 years.

Sungokjeungryuju, distilled liquor made from rice wine

This is a danyangbeop (single brew) or leeyangbeop (second brew), a traditional grain wine brewing method. After manufacturing takju (turbid rice-wine) or cheongju, it is distilled to get soju.

Andong Soju is well known in Andong, Gyeongsangbuk-do. Its taste and flavor are distinctive so that many people love this liquor as a Korean traditional distilled spirits.

Okroju of Gyeonggi-do is originated from Hanyang of the late Joseon Dynasty era. Recently, The taste of this liquor brewed through Korean traditional brewing method of Gyeonggi-do is very attractive so that its value as a Korean traditional alcoholic beverage is appreciated.

Moonbaesool (or Munbae-ju) is a distilled liquor, brewed with wheat,

Yagyonggokryuju, medicinal grain wine

This liquor is brewed with medicinal herbs. Baekseju and Ogapiju are a yagyonggokryuju.

Gahyanggokju, flavored rice wine

This yakju (rice wine) is brewed with flowers and leaves to give distinctive flavor to this liquor. Kookhwaju (chrysanthemum wine), Omijaju (maximowiczia typica), Songjeolju, and Dugyeonju are a gahyanggokju.

Honju

This liquor is brewed with grain by adding soju. Kwahaju and Songsunju are a honju.

Makgeolli[edit]

Makgeolli (막걸리), also known as takju (hangul: 탁주; hanja: ;named for its dull white color), is a milky, sweet alcoholic beverage made from rice. It is also called nongju (hangul: 농주; hanja: ; lit. "farmers' alcohol"). Makgeolli is one of the most popular alcoholic beverages in Korea. It is the oldest traditional Korean rice wine, with a 6 - 7% alcohol content. It is fermented naturally and unfiltered which gives it its milky white color and makes it chalky at the bottom. The beverage is thick but smooth. It tastes sweet with a slight tang and leaves a cool aftertaste. It is served in a bowl rather than a cup. A good makgeolli will blend well with most side dishes.

It is unclear when Koreans began to drink makgeolli but according to "Poetic Records of Emperors and Kings," written during the Goryeo Dynasty (A.D. 918-1392), the drink was first mentioned in the founding story of the Goguryeo Kingdom during the reign of King Dongmyeong (B.C. 37 - B.C. 19). (KOCIS, 2016).

Makgeolli is brewed using classical methods with nuruk (molded cereals that produce hydrolysable enzymes that decompose macromolecules to monomers for yeast growth) cooked rice, water, barley and yeasts. (Choi et al., 2014). The brewing process consists of two steps: seed mash and main mash or main fermentation. Seed mash is the stage of obtaining actively growing yeasts and enzymes in the mixture of yeast and nuruk. The purpose of main mash is to acquire taste and aroma intrinsic by the transformation of nutrients and amino acids derived from the rice. Main fermentation lasts about a week. (Kang, Lee, & Park, 2014).

Thanks to its fermentation process using microorganisms, it is both a liquor and a health drink. It contains 1.9% protein, over 10 amino acids, along with vitamin B, inositol and choline. Makgeolli is known for boosting metabolism, relieving fatigue, and bettering one’s complexion. (KOCIS, 2016).

A regional and slightly creamier variant, originally from Gyeonggi-do, is called Dongdongju. Another variety, called ihwaju (hangul: 이화주; hanja: ; literally "pear blossom wine") was so named because it was brewed from rice with rice malt that had fermented during the Pear blossom season.[5] Ihwaju is often so thick that it must be eaten with a spoon. Many farmers like to drink these alcoholic beverages when they work in rice paddies.

A similar drink is called Gamju; this name is also used for various non-alcoholic sweet drinks including Sikhye (식혜).

Fruit wines[edit]

A bottle of bokbunja ju

Korea has a number of traditional fruit wines, produced by combining fruits or berries with alcohol. Podoju (포도주, 葡萄酒) is made from rice wine that is mixed with grapes. The most popular fruit wines include maesil-ju made from plums, bokbunja-ju made from Korean black raspberry[6], and wines made from Chinese quinces, cherries, pine fruits, and pomegranates. A wine tunnel south of Daegu produces a slightly tart wine made from persimmons.

