|Cultural origins||late 1980s—1990s, South Korea|
|Seoul · Incheon · Busan · Jeju|
K-pop (abbreviation of Korean pop; Hangul: 케이팝) is a music genre originating in South Korea that is characterized by a wide variety of audiovisual elements. Although it comprises all genres of "popular music" within South Korea, the term is more often used in a narrower sense to describe a modern form of South Korean pop music covering a range of styles and genres incorporated from the West such as Western pop music, rock, jazz, hip-hop, R&B, reggae, electronica, techno, rave, nu metal, folk, country and classical on top of its traditional Korean music roots. The genre emerged with one of the earliest K-pop groups, Seo Taiji and Boys, forming in 1992. Their experimentation with different styles of music "reshaped Korea's music scene". As a result, the integration of foreign musical elements has now become common practice with K-pop artists.
K-pop entered the Japanese market at the turn of the 21st century and rapidly grew into a subculture among teenagers and young adults of East and Southeast Asia. With the advent of online social networking services, the current global spread of K-pop and Korean entertainment known as the Korean Wave is seen in Latin America, India, North Africa, the Middle East, and elsewhere in the Western world.
- 1 Characteristics
- 2 History
- 3 Industry
- 4 Culture
- 5 Popularity and impact
- 6 Foreign relations
- 7 Criticism and controversies
- 8 List of K-pop artists
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 Bibliography
Although K-pop generally refers to South Korean popular music, some consider it to be an all-encompassing genre exhibiting a vast spectrum of musical and visual elements. The French Institut national de l'audiovisuel defines K-pop as a 'fusion of synthesized music, sharp dance routines and fashionable, colorful outfits'. Songs typically consist of one or a mixture of pop, rock, hip hop, R&B and electronic music genres.
Systematic training of artists
Management agencies in South Korea offer binding contracts to potential artists, sometimes at a young age. Trainees live together in a regulated environment and spend many hours a day learning music, dance, foreign languages and other skills in preparation for their debut. This "robotic" system of training is often criticized by Western media outlets. In 2012, The Wall Street Journal reported that the cost of training one Korean pop idol under S.M. Entertainment averaged US$3 million.
Hybrid genre and transnational values
K-pop is a cultural product that features “values, identity and meanings that go beyond their strictly commercial value.” It is characterized by a mixture of Western sounds with an Asian aspect of performance. It has been remarked that there is a "vision of modernization" inherent in Korean pop culture. For some, the transnational values of K-pop are responsible for its success. A commentator at the University of California has said that "contemporary Korean pop culture is built on [...] transnational flows [...] taking place across, beyond, and outside national and institutional boundaries." Some examples of the transnational values inherent in K-pop that may appeal to those from different ethnic, national, and religious backgrounds include a dedication to high-quality output and presentation of idols, as well as their work ethic and polite social demeanour, made possible by the training period.
Many agencies have presented new idol groups to an audience through a "debut showcase", which consists of online marketing and television broadcast promotions as opposed to radio. Groups are given a name and a "concept", along with a marketing hook. Sometimes sub-units or sub-groups are formed among existing members. An example subgroup is Super Junior-K.R.Y. which consists of members Kyuhyun, Ryeowook, and Yesung, and Super Junior-M, which became one of the best-selling K-pop subgroups in China.
Online marketing includes music videos posted to YouTube in order to reach a worldwide audience. Prior to the actual video, the group releases teaser photos and trailers. Promotional cycles of subsequent singles are called comebacks even when the musician or group in question did not go on hiatus.
Use of English phrases
Modern K-pop is marked by its use of English phrases. Jin Dal Yong of Popular Music and Society wrote that the usage may be influenced by "Korean-Americans and/or Koreans who studied in the U.S. [who] take full advantage of their English fluency and cultural resources that are not found commonly among those who were raised and educated in Korea." In 1995, the percentage of song titles using English in the top 50 charts was 8%. This fluctuated between 30% in 2000, 18% in 2005, and 44% in 2010. Similarly, increasing numbers of K-pop bands use English names rather than Korean ones. This allows songs and artists to be marketed to a wider audience around the world. An example of a Korean song with a large proportion of English lyrics is Kara’s "Jumping", which was released at the same time in both Korea and Japan to much success.
Increasingly, foreign songwriters and producers are employed to work on songs for K-pop idols, such as will.i.am and Sean Garrett. Musicians, including rappers such as Akon, Kanye West, Ludacris, and Snoop Dogg, have also featured on K-pop songs.
However, the use of English has not guaranteed the popularity of K-pop in the North American market. For some commentators, the reason for this is because the genre can be seen as an appropriated or distilled version of Western music, making it difficult for K-pop to find acceptance in these markets. Furthermore, Western audiences tend to place emphasis on authenticity and individual expression in music, which the idol system can be seen as suppressing.
Lead singles are conventionally accompanied by choreography, which often includes a key dance move (known as a 'point' dance move) that matches the characteristics or lyrics of the song. Super Junior's "Sorry Sorry" and Brown Eyed Girls' "Abracadabra" are examples of songs with notable 'point' choreography. More recently, well known international choreographers such as Parris Goebel and Anthony Joseph Testa have worked with K-pop artists such as CL, Big Bang, and Shinee. Some fans participate in cover dance groups and upload their dance covers online, for example in Vietnam.
K-pop has a significant influence on fashion in Asia, where trends started by idols are followed by young audiences. Some idols have established status as fashion icons, such as G-Dragon and CL, who has repeatedly worked with fashion designer Jeremy Scott, being labeled his "muse". There is some concern over trends such as skin whitening being popularised by the industry, which has been criticised for its narrow beauty standards.
The South Korean government has acknowledged benefits to the country's export sector as a result of the Korean Wave (it was estimated in 2011 that a US$100 increase in the export of cultural products resulted in a US$412 increase in exports of other consumer goods including food, clothes, cosmetics and IT products) and thus have subsidised certain endeavours. Government initiatives to expand the popularity of K-pop are mostly undertaken by the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, which is responsible for the worldwide establishment of Korean Cultural Centers. South Korean embassies and consulates have also organized K-pop concerts outside the country, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs regularly invites overseas K-pop fans to attend the annual K-Pop World Festival in South Korea.
Origins of Korean popular music
A 1938 trot song by Kim Song Kyu and Park Yeong Ho. Sung by Park Hyang Rim.
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
The history of Korean popular music can be traced back to 1885 when an American missionary, Henry Appenzeller, began teaching American and British folk songs at a school. These songs were called changga in Korean, and they were typically based on a popular Western melody sung with Korean lyrics. For example, the song "Oh My Darling, Clementine" became known as "Simcheongga".[note 1] During the Japanese rule (1910–1945) the popularity of changga songs rose as Koreans expressed their feelings against Japanese oppression through music. One of the most popular songs was "Huimangga" (희망가, The Song of Hope). The Japanese confiscated the existing changga collections and published lyrics books of their own.[third-party source needed]
The first known Korean pop album was "Yi Pungjin Sewol" (This Tumultuous Time), by Park Chae-seon and Lee Ryu-saek in 1925, which contained popular songs translated from Japanese. The first pop song written by a Korean composer is thought to be "Nakhwayusu" (낙화유수, Fallen Blossoms on Running Water) sung by Lee Jeong-suk in 1929. In the mid-1920s, Japanese composer Masao Koga mixed traditional Korean music with Gospel music that American Evangelists introduced in the 1870s. This type of music became known as Enka in Japan, and later in Korea as Trot (Korean: "트로트").
1940s–1960s: Arrival of Western culture
After the Korean Peninsula was partitioned into North and South following its liberation in 1945 from Japanese occupation, Western culture was introduced into South Korea on a small scale, with a few Western-styled bars and clubs playing Western music. After the Korean War (1950–53) U.S. troops remained in South Korea for protection. With the continued presence of the U.S. military during this time, American and world culture spread in South Korea and Western music gradually became more accepted.
The United Service Organizations made it possible for several prominent figures of American entertainment, like Marilyn Monroe and Louis Armstrong to visit the soldiers stationed in Korea. These visits prompted attention from the Korean public. In 1957 the American Forces Korea Network radio started its broadcast, spreading the popularity of Western music. American music started influencing Korean music, as pentatony was gradually replaced by heptachords and popular songs started to be modeled after American ones.
In the 1960s, the development of LP records and improvements in recording technology led to the pursuit of diverse voice tones. Many singers sang for the American troops, usually in dedicated clubs, the number of which rose to 264. They performed various genres like country music, blues, jazz and rock & roll. The South Korean economy started blooming and popular music followed the trend, spread by the first commercial radio stations. Korean cinema also began to develop and Korean musicians began performing to wider audiences.
When Beatlemania reached the shores of Korea the first local rock bands appeared, the first of which is said to be Add4, a band founded in 1962. The first talent contest for rock bands in Seoul was organized in 1968. Besides rock and pop, trot songs remained popular.
Some Korean singers gained international popularity. The Kim Sisters, Yoon Bok-hee and Patti Kim were the first singers to debut in such countries as Vietnam and United States. The Kim Sisters became the first Korean group to release an album in the United States, performing in Las Vegas and appearing several times on Ed Sullivan's TV show. Han Myeong Suk's 1961 song "The Boy in The Yellow Shirt" was covered by French singer Yvette Giraud and was also popular in Japan.
1970s: Hippie and folk influences
At the end of the 1960s Korean pop music underwent another transformation. More and more musicians were university students and graduates who were heavily influenced by American culture and lifestyle (including the hippie movement) and made lighthearted music unlike their predecessors, who were influenced by war and Japanese oppression. The younger generation opposed the Vietnam War as much as American hippies did, which resulted in the Korean government banning songs with more liberal lyrics. In spite of this, folk-influenced pop remained popular among the youth, and local television channel MBC organised a music contest for university students in 1977. This was the foundation of several modern music festivals.
