库尔勒市 · كورلا شەھىرى
|Coordinates (Korla municipal government): Coordinates:|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|• County-level city||7,219.48 km2 (2,787.46 sq mi)|
|• Urban||246 km2 (95 sq mi)|
|• County-level city||549,324|
| • Urban|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard)|
Korla, also known as Kurla or from Mandarin Chinese as Ku'erle or Kuerle, is the second largest city in Xinjiang. It is a county-level city and the seat of the Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, the largest prefecture of China.
Korla was known as Yuli (尉犁) (reconstructed pronunciation of first character: *i̯wəd) during the Han Dynasty. Yuli is said in the Hanshu or 'History of the Former Han' (covering the period 125 BCE to 23 CE), to have had 1,200 households, 9,600 individuals and 2,000 people able to bear arms. It also mentions that it adjoined Shanshan and Qiemo (Charchan) to the south.
- "He then sent the heads of the two kings of Yanqi (Karashahr) and Yuli (Korla) to the capital where they were hung in front of the residences of the Man and Yi princes in the capital (Luoyang). (Ban) Chao then appointed Yuan Meng, who was the Yanqi (Karashahr) Marquis of the Left, king (of Kashgar). The kings of Yuli (Korla), Weixu (Hoxud), and Shanguo (in the western Kuruk mountains) were all replaced."
After the rebellion of the "Western Regions" (106−125 CE), only the kings of Korla and Hoxud refused to submit to the Chinese. Ban Yong, the son of Ban Chao, along with the Governor of Dunhuang, attacked and defeated them.
Three Kingdoms era
The contemporaneous historian Musa Sayrami (1836–1917) stated that ruler Yaqub Beg of Yettishar was poisoned on May 30, 1877 in Korla by the former hakim (local city ruler) Niyaz Hakim Beg of Yarkand, although Niyaz Hakim Beg and other sources stated that his death was by suicide or in battle against the Qing dynasty.
Francis Younghusband, passed through "Korlia" in 1887 on his overland journey from Beijing to India. He described it as being prosperous and the country round about well-cultivated, with more land under cultivation than any other town he had passed. Maize seemed to be the major crop but rice was also grown. There was a small Chinese town, about 400 yards (370 m) square with mud walls about 35 feet (11 m) high and with a ditch. There were round bastions at the angles, but none at the gateway. A mile (1.6 km) south was the Turk town, but its walls were in ruins. It had one main street about 700 yards (640 m) long. "The shops are somewhat better than at Karashar, but not so good as at Turfan."
People's Republic of China
Korla was incorporated as a city on September 30, 1979.
On January 8, 1965, more than 170 Chinese Communist cadres were immolated by Mongols during an anti-Communist riot at a state farm in Korla (Kurla).
In September 2019, drone video appeared which ASPI (a defense contractors-funded Australian think-tank)  alleged as showing the mass transfer of hundreds of ethnic minority prisoners, which drew the comment "deeply disturbing" from Australian Foreign Minister Marise Payne in describing the video.
The Iron Gate Pass (Tiemen Pass) leading to Karasahr is about 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) north of the city and, as it was easily defended, playing an important part in protecting the ancient Silk Roads from raiding nomads from the north.
The Kaidu River, also known as the Konqi River or Kongque River, flows through the center of Korla, a unique feature amongst cities in Xinjiang. While the literal meaning of the Chinese name "Kongque River" is "Peacock River", the name originates from a semantically distorted transliteration of the Uyghur name "Konqi Darya" which means "Tanner's River".
Korla has a cold desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWk) with extreme seasonal variation in temperature. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −7.0 °C (19.4 °F) in January to 26.4 °C (79.5 °F), and the annual mean is 11.66 °C (53.0 °F), which is still warmer than most locales at the same latitude further east in the country. Precipitation totals only 57 millimetres (2.2 in) annually, and mostly falls in summer, as compared to an annual evaporation rate of about 2,800 mm (110 in); there are about 3,000 hours of bright sunshine annually. The frost-free period averages 210 days. The period between April and October closely resembles subtropical climates, but the continental nature is facilitated by the rapid drop of temperatures going into winter.
|Climate data for Korla (1971−2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||8.5
|Average high °C (°F)||−1.5
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−7.0
|Average low °C (°F)||−11.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−25.3
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||2.0
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||2.6||1.0||0.8||1.4||2.6||5.2||5.8||5.3||2.7||1.3||0.6||1.7||31|
|Source: Weather China|
The city's 9 townships are Tiekeqi Township, Qia'erbage Township, Yingxia Township, Langan Township, Heshilike Township, Halayugong Township, Awati Township, Tuobuliqi Township, and Puhui Township.
Township-level state farms
The city's 9 township-level state farms are Ku'erchu Horticultural Farm, Baotouhu Farm, Puhui Farm, Bayingolin Awati Farm, Bayingolin Shayidong Horticultural Farm, Bayingolin Cattle Farm, Puhui Ranch, Jingji Ranch, and Korla City Seed Farm.
Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps regiments
The city had 430,000 inhabitants in 2007, increasing with 20,000 people every year, majority of whom were Han Chinese, with a large minority of Uyghurs (about 100,000) and smaller numbers of Mongols and Huis.
Korla has long been the biggest centre in the region after Karashahr itself, having abundant water and extensive farmlands, as well as controlling the main routes to the south and west of Karashahr. Due to the discovery of oil in the Taklamakan Desert, Korla is now both more populous and developed than Karashar. PetroChina's Tarim oil fields operations are headquartered in Korla.
The city reported a fiscal revenue of 4.572 billion Yuan in 2019. In the same year, the city's GDP grew 5.6%, fixed asset investment grew 10%, the public budget grew 5%, retail sales grew 8%, and the city's CPI grew 2.3%.
The city's main attractions include the Iron Gate Pass, Lotus Pond (莲花池), Sun Island (太阳岛), Princess Peak (公主峰), Yuzigan Old City (玉子干旧城), Tuowuqi Ancient City (托务其古城), Ailike Ancient City (爱力克古城), Ku'erchu Mound (库尔楚土墩), Jiamai Mosque (加麦清真寺), and Yeyungou Ruins (野云沟遗址).
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Most recently, Hapiz had been conducting business between Kashgar and Korla (Kuerle)—a county-level city in Bayin’gholin Mongol (Bayinguoleng Menggu) Autonomous Prefecture and the XUAR’s second-largest city—several prefectures away.
- "EXCAVATIONS iv. In Chinese Turkestan". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
Large-scale works were undertaken at the site of Šikšin, half-way between the towns of Qara Šahr and Kurla, which occupies a plateau of about 15 hectares.
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- Journal of the Northwest Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. p. 43.
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