Persimmon wine (감와인) from Daegu

Gwasilju is usually made from fruits or grains. In Korea, people drink liquor and enjoy the arts and beautiful scenes andatmosphere of seasonal change. In spring, people brew alcoholic beverages using with azaleas, forsythias, and peach and pear blossoms. In summer, lotuses and roses are used. In fall, chrysanthemum, yuzu, Korean wild grapes and black raspberries, and apples are infused. In winter, Asian apricot is used. With those aromatic ingredients, people enjoy the classical grace and dignity and the arts of seasonal change through the flavor of liquor.

Insamju, ginseng wine

Flower wines[edit]

There are a number of Korean traditional wines produced from flowers. These include wines made from chrysanthemums, called gukhwaju (국화주, 菊花酒; marketed by Jinro as Chun Kook), acacia flowers, maesil blossoms (maehwaju, 梅花酒), peach blossoms (dohwaju, 桃花酒), honeysuckle (indongju, 인동주, 忍冬酒), wild roses, and sweet briar petals and berries.[8]

Dugyeonju (두견주, 杜鵑酒) is a wine made from Azalea petals, produced in Chungcheong Province. It is sweet, viscous, and light yellowish brown in color, and contains about 21% alcohol. Myeoncheon Dugyeonju is designated by the South Korean government as Important Intangible Cultural Property No. 86-2.[9]

Another variety of flower wine, called baekhwaju (hangul: 백화주; hanja: 白花酒), is made from 100 varieties of flowers.[10]

Medicinal wines[edit]

Beolddeok Ju medicinal rice wine, believed to increase male stamina

Medicinal liqueurs, called yagyongju (약용주, 藥用酒) are produced by combining medicinal seeds, herbs, and roots with alcohol.

  • Bek Se ju (Baekseju; hangul: 백세주; hanja: ; literally "100 years wine") is a commercial variant of medicinal wine, and is the most popular medicinal wine for younger people, who generally do not drink it primarily for its medicinal properties. It has become a popular alternative to soju in most restaurants and drinking establishments. It is a rice wine infused with ginseng and eleven other herbs, including licorice, omija (Schisandra chinensis), gugija (Chinese wolfberry), Astragalus, ginger, and cinnamon, and is 13% alcohol.[7] [8]
  • Beolddeok ju (벌떡주; lit. spring-up wine[11]); a rice wine infused with herbal medicines and sweetened with pumpkin malt that is believed to increase male stamina. The bottles are often sold topped with a ceramic penis with a smiling face.[12][13]
  • Bem ju (뱀주) literally "Snake Wine" is made by placing a snake in a jar of distilled liquor like Soju and aging it. It is a folk remedy that is said to be particularly "good for men." Various types of snakes are used. Local lore has it that the more venomous the snake, the more powerful the medicinal quality (and the higher the price).
  • Chuseongju (hangul: 추성주; also spelled chusungju) is a traditional wine made from glutinous and non-glutinous rice, herbs including omija (Schisandra chinensis) and Eucommia ulmoides; it is commercially available in a bamboo-shaped bottle.
  • Daeipsul (대잎술) is another traditional folk wine from Damyang County, South Jeolla Province, made from glutinous rice, brown rice, and bamboo leaves, along with ten medicinal herbs.[9]
  • Dosoju (hangul: 도소주; hanja: ) is a popular herbal wine, traditionally served only on New Year's Day.[14]
  • Insamju (인삼주, 人蔘酒), made with Ginseng, is the most popular medicinal wine among older people.[15]
  • Jugyeopcheongju (hangul: 죽엽청주; hanja: 竹葉) is a traditional liquor made with Bamboo leaves.[10]
  • Ogalpiju (오갈피주; hanja: 五加皮) is made from the bark of Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus blended with soju and sugar.
  • Sansachun (산사춘) is another commercial Korean wine made from the red fruits of the sansa, or Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida). The Bae Sang Myun Brewery Company markets this wine, claiming therapeutic effects.[11]
  • Songsunju (hangul: 송순주; hanja: ) is soju made with glutinous rice and soft, immature pine cones or sprouts.[16][17]

Other wines[edit]

  • Yuju or mayuju (hangul: 마유주; hanja: ), which is made from fermented Horse milk, was introduced to Korea from Mongolia. It is similar to kumis.

Beer[edit]

Beer (called maekju; hangul: 맥주; hanja: in Korean) was introduced to Korea by Europeans and there are several breweries in South Korea.