One of the leading figures of the era was Han Dae-soo, who was raised in the United States and influenced by Bob Dylan, Leonard Cohen and John Lennon. Han's song "Mul jom juso" (물 좀 주소, Give Me Water) became iconic among young people in Korea. His daring performances and unique singing style often shocked the public and later he was banned from performing in Korea. Han moved to New York City and pursued his musical career there, only returning to his home country in the 1990s. Other notable singers of the period include Song Chang-sik, Young Nam-cho and Hee Eun-yang.
1980s: The era of ballads
The 1980s saw the rise of ballad singers after Lee Gwang-jo's 1985 album "You’re Too Far Away to Get Close to" (가까이 하기엔 너무 먼 당신, Gakkai Hagien Neomu Meon Dangsin) sold more than 300,000 copies. Other popular ballad singers included Lee Moon-se (이문세) and Byun Jin-seob (변진섭), nicknamed the "Prince of Ballads". One of the most sought-after ballad composers of the era was Lee Young-hoon (이영훈), whose songs were compiled into a modern musical in 2011 titled Gwanghwamun Yeonga (광화문 연가, Gwanghwamun's Song).
The Asia Music Forum was launched in 1980, with representatives from five different Asian countries competing in the event. Korean singer Cho Yong-pil won first place and went on to have a successful career, performing in Hong Kong and Japan. His first album Chang bakkui yeoja (창 밖의 여자, Woman outside the window) was a hit and he became the first Korean singer to take to the stage at Carnegie Hall in New York. Cho's musical repertoire included rock, dance, trot and folk pop.
1990s: Development of modern K-pop
In the 1990s, Korean pop musicians incorporated partially Europop and mostly American popular music styles like rap, rock, jazz, electronica and techno in their music. In 1992 the emergence of Seo Taiji & Boys marked a revolutionary moment in the history of K-pop. The trio debuted on MBC's talent show with their song "Nan Arayo" (난 알아요, I Know) and got the lowest rating from the jury; however, the song and album of the same name became so successful that it paved the way for other songs of the same format. The song's success was attributed to its new jack swing-inspired beats and memorable chorus, as well as innovative lyrics which dealt with the problems of Korean society. Their footsteps were followed by a wave of successful hip hop and R&B artists like Yoo Seung-jun, Jinusean, Deux, 1TYM and Drunken Tiger.
In 1995, South Korean record producer Lee Soo-man founded the entertainment company, S.M. Entertainment. Former Seo Taiji & Boys Yang Hyun-suk's member formed YG entertainment in 1996, as did South Korean K-pop singer Park Jin-young established JYP Entertainment in 1997.
Idol bands (young boybands or girlbands) formed, inspired by Seo Taiji & Boys, to cater for a growing teenage audience. H.O.T. was one of the first idol boybands, debuting in 1996. Their success was followed by that of bands like Sechs Kies, S.E.S., Fin.K.L, NRG, Baby V.O.X., Diva, Shinhwa and g.o.d. The 1990s were also a successful period for underground music clubs and punk rock bands such as Crying Nut.
21st century: Rise of Hallyu
K-pop's increasing popularity forms part of Hallyu, or the Korean Wave, which refers to the popularity of South Korean culture in other countries. K-pop is increasingly making appearances on Western charts such as Billboard. The development of online social media has been a vital tool for the Korean music industry in reaching a wider audience.
|K-pop industry statistics|
|Year||Total exports in US$||YouTube views|
|2010||$84.9 million||800 million|
|2011||$180 million||2.2 billion|
|2012||$235 million||7.0 billion|
|Exports by country (US$)|
|2008||$11.2 million||$1.80 million|
|2009||$21.6 million||$2.36 million|
By the beginning of the 21st century, the K-pop idol groups that had seen success in the 90's were on the decline. H.O.T. disbanded in 2001, while other groups like Sechs Kies, S.E.S., Fin.K.L, Shinhwa, and g.o.d became inactive by 2005. Solo singers like BoA and Rain grew in success. However, the successes of TVXQ and SS501 after their debuts in 2003 and 2005, respectively, marked the resurgence of idol groups to Korean entertainment and the growth of K-pop as part of "Hallyu." The birth of second-generation K-pop was followed with the successful debuts of Super Junior (2005), Big Bang (2006), Wonder Girls (2007), Girls' Generation (2007), and Kara (2007).
During the beginning of the 21st century, K-pop idols began receiving success elsewhere in Asia: in 2002, Baby V.O.X.'s single "Coincidence" became popular in many Asian countries after it was released and promoted during the World Cup in South Korea. BoA became the first K-pop singer to reach No. 1 on the Japanese Oricon music chart and shortly afterwards, Rain had a sold-out concert to an audience of 40,000 fans in Beijing. In 2003, Baby V.O.X. topped the Chinese music charts with their Chinese single "I'm Still Loving You" from their third album Devotion, the first idol group to do so, creating a huge fanbase in China. They also charted in various music charts in Thailand. TVXQ marked the rise of K-pop boy bands in Japan. In 2008, their single "Purple Line" made TVXQ the first foreign boy band and second Korean artist after BoA to top the Oricon music chart.
Since the mid-2000s, a huge portion of the East Asian music market has been dominated by K-pop. In 2008, South Korea's cultural exports (including television dramas and computer games) rose to US$2 billion, maintaining an annual growth rate of over 10%. That year, Japan accounted for almost 68% of all K-pop export revenues, ahead of China (11.2%) and the United States (2.1%). The sale of concert tickets proved to be a lucrative business; TVXQ's Tohoshinki Live Tour in Japan sold over 850,000 tickets at an average cost of US$109 each, generating a total of US$92.6 million in revenues.
Elsewhere in the world, the genre has rapidly grown in success, especially after Psy's "Gangnam Style" music video was the first YouTube video to reach one billion views, achieving widespread coverage in mainstream media. As of November 2016, the video has 2.7 billion views. Although several attempts have been made by entertainment companies (with idols such as BoA, Wonder Girls, and CL releasing English-language singles) at breaking into the English-language market, these have not faced overall success.
As part of the Korean Wave K-pop has been embraced by the South Korean government as a tool for soft power abroad, particularly towards overseas youth. In 2014 The Economist dubbed Korean pop culture "Asia’s foremost trendsetter".
K-pop has spawned an entire industry encompassing music production houses, event management companies, music distributors, and other merchandise and service providers. The three biggest companies in terms of sales and revenue are S.M. Entertainment, YG Entertainment and JYP Entertainment, often referred to as the 'Big Three'. These record labels also function as representative agencies for their artists. They are responsible for recruiting, financing, training, and marketing new artists as well as managing their musical activities and public relations. Currently, the agency with the greatest market share is S.M. Entertainment. In 2011, together with Star J Entertainment, AM Entertainment, and Key East, the Big Three companies founded the joint management company United Asia Management.
Sales and market value
In 2011, 1,100 albums were released in South Korea. The hip-hop genre had the most representation, at two-thirds of the total albums. One-third of the albums were from a variety of other genres, including rock, modern folk, and crossover.
In 2012, the average cost of obtaining a K-pop song in South Korea amounted to US$0.10 for a single download, or $0.002 when streamed online.
In the first half of 2012, according to Billboard, the Korean music industry grossed nearly US$3.4 billion- a 27.8% increase on the previous year- and was recognized by Time magazine as "South Korea's Greatest Export".
|K-pop (in Korea) global music market rank|
|* includes albums, singles and DVDs sold|
By convention in modern K-pop, trainees go through a rigorous training system for an undetermined amount of time before debut. This method was popularised by Lee Soo-man, founder of S.M. Entertainment, as part of a concept labelled "cultural technology". The Verge described this as an "extreme" system of artist management. According to the CEO of Universal Music's Southeast Asian branch, the Korean idol trainee system is unique in the world.
Because of the training period, which can last for many years, and the significant amount of investment agencies put towards their trainees, the industry is very serious about launching new artists. Trainees may enter an agency through auditions or be scouted, and once recruited are given accommodation and classes (commonly singing, dancing, rapping, and foreign languages such as Mandarin, English and Japanese) while they prepare for debut. Young trainees sometimes attend school at the same time. There is no age limit to become a trainee and no limit to the duration one can spend as a trainee.
Korean record charts include the Korea K-Pop Hot 100 and the Gaon Singles Chart. Recently, some K-pop records have appeared on the Oricon Albums Chart of Japan and the Billboard Hot 100 of the United States. In May 2014, EXO became the third K-pop act to enter the Billboard 200 that year after 2NE1, Girls' Generation and Wonder Girls were the first K-Pop act to chart on Billboard 100. In October 2016, BTS's album Wings becomes the first Korean album to chart in the UK Album Charts, reaching #62, and the highest charting and best selling K-pop album in the Billboard 200. They also became the first Korean artist to have three entries on the Billboard 200 and first K-pop act to have an entry for more than one week on the Billboard 200. In February 2017, BTS landed their fourth album, "You Never Walk Alone," at #61 on the Billboard 200, becoming the first K-pop act to have four entries on the Billboard 200. They also became the first Korean artist to break into the Top 10 of the US iTunes sales chart with the title track "Spring Day" at #9. 
The Korean music industry has spawned numerous related reality TV shows, including talent shows such as Superstar K and K-pop Star, specialist rap competition Show Me The Money and its female counterpart Unpretty Rapstar, and many 'survival' shows, which commonly pit trainees against each other in order to form a new idol group. Examples of survival shows include Jellyfish Entertainment's MyDOL, which formed the boy group VIXX; YG Entertainment's WIN: Who Is Next, which formed the boy group WINNER; MIX&MATCH, which formed iKON; JYP Entertainment's SIXTEEN, which formed girl group Twice; Starship Entertainment's No.Mercy, which formed boy group Monsta X; Mnet's Produce 101, which formed girl group I.O.I.; and most recently, Duble Kick Entertainment's Finding Momo Land, which formed the girl group Momoland.
K-pop artists are frequently referred to as idols or idol groups. Groups usually have a leader, and the youngest group member is called the maknae (막내). The popular use of this term in Japan was influenced by boy group SS501 when they expanded their activities in the country in 2007. Its Japanese translation "マンネ" was often used to name the group's youngest member Kim Hyung-jun in order to differentiate him from their leader with a similar name and spelling, Kim Hyun-joong.
|대상||daesang||At music awards artists may receive a bonsang for outstanding music achievements. One of the bonsang winners is then awarded with a daesang, the "Grand Prize".|
|All-Kill (AK)||Referring to chart positions. An Instiz certified all-kill ("AK") occurs when an individual song sweeps all of South Korea's major music charts simultaneously, placing first on both the real-time and daily charts.|
|Perfect All-Kill (PAK)||An Instiz Perfect all-kill happens when an individual song has an all-kill and at the same time it places first on Instiz Weekly Chart.|
|mini album||Roughly equivalent to an EP, contains multiple tracks but shorter than a full-length album.|
|title track||Track that is released with a music video and promoted through live performances on televised music shows.|
|promotion||Takes place when a title track is released. Artists perform in televised music shows and interviews. Promotion on TV shows usually lasts one month, with a 'debut stage' for newcomers, a 'comeback stage' for regulars and a 'goodbye stage' at the end of the cycle.|
Appeal and fan base
Not all K-pop fans are young females, although most are; in 2012 New York magazine interviewed male adult Girls' Generation fans, who admitted to liking the group for its members' looks and personalities, citing the members' humility and friendliness towards the fans.
Many fans travel overseas to see their idols on tour, and tourists commonly visit Korea from Japan and China to see K-pop concerts. A K-pop tour group from Japan had more than 7,000 fans fly to Seoul to meet boy band JYJ in 2012, and during JYJ's concert in Barcelona in 2011, fans from many parts of the world camped overnight to gain entrance. A 2011 survey conducted by the Korean Culture and Information Service reported that there were over 3 million active members of Hallyu fan clubs.
An article by The Wall Street Journal indicated that K-pop’s future staying power will be shaped by fans, whose online activities have evolved into "micro-businesses". K-pop groups commonly have dedicated fanclubs with a collective name and sometimes an assigned colour, to which they will release merchandise. For example, TVXQ fans are known as 'Cassiopeia', and their official colour is 'pearl red'. Some of the more popular groups have personalised light sticks for use at concerts; for example, Big Bang fans hold yellow crown-shaped light sticks.
Fan clubs sometimes participate in charity events to support their idols, purchasing bags of 'fan rice' in order to show support. The rice bags are donated to those in need. According to Time, for one of Big Bang's shows, 12.7 tons of rice were donated from 50 fan clubs around the world. There are businesses in Korea dedicated to shipping rice from farmers to the venues. Another way that fan clubs show their devotion is sending lunch to idols during their schedules, and there are catering companies in South Korea specifically for this purpose.
A unique feature of K-pop fandom is the 'fan chant'. When an idol group releases a new song, fan clubs will organise a fan chant and learn it so that they can chant parts of the song or an idols' names at parts of the song during live performances.
Some idols and idol groups have faced problems from obsessive fans that indulge in stalking or invasive behaviour. These fans are known as sasaeng fans, from the Korean for 'private life', so called for their invasions of privacy. There have been accounts of extreme behaviours from fans trying to gain idols' attention as well as taxi services that cater to those wishing to follow idols. Korean public officials recognize this as a unique but serious concern.
In response to the issue, a new law introduced in February 2016 in Korea saw the penalty for stalking rise to around US$17,000 as well a possible two-year jail sentence.
Conventions and music festivals
- 2003–present: Korean Music Festival at the Hollywood Bowl in Los Angeles
- 2011–present: K-POP World Festival in South Korea
- 2012–present: KCON in California
- 2015–present: KCON in New York
- 2009–present: Philippine K-pop Convention
Social media has been instrumental in the global reach of K-Pop, particularly video-sharing site YouTube. Of the 2.28 billion worldwide K-pop YouTube views in 2011, 240 million came from the United States, more than double the figure from 2010 (94 million).
Popularity and impact
Following the lifting of import and export restrictions between South Korea and Japan in place since WWII, BoA's debut Japanese album Listen to My Heart in 2002 was the first album by a Korean artist to debut at the top of the Japanese Oricon charts and become an RIAJ-certified 'million-seller' in Japan.
On January 16, 2008, TVXQ (known as Tohoshinki in Japan) also reached the top of the Oricon charts with their sixteenth Japanese single "Purple Line". This made them the first foreign and Korean male group to have a number-one single in Japan. Since then, the Japanese market has seen an influx of Korean pop acts such as SS501, Shinee, Super Junior, Big Bang, KARA and Girls' Generation. In 2011, it was reported that the total sales for K-pop artists' increased 22.3% between 2010–2011 in Japan. Some Korean artists were in the top 10 selling artists of the year in Japan.
With remaining tension between Japan and Korea, the import of Korean culture has been met with resistance, in the form of the 'Anti-Korean Wave'. One demonstration against the Korean Wave with roughly 500 participants was broadcast on Japan’s Fuji TV to an Internet audience of over 120,000. However, the chairman of the Presidential Council on National Branding cites this resistance as proof of “how successful Korean Wave is.”
According to the Korea Foundation for International Culture Exchange's 'Korean Wave index', the top consumer in 2010 was Japan, in a list that also included Taiwan, China, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines.
Despite sharing a similar past, the Taiwanese did not carry a positive sentiment towards South Korea after 1992, which is when South Korea broke off its diplomatic relationship with Taiwan in order to pursue one with mainland China. This changed in the early 2000s as the cultural dispersion of hallyu has contributed to the reconstruction of South Korea's image among the Taiwanese. This change was in part prompted by the South Korean government, who wished to encourage goodwill between the two countries after the break of diplomacy. Now many Taiwanese have remarked that Korean popular music and Korean dramas has helped to foster a renewed interest and healthier relationship with South Korea.
K-pop has yet to dominate the Chinese market, but there has been considerable success: in 2005, Rain held a concert in Beijing with 40,000 people in attendance. The Wonder Girls won an award in the 5th annual China Mobile Wireless Music Award for the highest digital sales for a foreign artist, with 5 million digital downloads in 2010. Entertainment companies often include Chinese members in idol groups with the aim of marketing to China; S.M. Entertainment's EXO-M was an example of this. Super Junior and their sub-group Super Junior-M have had successful results on the Kuang Nan Record, CCR and Hit Fm Taiwan music charts.
In the Indian state of Manipur, where separatists have banned Bollywood movies, consumers have turned to Korean popular culture for their entertainment needs. The BBC's correspondent Sanjoy Majumder reported that Korean entertainment products are mostly unlicensed copies smuggled in from neighbouring Burma, and are generally well received by the local population. This has led to the increasing use of Korean phrases in common parlance amongst the young people of Manipur.
In order to capitalize on the popularity of K-pop in Manipur, many hairdressing salons have offered "Korean-style" cuts based on the hairstyles of K-pop boy bands. This wave of Korean popular culture is currently spreading from Manipur to the neighbouring state of Nagaland. K-pop is catching up in various other states of the country and millions of fans hold festivals and competitions in regard of the same.
In Nepal, K-pop gained popularity along with Korean dramas and films. K-pop has become influential in the Nepali music industry and K-pop music videos are often used as an accompaniment to Nepali music on YouTube and has become a popular trend in the country.
There is a thriving K-pop fanbase in Singapore, where idol groups, such as 2NE1, EXO and BTS, often hold concert tour dates. The popularity of K-pop alongside Korean dramas has influenced the beauty image of Singaporeans. Korean-style "straight eyebrows" have become quite popular among many Singaporean females and males of Chinese, Malay and Indian descent. Singaporean beauty salons have seen an increase in the number of customers interested in getting Korean-style "straight eyebrows" in recent years.
In Malaysia, among the three main ethnic groups- Malay, Chinese and Indian- many prefer to listen to music in their own languages, but the popularity of K-pop alongside Korean movies and TV series has become popular among all three ethnic groups, which Malaysian firms have capitalized upon. The popularity of K-pop has also resulted in politicians bringing K-pop idols to the country in order attract young voters.
In 2009, the Wonder Girls became the first K-pop artist to debut on the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart. They went on to join the Jonas Brothers on the Jonas Brothers World Tour 2009. In 2010, they toured 20 cities in the United States, Canada and Mexico, and were named House of Blues "Artist of the Month" for June.
In 2010, S.M. Entertainment held the SMTown Live '10 World Tour with dates in Los Angeles, Paris, Tokyo, and New York. The same year, during the 8th Annual Korean Music Festival, K-pop artists made their first appearances at the Hollywood Bowl.
Notable K-pop concerts in the United States in 2011 include the KBS Concert at the New York Korea Festival, the K-Pop Masters Concert in Las Vegas, and the Korean Music Wave in Google, which was held at Google's headquarters in Mountain View, California.