How to Distinguish Good Korean Alcohol[edit]

First, see liquor carefully. The color of Korean traditional spirits is usually golden ranging from light to dark grown. The lighter the color of the liquor is, the cleaner the taste is. The darker the color is, the richer the taste is. Good traditional liquor is clear and has golden color. According to the color of the ingredients of spirits, for example, if ingredients other than grains such as medicinal herbs are added, the color of the liquor is different.

Second, smell liquor. Korean traditional spirits are divided into two flavors. One is the flavor unique to yeast. It is delicate and it has fruit flavor. Even if fruit juice is not used, well fermented traditional liquor gives fruit flavor such as apple or watermelon flavor. This scent is created by fermenting the wheat bran of yeast. Yakju, rice wine, ripened at low temperature has this flavor.

Third, savor the flavor and taste, together. Korean traditional alcoholic beverages have six tastes; Sweet, bitter, sour, unpleasant, delicate, hot. Generally, good traditional liquor has six flavors well mixed.

Sweet taste: In case of grape wine, its fermentation relatively early ends. According to the sucres résiduels, the taste of grape wines range from sweet and dry. In case of yakju, deotsulbeob (fermentation method) is used. Glucose created by yeast is broken down into alcohol by leaven so that sweetness decreases and that fermentation stops. At the time, rice is supplemented or rice and yeast are added for additional fermentation. That is called deotsulbeob. The sweetness of yakju induced by natural deotsulbeob is very scientific and a wise method.

Sour taste: The sour taste of yakju is natural acidity created by various organic acid such as lactic acid and citric acid according to the microorganism formation in yeast and the fermentation progress. When savoring sourness, you should enjoy it with its flavor. The best feature of Korean traditional alcoholic beverages is the sweetness well harmonized with natural sourness of citric acid, lactic acid, and succinic acid. If a person likes dry taste, he/she should check the sweetness and the sourness of a liquor before selecting an alcoholic beverage.

Unpleasant taste: You can enjoy this taste by eating acorns or unripe persimmons. This taste is created because gustatory nerve is paralyzed. Thus, this taste may give you an unpleasant feeling. However, this unpleasant taste of yakju is generated by lactic acid so that, if it is proper, this taste matches well with meats.

Bitter and hot taste: The hot taste of yakju is caused by the alcoholic substance. In case of medicinal liquor, the bitterness of the medicinal herbs used affects the taste of liquor, and yeast itself gives the bitter taste. Proper bitterness stimulates your appetite. The alcohol content of traditional spirits ranges from 11% to 18%. When selecting a yakju, it is recommended to consider the harmonized taste instead of alcohol content. The longer the time of fermentation is, the higher the alcohol content is and the deeper the taste is.

Delicate taste: This taste is the most important in yakju. It is unique to fermented beverages prepared from grains. In particular, the protein, much in the cortex of grains, is broken down into amino acid, and this taste is naturally created. This delicate taste tends to be stronger when a liquor is ripened. If you like a delicate taste, the liquor brewed with much yeast or that in dark color can be selected. If you prefer clean and fresh taste, the liquor in light color can be selected.

Refreshment and temperature: Refreshment is closely related with the temperature of yakju. At low temperature, sweetness reduces and sourness increases. The stimulation of alcohol and the delicate taste decrease and the refreshment increases. According to Kyuhapchongseo, a food literature of the Joseon Dynasty period, “It is recommended to have a meal at the temperature of spring, having soup at the temperature of summer, having sauce at the temperature of autumn, and drinking an alcoholic beverage at the temperature of winter.” Thus, the optimal temperature to drink liquor ranges from 6 to 15℃. If you prefer light taste, drink it at low temperature as much as it can.

When opening a bottle : Do not drink liquor once opening its bottle. After opening the stopper of a bottle, wait a while to escape tiny gas in the bottle and fill a cup with liquor.

Selection of yakju matched with food: Traditional alcoholic beverages usually have sweetness and sourness stronger than that of other liquor. Relatively dry yakju is well matched with meals. From the past, banju (liquor taken before meal time) improves your appetite and promotes digestion by drinking a cup of yakju before meals. Thus, it is recommended that yakju proper to banjo should not be much sweet and have a little sourness. You can select a yakju drunken during a meal or after a meal with having a friendly talk according to your preference, but it needs to consider the type of foods.