2012 marked a breakthrough year for K-pop in North America. At the start of the year, Girls' Generation performed the English version of "The Boys" on the late night talk show The Late Show with David Letterman and also on the daytime talk show Live! with Kelly, becoming the first Korean musical act to perform on these shows, and the first Korean act to perform on syndicated television in the United States. In the same year, the group formed their first sub-unit, entitled Girls' Generation-TTS, or simply "TTS", composed of members Taeyeon, Tiffany, and Seohyun. The subgroup's debut EP, Twinkle, peaked at #126 on the Billboard 200. In May, SMTown returned to California again with the SMTown Live World Tour III in Anaheim. In August, as part of their New Evolution Global Tour, 2NE1 held their first American concert in the New York Metropolitan Area at the Prudential Center of Newark, New Jersey. In November, as part of their Alive Tour, Big Bang held their first solo concert in America, visiting the Honda Center in Los Angeles and the Prudential Center in Newark. The tickets sold out in only a few hours, and additional dates were added. On November 13, the American singer-songwriter Madonna and backup dancers performed "Gangnam Style" alongside PSY during a concert at Madison Square Garden in New York City. PSY later told reporters that his gig with Madonna had "topped his list of accomplishments".
On January 29, 2013, Billboard, one of America's most popular music magazines, launched Billboard K-Town, an online column on its website that covered K-pop news, artists, concerts, and chart information.
In March of that year, f(x) performed at the K-Pop Night Out at SXSW in Austin, Texas, alongside the The Geeks, who represented Korean rock. f(x) was the first K-pop group ever to perform at SXSW. Mnet hosted its Kcon event in NY and LA in July 2016.
In March 2012, JYJ performed in Chile and Peru. When the group arrived at the Jorge Chávez International Airport in Peru for the JYJ World Tour Concert, they were escorted by airport security officials through a private exit due to safety reasons concerning the large number of fans (over 3,000). At the Explanada Sur del Estadio Monumental in Lima, some fans camped out for days in to see JYJ. In April, Caracol TV and Arirang TV jointly aired a K-pop reality show in Colombia. In September, Junsu became the first K-pop idol to perform solo in Brazil and Mexico, after the Wonder Girls in Monterrey in 2009. The concerts sold out well in advance. That year there were 70 K-pop fan clubs in Mexico, with at least 60,000 members altogether.
In January 2014, Kim Hyung-jun performed in Peru, Chile, and Bolivia, becoming the first K-pop idol to perform in Bolivia. The tour proved his popularity in the continent as both fans and the media followed him everywhere he went, causing traffic on the roads and police to be called to maintain safety. Fans were also seen pitching their tents outside the concert venue for days before the actual concert.
In February 2011, Teen Top performed at the Apolo concert hall in Barcelona. In May, Rain became the first K-pop artist to perform in Germany, during the Dresden Music Festival. JYJ also performed in both Berlin and Barcelona. Big Bang flew to Belfast and won the Best Worldwide Act during the 2011 MTV EMAs in Northern Ireland. In Poland, the K-pop Star Exhibition was held in the Warsaw Korean Culture Center. K-pop also saw a surge in popularity in Russia, where 57 dance teams took part in the K-pop Cover Dance Festival. During the second round of the competition, SHINee flew to Moscow as judges, also performing to Russian fans. The following year, Russian youths launched K-Plus, a Korean culture magazine, and the number of Russian K-pop fans was reported at 50,000.
In February 2012, BEAST held their Beautiful Show in Berlin. According to the Berliner Zeitung, many fans who attended were not just from Germany but also from neighbouring countries such as France and Switzerland. Also in February, the Music Bank World Tour drew more than 10,000 fans to the Palais Omnisports de Paris-Bercy. That year, artists such as Beast and 4Minute performed during the United Cube Concert in London, where the MBC Korean Culture Festival was also held. When SHINee arrived at the London Heathrow Airport for a concert at the Odeon West End in the same year, part of the airport became temporarily overrun by frenzied fans. The reservation system of the Odeon West End crashed for the first time one minute after ticket sales began as the concert drew an unexpectedly large response. At this time, SHINee also held a 30-minute performance at the Abbey Road Studio. The ticket demand for this performance was so high that fashion magazine Elle gave away forty tickets through a lottery, and the performance was also televised in Japan through six different channels. Also in 2012, Big Bang won the Best Fan category in the Italian TRL Awards.
Middle East and Africa
K-pop has become increasingly popular across the Middle East and Africa over recent years, particularly among younger fans. In July 2011, Israeli fans met South Korea's Ambassador to Israel, Ma Young-sam, and traveled to Paris for the SMTown Live '10 World Tour in Europe. According to Dr. Nissim Atmazgin, a professor of East Asian Studies at Hebrew University of Jerusalem, "Many young people look at K-pop as culture capital- something that makes them stand out from the crowd." As of 2012, there are over 5,000 K-pop fans in Israel and 3,000 in the Palestinian territories. Some dedicated Israeli and Palestinian fans see themselves as "cultural missionaries" and actively introduce K-pop to their friends and relatives, further spreading the Hallyu wave within their communities.
In 2012, the number of fans in Turkey surpassed 100,000, reaching 150,000 in 2013. ZE:A appeared for a fan meet-and-greet session in Dubai and a concert in Abu Dhabi. In Cairo, hundreds of fans went to Maadi Library’s stage theater to see the final round of the K-POP Korean Song Festival, organised by the Korean Embassy.
In 2011, the K-Pop Music Festival at the ANZ Stadium was held in Sydney, featuring Girls' Generation, TVXQ, B2ST, SHINee, 4minute, miss A, 2AM, and MBLAQ. There was also demand for concerts from New Zealand.
In August 2012, NU'EST visited Sydney Harbour and the University of New South Wales, as judges of a K-pop contest being held there. The following year, 4Minute were judges at the same contest in Sydney. In October, Psy toured Australia after his single "Gangnam Style" reached number one in Australia on the ARIA charts.
On May 25, 2010, South Korea responded to the alleged North Korean sinking of a navy ship by broadcasting 4Minute's single "HuH" across the DMZ. In response, North Korea affirmed its decision to "destroy" any speakers set up along the border. That year, The Chosun Ilbo reported that the Ministry of Defense had considered setting up large TV screens across the border to broadcast music videos by several popular K-pop girl groups such as Girls' Generation, Wonder Girls, After School, Kara and 4Minute as part of "psychological warfare" against North Korea. In September 2012, North Korea uploaded a video with a photo manipulated image of South Korea's current president, Park Geun-hye, performing the dance moves of "Gangnam Style". The video labeled her as a "devoted" admirer of the Yushin system of autocratic rule set up by her father, Park Chung-hee.
Since the early 2010s, several political leaders have acknowledged the global rise of Korean pop culture, most notably U.S. President Barack Obama, who made an official visit to South Korea in 2012 and mentioned the strong influences of social media networks, adding that it was "no wonder so many people around the world have caught the Korean wave, Hallyu." A few months later, U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon delivered a speech in front of the National Assembly of South Korea, where he noted South Korea's "great global success" in the fields of culture, sports and the arts, before pointing out that the Korean Wave was "making its mark on the world". This occurred a few days after U.S. State Department spokeswoman Victoria Nuland remarked in a daily press briefing that her daughter "loves Korean pop", which sparked a media frenzy in South Korea after a journalist from the country's publicly funded Yonhap News Agency arranged an interview with Nuland and described Nuland's teenage daughter as "crazy about Korean music and dance".
In November 2012, the British Minister of State for the Foreign Office, Hugo Swire, addressed a group of South Korean diplomats at the House of Lords, where he emphasized the close ties and mutual cooperation shaping South Korea–United Kingdom relations and added: "As "Gangnam Style" has demonstrated, your music is global too." In February 2013, the Vice President of Peru, Marisol Espinoza, gave an interview with South Korea's Yonhap News Agency, where she voiced her desire for more South Korean companies to invest in her country and named K-pop as "one of the main factors that made Peruvian people wanting to get to know South Korea more".
According to an article published by the international relations magazine Foreign Policy, the spread of Korean popular culture across Southeast Asia, parts of South America, and parts of the Middle East is illustrating how the gradual cessation of European colonialism is giving way and making room for unexpected soft power outside of the Western world. On the other hand, an article published by The Quietus magazine expressed concern that discussions about Hallyu as a form of soft power seems to bear a whiff of the "old Victorian fear of Yellow Peril".
In August 2016, it was reported that China planned to ban Korean media broadcasts and K-pop idol promotions within the country in opposition to South Korea's defensive deployment of THAAD (Terminal High Altitude Area Defense) missiles. The reportage of these planned regulatory measures caused an immediate negative impact on shares in Korean talent agencies, although stock prices later recovered.
Criticism and controversies
Main criticisms faced by the genre and industry as a whole include:
- Unoriginal character and plagiarism of Western music
- Cultural appropriation
- Strict training and "pre-packaging" method
- Sexualisation of both female and male idols, particularly underage idols
- Exploitation and unfair living conditions of idols
- Emphasis on visual elements at the possible expense of musical elements
- Incorrect use of English and "meaningless" lyrics
In 2002, Time reported that Korean television producers such as Hwang Yong Woo and Kim Jong Jin were arrested for "accepting under-the-table payments guaranteeing TV appearances to aspiring singers and musicians" in a bid to tackle "systemic corruption in South Korea's music business". Companies investigated included SidusHQ and S.M. Entertainment.
K-pop management companies have also been criticized for exploitation of idols through overwork and restrictive contracts, described as "slave contracts" in a BBC report. According to The Hollywood Reporter, "Korea’s entertainment business is notoriously improvisational and unregulated. In-demand K-pop stars – many of whom are teenage 'idols' – have been known to rehearse and perform without sleep." In July 2009, S.M. Entertainment was taken to court by TVXQ and a Super Junior member, who alleged that their working conditions had led to adverse health effects.
The court decision in the TVXQ lawsuit determined their contract with S.M. Entertainment void, and resultantly the Fair Trade Commission released contract templates to regulate industry conditions.
In 2014, South Korea passed a law to regulate its music industry, protecting underage idols from unhealthy labor practices and overtly sexualized performances.
Under the new law, underage stars will be guaranteed the basic rights to learn, rest and sleep, though exceptions can be made for projects requiring long-distance travel. Weekly working hours for children younger than 15 are not to exceed 35 hours, while minors aged 15-18 are limited to 40 hours (since Korean Age of Majority is 19 (actual birthday)). Minors cannot work between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. unless their guardians give consent. It will also be illegal to coerce minors into wearing revealing stage costumes or dancing sexually suggestive choreography routines.
Failure to comply with these regulations may lead to the equivalent of a US$10,000 fine.
List of K-pop artists
|This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (February 2017)|
- Laurie, Timothy (2016), "Toward a Gendered Aesthetics of K-Pop", Global Glam and Popular Music : Style and Spectacle from the 1970s to the 2000s: 214–231
- Cho, Chung-un (March 23, 2012). "K-pop still feels impact of Seo Taiji & Boys". The Korea Herald. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- "South Korea’s pop-cultural exports", The Economist
- Russell, Mark James. "The Gangnam Phenom". Foreign Policy. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
First taking off in China and Southeast Asia in the late 1990s, but really spiking after 2002, Korean TV dramas and pop music have since moved to the Middle East and Eastern Europe, and now even parts of South America.
- Anjani Trivedi (August 1, 2013). "Forget Politics, Let's Dance: Why K-Pop Is a Latin American Smash". Time (magazine). Retrieved January 9, 2014.
- Marlon Bishop (December 15, 2013). "Meet Latin America's Teenage Korean Pop Fanatics". NPR. Retrieved January 9, 2014.
- "South Korea's K-pop spreads to Latin America". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- Kember, Findlay. "Remote Indian state hooked on Korean pop culture". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
- Anugya Chitransh (June 3, 2012). "'Korean Wave' takes Indian kids in its sway". The Times of India. Retrieved January 9, 2014.
- "Korean pop culture spreads in Cairo". Egypt Independent. Retrieved April 14, 2013.
- "Egyptian-Korean ties endorsed through pop idol competition". Egypt Independent. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
- "Middle East: Korean pop 'brings hope for peace'". BBC. August 7, 2013.
- Natalie Long (December 7, 2013). "Infinite lead K-Pop invasion in Dubai". Gulf News. Retrieved January 9, 2014.
- Brown, August (April 29, 2012). "K-pop enters American pop consciousness". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 24, 2013.
The fan scene in America has been largely centered on major immigrant hubs like Los Angeles and New York, where Girls' Generation sold out Madison Square Garden with a crop of rising K-pop acts including BoA and Super Junior.
- Seabrook, John. "Cultural technology and the making of K-pop". The New Yorker. Retrieved March 4, 2013.
The crowd was older than I’d expected, and the ambience felt more like a video-game convention than like a pop concert. About three out of four people were Asian-American, but there were also Caucasians of all ages, and a number of black women.
- Chen, Peter (February 9, 2013). "'Gangnam Style': How One Teen Immigrant Fell For K-Pop Music". Huffington Post. Retrieved March 4, 2013.
It is common for Chinese teens in the U.S. to be fans of K-pop, too.
- "K-pop magazine published in Russia". Korea.net. October 15, 2012. Retrieved January 17, 2015.
- "K-pop Comes to Poland". The Warsaw Voice.
- James Russell, Mark. "The Gangnam Phenom". Foreign Policy. Retrieved October 11, 2012.
First taking off in China and Southeast Asia in the late 1990s, but really spiking after 2002, Korean TV dramas and pop music have since moved to the Middle East and Eastern Europe, and now even parts of South America.
- Yoon, Lina. (August 26, 2010) "K-Pop Online: Korean Stars Go Global with Social Media". Time. Retrieved February 20, 2011.
- "K-pop Music: For the Eyes or For the Ears?". Seoulbeats. October 1, 2011. Retrieved March 27, 2012.
- Rousee-Marquet, Jennifer. "K-pop : the story of the well-oiled industry of standardized catchy tunes". Institut national de l'audiovisuel. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
K-pop is a fusion of synthesized music, sharp dance routines and fashionable and colorful outfits.
- "NYT Draws Attention to K-Pop Idol-Making Factories". Chosun Ilbo. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- Yang, Jeff. "Can Girls' Generation Break Through in America?". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
The management firms pay for everything; leading talent house S.M. Entertainment has pegged the cost of rearing a single idol at around $3 million, which for Girls’ Generation would be multiplied by nine.
- Choi, JungBong and Roald Maliangkay (2015). K-pop – The International Rise of the Korean Music Industry. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9781138775961.
- Doboo Shim (2005). "Hybridity and the rise of Korean popular culture in Asia" (PDF). National University of Singapore.
- Eun-Young Jung (2009). "Transnational Korea: A Critical Assessment of the Korean Wave in Asia and the United States" (PDF). University of California, San Diego.
- Lyan, Irina. "Hallyu across the Desert: K-pop Fandom in Israel and Palestine". Retrieved January 19, 2015.
- Chace, Zoe. "Gangnam Style: Three Reasons K-Pop Is Taking Over The World". NPR. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
- Kallen, Stuart A. (2014). K-Pop: Korea's Musical Explosion. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 37–38. ISBN 9781467720427.
- Ramstad, Evan. "Korea Counts Down Not Just To New Year, But to New Girls' Album". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
K-pop news sites for the past couple of weeks have seemed to have some new video or bit of Girls-related gossip to chew over once or twice a day. There’s been a “drama” teaser and a “dance” teaser (that’s the one above) and countdown videos from each of the group’s nine members. ... One of the unique things about album releases by K-pop artists is that they are routinely called 'comebacks' even when there's been no evidence that the musician or group went away or, in the conventional sports usage of the term, experienced a setback or loss.
- Jin, Dal Yong; Ryoo, Woongjae (March 15, 2014). "Critical Interpretation of Hybrid K-Pop: The Global-Local Paradigm of English Mixing in Lyrics". Popular Music and Society. 37 (2): 113–131. doi:10.1080/03007766.2012.731721. ISSN 0300-7766.
- Lindvall, Helienne (April 20, 2011). "Behind the music: What is K-Pop and why are the Swedish getting involved?". The Guardian. London. Retrieved March 27, 2012.
- Xu, Tina. "The K-Pop/U.S. Music Connections You Never Knew Existed". Fuse. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
- Hampp, Andrew. "Secrets Behind K-Pop's Global Success Explored at SXSW Panel". Billboard. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
The American hip-hop community's recent interest in K-pop has helped open a lot of doors for other artists and managers Stateside, too.
- "K-Pop success for easy choreography". Retrieved June 7, 2013.
- Unterberger, Andrew (November 21, 2015). "CL Plays the Baddest Ringleader in 'Hello Bitches' Video". SPIN. Retrieved 2017-03-02.
- "Meet The Mystery Dancer Who Choreographed Justin Bieber's 'Sorry' Music Video".
- Kamarudin, Syahida (March 12, 2012). "SHINee meets Tony Testa". Yahoo! Singapore. Retrieved 2017-03-02.
- Thanh, Phan Thanh (February 17, 2015). "Asianization, Imagination, Fan Culture and Cultural Capital of Vietnamese Youth: A Case Study of K-pop Cover Dance Groups in Hanoi Vietnam". AIKS Korean Studies Conference Proceedings. 1 (0): 152. ISSN 2423-2661.
- "K-pop's slick productions win fans across Asia". Inquirer. September 21, 2011. Retrieved April 2, 2012.
- "G-Dragon Voted Best-Dressed Celebrity of the Year". The Chosun Ilbo. December 25, 2012. Retrieved 2017-03-02.
- PAPERMAG. "Jeremy Scott and CL On Moschino, Pop Culture and the Power Of Girls". PAPERMAG. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- "Bow Down To The Ultimate Besties Jeremy Scott And CL In 'Paper' Mag". MTV News. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- "Warning: This fad may kill you". Global Post. August 26, 2010. Retrieved April 2, 2012.
- "K-Pop Leads Record Earnings from Cultural Exports". The Chosun Ilbo. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
A BOK official said the increase "is related to a surge in exports of cultural products amid the rising popularity of K-pop in Europe and the U.S. as well as in Asia."
- "Korean Wave Gives Exports a Boost". The Chosun Ilbo. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
But for every $100 increase in exports of cultural products themselves, outbound shipments of processed food, clothes, cosmetics and IT products also grew $412 on average.
- Rousee-Marquet, Jennifer. "K-pop : the story of the well-oiled industry of standardized catchy tunes". Institut national de l'audiovisuel. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
The government then identified the cultural industry as the next growth driver. Numerous state research agencies were created and some projects were subsided in an attempt to boost the nation’s cultural industry.
- "'Hallyu' to highlight Korea-Indonesia ties in March". Jakarta Post. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
- "K-POP World Festival (케이팝월드페스티벌)". Visit Korea. Korean Tourism Organization. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
- K-Pop: A New Force in Pop Music, pp. 47–79
- ":JPNews 일본이 보인다! 일본뉴스포털!". Jpnews.kr. Retrieved January 13, 2012.
- "고가마사오". Doosan Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 13, 2012.
- K-Pop: A New Force in Pop Music, pp. 50–54
- 대중가요. Encyclopedia of Korean Culture (in Korean). Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- "ADD4 & KOREAN PSYCH-ROCK & FOLK-POP reissues : ADD 4". psychemusic.org. Retrieved February 27, 2012.
- ""Csomagolhattok és mehettek vissza Szöulba." Mia Kim a Quartnak" (in Hungarian). Quart.hu. September 12, 2011. Retrieved February 27, 2012.