Drinking Manner[edit]

Korean table manner while drinking-01

There is the manner of Korean traditional alcoholic beverages. When you get together with people including elderly people and have a chance to drink an alcoholic beverage, you should not receive a drinking cup from an older person while being seated. However, if he or she approves it, you can drink it while being seated. The young should not start to drink an alcoholic beverage earlier than the older. If the person for whom you are pouring is older than you or of higher status, you should pour holding the bottle with two hands and drink with head turned aside, not facing the senior. To pour a drink, hold the bottle in the right hand with the left hand touching the right forearm or elbow; this peculiar arm position originated from the practice of holding back the sleeve of the hanbok so that it wouldn't touch the table or the food. Korean drinking etiquette looks like somewhat complicated and difficult, it shows respect for older people even when we drink liquor. From the past, Korean people from the King to the lowest class of people have enjoyed Korean traditional spirits. Thus, drinking etiquette has been considered important.

Types of Appetizer Dishes[edit]

Po (Dried food): A popular snack, po are thin strips or sheets of dried meat or fish, similar to jerky. The dried beef is called yukpo and the dried fish is called eopo. Eopo includes juripo made of carp, chugok of abalone, inbok, and eoran. As a dry snack for liquor, it is used in geongujeolpan (platter of nine delicacies). Yukpo includes pyeonpo, uyukbaepo, jangpo, yakpo, and chiyukpo.

Hoe (Raw food): Octopus, abalone, sea cucumber, and croaker are eaten as hoe. In summer, sukhoe is made with fish, abalone, cucumber, and shiitake mushroom. In winter, after pheasant is caught, it is frozen and sliced to make dongchimi (white radish kimchi) to use as a snack for liquor. Sushi, yukhoe, cheon, mandoo are a kind of jinanju (gujeolpan, Sinseollo, cheongol). Especially, the pheasant dongchimi is a one-dish meal.

Others: In addition to po and hoe, people enjoy ‘jokpyeon and pyeonyuk’ made by boiling beef soup bones, ‘jeopisujeong’ made with the skin of spiced pettitoes, ‘suyuk’ sliced by simmering beef or chicken, ‘daemandoo’ that small mandoos exist in a large mandoo when they drink liquor.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ 우리나라 술의 발달사. 신광출판사. 2004. p. 55. ISBN 9788970697581. 
  2. ^ "되살아난 우리 전통 술... 이젠 '酒道'도 되살릴 때". The Chosun Ilbo Senior. 12 July 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2013. 
  3. ^ Lee Hyo-gee (1996). "History of Traditional Korean Alcoholic Drinks". Koreana, Vol. 10. No.4. Archived from the original on 30 April 2009. 
  4. ^ "History of Korean Alcohol". Life in Korea. Retrieved 18 June 2008. 
  5. ^ a b History of Korean Traditional Alcoholic Beverages Life in Korea
  6. ^ a b Traditional Liquor Korea Tourism Organization. Retrieved 28 August 2009
  7. ^ "Drinks of the Ancients". SkyNews. Retrieved 27 May 2016. 
  8. ^ "Flower Pancakes and Flower Liquor : Traditional Food with a Floral Fragrance". Koreana. 2003. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. 
  9. ^ "Drinks of the Ancients". Sky News. Retrieved 30 April 2013. 
  10. ^ "Bottoms up for tip-top health". Korea JoongAng Daily. 27 May 2003. Retrieved 30 April 2013. 
  11. ^ "벌떡". Naver English Dictionary. Naver Corporation. Retrieved 15 September 2015. 
  12. ^ "A Taste of the Sea and the Mountain". Koreataste. Korea Tourism Organization. 19 September 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2015. 
  13. ^ Seo (서), Bu-won (부원) (11 March 2010). "'남근목' '벌떡주'...예스럽던 동해안은 어디로 갔나" (in Korean). OhmyNews. Retrieved 28 August 2015. 
  14. ^ 도소주 (in Korean). Korean Folk Encyclopedia. Retrieved 30 April 2013. 
  15. ^ Pettid, Michael J. (2008). Korean cuisine: an illustrated history. China: Reaktion Books Ltd. pp. 110–123. ISBN 978-1-86189-348-2. 
  16. ^ [1]
  17. ^ 송순주담그기 (in Korean). Korean Folk Encyclopedia. Retrieved 30 April 2013. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]