- K-Pop: A New Force in Pop Music, pp. 54–57
- K-Pop: A New Force in Pop Music, pp. 60–61
- "DJ DOC". KBS World. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
- Hartong, Jan Laurens (2006). Musical terms worldwide: a companion for the musical explorer. Semar Publishers. p. 15. ISBN 978-88-7778-090-4.
Since the 1990s, popular genres like rap, rock and techno house have been incorporated into Korean popular music... which often emulates American models.
- K-Pop: A New Force in Pop Music, pp. 63–66
- MacIntyre, Donald (July 29, 2002). "Flying Too High?". Time. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
- Ryoo, Woongjae (2009). "Globalization, or the logic of cultural hybridization: The case of the Korean wave". Asian Journal of Communication. 19 (2): 139.
- "Breaking & Entering: The Wonder Girls". Billboard. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- "K-Pop Hot 100: BIGBANG Is Unstoppable". Billboard. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- Oliver, Christopher. "South Korea's K-pop takes off in the west". Financial Times. Retrieved October 11, 2012.
- "K-pop's second wave". The Korea Herald. Retrieved November 4, 2013.
- "Move Over Bieber — Korean Pop Music Goes Global". CNBC. July 16, 2012.
- "K-Pop Videos Set New Record on YouTube". Soompi. Retrieved November 4, 2013.
- Anita Li. "K-Pop YouTube Views Triple in Past Year Thanks to 'Gangnam Style'". Mashable. Retrieved November 4, 2013.
- "More K-pop stars looking overseas". The Korea Times. Retrieved November 4, 2013.
- "K-pop's second wave". AsiaOne. August 22, 2011.
- "Psy agency eyes China presence". South China Morning Post. Retrieved November 4, 2013.
- "K-pop opens new chapter in Asian music market". The Korea Times. July 18, 2011.
- "K-pop groups strong in Japan's music charts". The Korea Times. Retrieved November 4, 2013.
- "The first video on MTV K: BoA "My Name"". MTV K. June 26, 2006. Archived from the original on July 5, 2006. Retrieved September 29, 2008.
- K-Pop: A New Force in Pop Music, pp. 67–71
- "K-pop : the story of the well-oiled industry of standardized catchy tunes". INA Global. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
- "South Korea's K-pop craze lures fans and makes profits". BBC. April 26, 2011. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
According to South Korea's Trade and Investment Agency, income from cultural exports like pop music and TV shows has been rising by about 10% a year. In 2008, it was worth almost $2bn.
- "K-pop : the story of the well-oiled industry of standardized catchy tunes". INA Global. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
It accounts for most of K-pop albums’ overseas sales. As of 2008, Japan accounted for 68 percent of Korea’s total music industry exports in 2008, while the Chinese and U.S. markets accounted for only 11.2 percent and 2.1 percent, respectively.
- "TVXQ rakes in over $92 million in overseas concert revenues". Allkpop. Retrieved May 3, 2013.
- "Gangnam Style hits one billion views on YouTube". BBC News. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- "Gangnam Style statue built in South Korea's Seoul". BBC News. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- officialpsy (July 15, 2012), PSY - GANGNAM STYLE(강남스타일) M/V, retrieved November 3, 2016
- CHOE SANG-HUN; MARK RUSSELL (March 4, 2012). "Bringing K-Pop to the West". The New York Times. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
- "K-Pop Idols And The Formidable American Debut - KultScene". KultScene. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- Constant, Linda (September 23, 2012). "K-Pop Soft Power for the SK Government". Huffington Post.
- "South Korea pushes its pop culture abroad". BBC. November 8, 2011. Retrieved September 7, 2012.
- South Korea’s soft power: Soap, sparkle and pop The Economist (August 9, 2014). Retrieved on August 12, 2014.
- "The big 3 of Korean pop music and entertainment". The Dong-A Ilbo. July 26, 2011. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
- "United Asia Management to hold a 'talent meeting' at the 16th 'Busan International Film Festival'". Allkpop. September 8, 2011. Retrieved March 1, 2012.
- "Global Star Agency, United Asia Management". Hancinema. May 6, 2011. Retrieved March 1, 2012.
- "UAM -United Asia Management". uam.asia. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- "S.M. Entertainment (041510:KOSDAQ): Financial Statements". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved March 29, 2013.
- "YG Entertainment (122870:KOSDAQ): Financial Statements". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved March 29, 2013.
- "JYP Entertainment Corp (035900:KOSDAQ): Financial Statements". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved March 29, 2013.
- "Korean Pop, with Online Help, Goes Global". Time. August 26, 2010. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
DFSB Kollective was the first company to begin direct distribution of Korean music acts on iTunes, in 2009. It began with more than 50 Korean artists in the alternative, hip-hop and electronica genres; now there are hundreds of Korean artists available in the online music store.
- 이, 동연 (January 11, 2012). "케이팝에 왜 열광하지?"…케이팝의 두 얼굴. PRESSian (in Korean). Retrieved March 11, 2012.
- "PSY's riches from 'Gangnam Style' not made at home". Associated Press. Retrieved December 30, 2012.
South Koreans pay less than $10 a month for a subscription to a music service that allows them to download hundreds of songs or have unlimited access to a music streaming service. That makes the cost of a downloaded song about 10 cents on average. The average price for streaming a song is 0.2 cent.
- "South Korea's Greatest Export: How K-Pop's Rocking the World". Time. March 7, 2012. Retrieved April 28, 2013.
- Kwak, Donnie. "PSY's 'Gangnam Style': The Billboard Cover Story". Billboard. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
The Korean music industry grossed nearly $3.4 billion in the first half of 2012, according to Billboard estimates, a 27.8% increase from the same period last year.
- "RIAJ: Yearbook 2007, IFPI 2005 Report, p. 24" (PDF). Recording Industry Association of Japan. Retrieved February 25, 2011.
- "RIAJ: Yearbook 2013, pg 24". Recording Industry Association of Japan. Retrieved July 25, 2013.
- "RIAJ: Yearbook 2009, IFPI 2007 Report, p. 24" (PDF). Recording Industry Association of Japan. Retrieved February 13, 2011.
- "Digital Music Report 2012" (PDF). IFPI. Retrieved March 11, 2012.
- "RIAJ: Yearbook 2010, IFPI 2008 Report, p. 24" (PDF). Recording Industry Association of Japan. Retrieved November 7, 2010.
- "RIAJ: Yearbook 2011, IFPI 2009 Report: 33. Global Sales of Recorded Music by Country in 2009 (Page 23)" (PDF). Recording Industry Association of Japan. Retrieved April 25, 2011.
- "RIAJ: Yearbook 2012, IFPI 2010 Report: 31. Global Sales of Recorded Music by Country in 2010, p. 24" (PDF). Recording Industry Association of Japan. Retrieved April 26, 2012.
- Marchand, Ruby. "Trade Mission Engages Key Korean Music Professionals". Grammy Award. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
Korea is the eighth-largest digital music market in the world, larger than Sweden, China and India. It's also the first country where digital surpassed physical sales. Currently, physical is making a modest comeback as merchandise, thanks to elaborate packaging.
- "Lee Soo Man: Taking Korean Pop Culture Global". Stanford Graduate School of Business. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- Seabrook, John (October 8, 2012). "Factory Girls". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- Flatley, Joseph. "K-Pop takes America: how South Korea's music machine is conquering the world". The Verge. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- K-Pop: A New Force in Pop Music, p. 39
- Leong, Melissa (August 2, 2014). "How Korea became the world's coolest brand". Financial Post. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
- Woo, Jaeyeon (May 3, 2012). "Journey to K-Pop Star, 'I Am.' – Korea Real Time". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- "KPop's Frontiers: How Does the Big 3 Teach Foreign Languages to Their Trainees?". Kpopstarz.com. February 7, 2012. Retrieved March 1, 2012.
- "EXO-K's 'Overdose' EP Enters Billboard 200". Billboard (magazine). Retrieved June 4, 2014.
- "BTS make history as they become the first Korean band to enter the Official Albums Chart with Wings". Official Charts. The Official UK Charts Company. 18 October 2016. Retrieved 2017-02-03.
- Benjamin, Jeff. "BTS' 'Wings' Sets New U.S. Record for Highest-Charting, Best-Selling K-Pop Album". Billboard (magazine).
- Benjamin, Jeff. "BTS Extend Chart Dominance: 'Wings' Spends 2nd Week on Billboard 200, 'Blood Sweat & Tears' Debuts on Canadian Hot 100". Billboard (magazine).
- "BTS' "Spring Day," "Not Today" Reach Top 20 On US iTunes Sales Chart; "You Never Walk Alone" Also Rising". Headline Planet. 2017-02-12. Retrieved 2017-03-25.
- "Sung Si Kyung to feature debut process of idol stars through 'Mydol'". Retrieved March 28, 2012.
- "Jellyfish Male Trainees Revealed Ahead of ′My Dol′ Premiere". CJ E&M enewsWorld. Retrieved March 19, 2016.
- Sung, So-young. "TV competition aims to form a K-pop supergroup". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
- Kim, Ji-young. "Produce 101' girl group to be named 'IOI'". Kpop Herald. Retrieved April 2, 2016.
- Ko, Dong-hwan. "101 girls down to 'I.O.I'". Korea Times. The Korea Times. Retrieved April 7, 2016.
- "A Korean Idol's Life: Sweat and Sleepless Nights". Korean JoongAng Daily. February 18, 2010. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "K-pop dictionary: maknae". MTV Korea. Archived from the original on August 18, 2011. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
- "ソロでの活躍がめざましい各グループのマンネたち"Hwaiting! Hallyu News & Magazine. Retrieved.2013-02-23
- "Winners from the 21st Seoul Music Awards". Allkpop. January 19, 2012. Retrieved January 1, 2013.
- "Big Bang first to achieve 'Perfect All Kill' in 2012". Allkpop. February 26, 2012. Retrieved February 26, 2012.
- "IU achieves a certified all-kill with 'The Red Shoes'". Allkpop.com. October 9, 2013.
An Instiz certified all-kill ("AK") occurs when an individual song sweeps all of South Korea's major music charts simultaneously, placing first on both the real-time and daily charts.
- "K-Pop Culture Glossary". Soompi. 2012. Retrieved January 31, 2012.
- "Grown Men Creepily Moved by South Korean Girl Groups". New York. October 1, 2012. Retrieved October 2, 2012.
- Mahr, Krista (March 7, 2012). "K-Pop: How South Korea's Great Export Is Rocking the World". Time. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- "Latest K-Pop Invasion: The Fans". The Wall Street Journal. June 15, 2012. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "JYJ First K-Pop Band to Perform Solo in Europe". The Chosun Ilbo. October 13, 2011. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- Mukasa, Edwina (December 15, 2011). "Bored by Cowell pop? Try K-pop". The Guardian. London. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
The result, according to a survey conducted by the Korean Culture and Information Service, is that there are an estimated 460,000 Korean-wave fans across Europe, concentrated in Britain and France, with 182 hallyu fan clubs worldwide boasting a total of 3.3m members.
- Ramstad, Evan. "Behind K-pop's Pop: The Work of Fans". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
Others handle things like publishing lyrics, translations of lyrics or spreading news about K-pop groups and stars. To get a feel for this micro-business, we asked the operators of a K-pop lyrics translation site called pop!gasa.com to provide a glimpse of their role in the Korean Wave. Our takeaway: it’s as competitive as any business.
- "What's Your Name?: A Compendium of K-pop Fandoms". seoulbeats. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- "Official Fan Clubs and Fan Colors". Kpop Lists. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- 아이돌 팬 '응원 풍선 색깔찾기 전쟁' (in Korean). Hani.co.kr. June 13, 2011. Retrieved June 25, 2012.
- "'Rice wreaths' indicate that K-Pop fandoms are becoming more mature". Allkpop. August 16, 2011. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
- Mahr, Krista (March 7, 2012). "South Korea's Greatest Export: How K-pop's Rocking the World". Time. Retrieved September 13, 2012.
- "Video: Treating Your Idol to Lunch Is the True Test of Fandom". The Wall Street Journal. February 24, 2012. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "'Sasaeng Stalkers' (Part 1): K-pop fans turn to blood, poison for attention". Yahoo! Singapore. August 2, 2012. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "When an autograph isn't enough". Korea JoongAnd Daily. April 13, 2012. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "JYJ apologises over rough treatment of obsessive "sasaeng" fans". Channel NewsAsia. March 9, 2012. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "JYJ's Sasaeng fan at the center of the recorded audio clip speaks up". Allkpop. March 10, 2012. Retrieved March 15, 2012.
- "Stalkers to face harsher punishment". koreatimes. Retrieved April 21, 2016.
- Anthony Wing Kosner (December 21, 2012). "Out Of This World! Gangnam Style Hits One Billion Views And Now Even NASA's In PSY's Orbit". Forbes. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
- "K-Pop Videos Set New Record on YouTube". Soompi. January 2, 2012. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- "RIAJ 2002 million-seller list by year". RIAJ.
- "東方神起-リリース-ORICON STYLE ミュージック" (in Japanese). Oricon. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- 동방신기 오리콘 위클리 1위 아시아-남성가수 최초 (in Korean). Newsen. January 22, 2008. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "THE 22nd JAPAN GOLD DISC AWARD 2008". Recording Industry Association of Japan. Retrieved January 26, 2014.
SS501 released their first Japanese single Kokoro in 2007, debuting at the 5th spot on the Oricon chart, and moved to 3rd spot the next day. It was also chosen as an ending theme song for an anime entitled Blue Dragon. The next year in 2008, the group received the "Newcomer Award" by Japan Gold Disc Award marking the first time for Korean artists to receive this award.
- "SHINee Ranks #2 on Oricon Upon Release". May 17, 2012. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "CDシングル 月間ランキング-ORICON STYLE ランキング" (in Japanese). Oricon. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "BIGBANG Major Debut in Japan" (in Japanese). Oricon. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "How Korean Pop Conquered Japan". The Atlantic. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- 지은, 백 (February 17, 2012). "韓가수, 지난해 日서 3490억 벌었다! "소시-카라, 견인차 역할"". Sports Joseon. Retrieved March 10, 2012.
- Kim, Yeojin. "A Possibility of the Korean Wave Renaissance Construction Through K-Pop: Sustainable Development of the Korean Wave as a Cultural Industry". Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Sang-Yeon Sung (July 2010). "Constructing a New Image. Hallyu in Taiwan".
- Mendoza, Jaime (December 31, 2009). "Wonder Girls to Invade China in 2010". Asia Pacific Arts.
- "슈퍼주니어M, 중국 가요계 완전 싹쓸이". Newsis. March 8, 2011.
- "A little corner of Korea in India". BBC. October 17, 2010. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- Sugathan, Priya. "South Korean films inundate Manipur market". Daily News and Analysis. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
- "Korea in Nepal". beed. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
- Kala, Advaita (November 30, 2012). "Seoul mate to the world: What is it about the Koreans that makes them so popular?". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved December 2, 2012.
- "GOT7 To Hold Their First Solo Concert in Singapore". KpopStarz. April 10, 2016. Retrieved April 13, 2016.
- 14, Yanie // December; Reply, 2015 at 5:19 PM //. "[UPCOMING EVENT] EXO to hold two nights of concert in Singapore in January 2016". HallyuSG. Retrieved April 13, 2016.
- "Malaysian firms tap into K-Pop power". BBC. Kuala Lumpur. July 3, 2012. Retrieved December 8, 2015.
- "Asians worry about 'hallyu effect'". The Korea Times. Bangkok. November 20, 2014. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- American teenager with illness meets K-pop idols, Associated Press
- Super Junior and SHINee meet a young American girl, KOREA.com
- "South Korean Pop Sensation Wonder Girls Hits The States". Access Hollywood. Retrieved January 13, 2012.
- "Featured artist at House of Blues". House of Blues. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- "Upcoming K-Pop Concerts In The US". Soompi. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- Hong, Grace Danbi. "K-Pop Stars to Take Over Google Headquarters". Mnet. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- McCurry, Justin (September 28, 2012). "K-pop stars: the lowdown on South Korean pop". The Guardian. London. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "Girls' Generation Splinter Group Enters Billboard 200". Billboard. May 4, 2012. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "2NE1 Holds First Concert In The US". Manila Bulletin. August 20, 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
- "Big Bang adds two additional tour dates for the U.S". Allkpop. September 29, 2012. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- Kaufman, Gil. "Madonna Goes 'Gangnam Style' With Psy". MTV. Retrieved November 15, 2012.
- Bae, Soo-min (January 31, 2013). "Billboard launches K-pop column with INFINITE". The Korea Herald. Retrieved October 9, 2014.
- Benjamin, Jeff (January 29, 2013). "Billboard & Girls' Generation Welcome You to K-Town!". Billboard. Retrieved October 9, 2014.
- Carr, David (January 7, 2014). "New Leader at Billboard Sees Future in Visuals". The New York Times. Retrieved October 9, 2014.
- "f(x) Schedule at SXSW". SXSW. March 1, 2013. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Oh, Seok-min. "(Yonhap Feature) K-pop fever takes hold in Latin America". Yonhap News Agency. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Shin, Hyon-hee. "K-pop craze boosts Korea's public diplomacy". The Korea Herald. Retrieved January 28, 2013.
In Chile alone, there are about 20,000 members of 200 clubs also for Big Bang, 2PM, CN Blue, SHINee, MBLAQ and other artists. Peru is another K-pop stronghold, with nearly 8,000 people participating in 60 groups.
- "'2011 K-POP Cover Dance Festival to Celebrate the Visit Korea Year Campaign', The Second Round Contest Held Successfully in Russia and Brazil". Retrieved April 7, 2014.
- "Over 3,000 Peruvian fans gather to greet JYJ in Peru". Allkpop. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- "AFP: South Korea's K-pop spreads to Latin America". Google. June 19, 2012. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- "Colombia Getting into K-Pop Groove with Reality TV Shows". The Chosun Ilbo. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- "JYJ Charts New Territory for K-Pop Solo Act in Mexico". The Chosun Ilbo. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
- DAMIEN CAVE (September 21, 2013). "For Migrants, New Land of Opportunity Is Mexico". The New York Times. Retrieved September 23, 2013.
there are now 70 fan clubs for Korean pop music in Mexico, with at least 60,000 members.
- "Kim Hyung Jun completes his South American concert tour on a successful note". Yahoo!. January 22, 2014. Archived from the original on January 26, 2014. Retrieved January 26, 2014.
- "Kim Hyung Jun Is Greeted By Huge Kpop Fan Base In Bolivia". YouTube. Retrieved January 26, 2014.
- "Kim Hyung Jun Gathers Crowds of Fans Everywhere in Peru". Mwave. Retrieved January 26, 2014.
- (Korean)"김형준 남미 인기 이 정도? 페루공항 마비 포착". Naver. Retrieved January 26, 2014.
- "German press praises Rain at the Dresden Music Festival". Allkpop. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- Mukasa, Edwina (December 15, 2011). "Bored of Cowell pop? Try K-pop". The Guardian. London. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- "К-РОР Сover Dance Фестиваль". Muz TV. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- "SHINee in Russia on first episode of 2011 Cover Dance Festival 'K-Pop Road Show 40120′". Allkpop. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- "Schön frisiert und wohlerzogen". Berliner Zeitung (in German). February 10, 2012. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- Kleinman:, Kleinman. "KPop 'Music Bank' World Tour: Korean Star Groups Pack Paris Stadium". International Business Times. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- "'MBC Korean Culture Festival in London 2012′ gathers 2,500 fans". Allkpop. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- "SHINee's London Concert Causes a Stir". The Chosun Ilbo. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- "Big Bang Wins 'Best Fan' MTV TRL Award In Italy". MTV. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- "Park Jung Min to Hold Solo Concert in Russia". Mwave. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- "K-pop fan base continues to grow". KOREA.net. Retrieved January 20, 2013.
- "Israeli fans latch on to ever-mobile K-pop wave". JoongAng Daily. Retrieved August 31, 2012.
- "Middle East: Korean pop 'brings hope for peace'". BBC. August 7, 2013. Retrieved August 7, 2013.
- Nissim Otmazgin; Irina Lyan (December 2013). "Hallyu across the Desert: K-pop Fandom in Israel and Palestine" (PDF). Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Retrieved January 17, 2015.
- "K-POP İstanbul'u sallayacak!" (in Turkish). Milliyet. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
Türkiye’de kayıtlı 150.000 K-POP fanı bulunuyor.
- "K-pop invasion". Gulf News. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- Tusing, David. "Korean pop phenomenon ZE:A in Dubai". Gulf News. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- "Egyptian-Korean ties endorsed through pop idol competition". Egypt Independent. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- "2011 K-POP MUSIC FEST". Azn stadium. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- "Tidal wave of K-pop heads our way". The New Zealand Herald. April 26, 2012. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- "NU'EST to judge K-pop contest in Sydney". DKpopnews. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "Gangnam Style's Psy on way to Australia". news.com.au. October 2, 2012. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "Dates announced for B.A.P Australian and New Zealand 2016 Tour". helloasia. Retrieved June 26, 2016.
- "B.A.P. first K-Pop group to perform in NZ". nzherald. Retrieved June 26, 2016.
- "South Korea blasts pop music, propaganda over the border". Daily News. New York. Retrieved March 5, 2013.
- "South Korean Propaganda Blasts". Time. June 7, 2010. Retrieved March 5, 2013.
- "Girl Bands to Assist in 'Psychological Warfare'". The Chosun Ilbo. Retrieved March 5, 2013.
- "N. Korea takes 'Gangnam Style' shot at South politician". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. August 20, 2012. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
- Kwon, K. J.; Mullen, Jethro (September 20, 2012). "North Korean video evokes 'Gangnam Style' to taunt South Korean candidate". CNN. Retrieved September 25, 2012.
- "Remarks by President Obama and President Park of South Korea in a Joint Press Conference". White House. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
And of course, around the world, people are being swept up by Korean culture -- the Korean Wave. And as I mentioned to President Park, my daughters have taught me a pretty good Gangnam Style.
- "Remarks by President Obama at Hankuk University". White House. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
It’s no wonder so many people around the world have caught the Korean Wave, Hallyu.
- "United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon's Statements". United Nations. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
As is clear with the recent rise of Psy’s "Gangnam Style", the Hallyu-wave and Korean pop music, Korean culture is making its mark on the world.
- "Daily Press Briefing – October 3, 2012". United States Department of State. Retrieved March 5, 2013.
No, but I bet you my daughter does. She loves Korean pop.
- Chi-dong, Lee. "Psy-loving Nuland hopes for closer Korea-US-Japan ties". Yonhap. Retrieved March 5, 2013.
Nuland's teenage daughter was the first in the family to go crazy about Korean music and dance, dubbed K-pop
- "Speech: Anglo-Korean Society Dinner". gov.uk. Retrieved March 5, 2013.
As "Gangnam Style" has demonstrated, your music is global too.
- "(LEAD)(Yonhap Interview) Peruvian vice president hopes for further economic ties". Yonhap. Retrieved March 5, 2013.
"K-pop and soap operas have taken popularity. It was one of the main factors that made Peruvian people wanting to get to know South Korea more," Espinoza said.
- James Russell, Mark. "The Gangnam Phenom". Foreign Policy. Retrieved March 5, 2013.
More generally, it illustrates the new reality that the North-South pattern of trade and cultural exchange that has dominated the world since the ascendance of European colonialism is giving way and making room for unexpected soft power.
- Barry, Robert. "Gangnam Style & How The World Woke Up To The Genius Of K-Pop". The Quietus. Retrieved March 5, 2013.
While suspicious talk of Hallyu as 'soft power' akin to the CIA's cultural Cold War bears a whiff of the old Victorian fear of yellow peril,
- Frater, Patrick (August 4, 2016). "China Reportedly Bans Korean TV Content, Talent". Variety. Retrieved September 5, 2016.
- Fu, Eva (August 8, 2016). "K-Pop Stars Become Scapegoats in China's Protests Against Anti-Missile Deployment". Epoch Times. Retrieved September 5, 2016.
- Brzeski, Patrick (August 2, 2016). "China Takes Aim at K-pop Stars Amid Korean Missile-Defense Dispute". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved September 5, 2016.
- Chamberlain, Adrian. "Victoria songwriter compensated after melodies plagiarized by South Korean pop star". Global Calgary. Retrieved March 24, 2013.
- Dixon, Tom. "The Journey of Cultural Globalization in Korean Pop Music". e-International Relations. Retrieved March 24, 2013.
- "K-Pop's Plague of Plagiarism". Soompi. April 26, 2010. Retrieved March 27, 2012.
- Seabrook, John. "Cultural technology and the making of K-pop". The New Yorker. Retrieved March 24, 2013.
...have an Asian flavor, but the music sounds Western: hip-hop verses, Euro-pop choruses, rapping, and dubstep break
- Sherry Tucci (April 2, 2016). "When K-pop culturally appropriates". The Daily Dot. Retrieved 2017-03-01.
- Julianne Escobedo Shepherd (May 6, 2015). "K-Pop Boy Band BIGBANG's Vid for 'Bang Bang Bang' Is Actually Explosive". The Muse. Retrieved 2017-03-01.
There is also a headdress, another example of K-pop appropriation that is not so much intentionally hurtful but is such a precise example of Western culture’s various racial stereotypes consumed and blown-out that it almost seems like an avenue in which to decentralize and possibly even defang some of those.
- "The dark side of South Korean pop music". BBC. June 14, 2011. Retrieved January 6, 2012.
- "The Sexualisation of Women in KPOP - AVERRAL". AVERRAL. Retrieved April 13, 2016.
- Herald, The Korea. "Should a law ban sexualizing of K-pop teens?". www.koreaherald.com. Retrieved April 13, 2016.
- "South Korean Law to Protect Young K-Pop Stars From Sexualization, Overwork". Billboard. Retrieved April 13, 2016.
- Gr, The; Narrative. "Reading the Lolita Effect in South Korea, Part 1: The role of K-pop and the Korean media in sexual socialization and the formation of body image". The Grand Narrative. Retrieved April 13, 2016.
- Kim Inc, October 8, 2013. Web. March 16, 2015., Soyoung. "Female Empowerment or Exploitation". The Crimson. The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
- I.said.hi. "Seo Kang Joon Reveals 5urprise's Dorm Life". Soompi. Retrieved April 28, 2015.
- "How K-pop may have lowered Korean Music Standards". HelloKpop. December 1, 2011. Retrieved March 27, 2012.
- "K-pop grows on disposable 'fast music'". The Korea Times. April 12, 2011. Retrieved March 27, 2012.
- Lindvall, Helienne (April 20, 2011). "Behind the music: What is K-Pop and why are the Swedish getting involved?". The Guardian. London. Retrieved March 24, 2013.
K-Pop is a genre that sounds a bit like the Black Eyed Peas – only in Korean. A few English words are added to create meaningless song titles: Chocolate Love or Hurricane Venus, for example. Sometimes they even make up their own words, like Mirotic
- "Lost in Translation: The Reduced Role of Lyrics in K-pop". Seoulbeats. Retrieved March 24, 2013.
A fan can only take so much songs talking of the same topics or nonsensical ones before getting tired of researching up translations altogether, generalizing all K-pop songs as meaningless and lacking in depth.
- "K-pop scores a knock out with lyrics you can't forget". Korea JoongAng Daily via XinMSN. March 7, 2012. Retrieved March 27, 2012.
- "South Korean Law to Protect Young K-Pop Stars From Sexualization, Overwork". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 13, 2016.
- "Will TVXQ Stay Together?". KBS World. October 28, 2009. Retrieved October 28, 2009.
- "한경 "SM, 非정상적 활동강요" Star News. December 22, 2009. Retrieved May 1, 2012 (Korean)
- South Korea Passes Law Regulating K-Pop Industry WonderingSound.com (July 8, 2014). Retrieved on August 3, 2014.
|Look up k-pop in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to K-pop.|
- Hartong, Jan Laurens (2006). Musical Terms Worldwide: A Companion for the Musical Explorer. Semar Publishers. ISBN 978-88-7778-090-4.
- Holden, Todd Joseph Miles; Scrase, Timothy J. (2006). Medi@sia: Global Media/tion In and Out of Context. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-37155-1.
- Jung, Sun (2011). Korean Masculinities and Transcultural Consumption: Yonsama, Rain, Oldboy, K-Pop Idols. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 978-988-8028-66-5.
- Kim, Myung Oak; Jaffe, Sam (2010). The New Korea: An Inside Look at South Korea's Economic Rise. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn. ISBN 978-0-8144-1489-7.
- K-Pop: A New Force in Pop Music (PDF) (Korean Culture No. 2 ed.). Korean Culture and Information Service; Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism. 2011. ISBN 978-89-7375-166-2.