Korolyov, Moscow Oblast

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Korolyov (in English)
Королёв (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Korolev v'ezd v gorod.jpg
Entrance to the city (October 2003)
Map of Russia - Moscow Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Moscow Oblast in Russia
Korolyov is located in Moscow Oblast
Korolyov
Korolyov
Location of Korolyov in Moscow Oblast
Coordinates: 55°55′N 37°49′E / 55.917°N 37.817°E / 55.917; 37.817Coordinates: 55°55′N 37°49′E / 55.917°N 37.817°E / 55.917; 37.817
Coat of Arms of Korolyov (Moscow Oblast).svg
Flag of Korolyov.svg
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of March 2014)
Country Russia
Federal subject Moscow Oblast[1]
Administratively subordinated to Korolyov City Under Oblast Jurisdiction[1]
Administrative center of Korolyov City Under Oblast Jurisdiction[1]
Municipal status (as of May 2014)
Urban okrug Korolev Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center of Korolev Urban Okrug[2]
Head[3] Alexander Khodyrev[3]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 183,402 inhabitants[4]
Rank in 2010 98th
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)[5]
City status since 1938[6]
Previous names Kaliningrad (until 1996)[6]
Postal code(s)[7] 141060, 141062, 141065, 141067–141071, 141073–141080, 141089, 994009
Website
Korolyov on Wikimedia Commons

Korolyov or Korolev (Russian: Королёв, IPA: [kərɐˈlʲɵf]) is an industrial city in Moscow Oblast, Russia, well known as the cradle of Soviet and Russian space exploration. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 183,402.[4]

It was known as Kaliningrad (Калинингра́д) since 1938 and served as the leading Soviet center for production of anti-tank and air-defense guns. In 1946, in the aftermath of World War II, the artillery plant was reconstructed for production of rockets, launch vehicles, and spacecraft, under the guidance of Russian scientist and academician Sergei Korolev, who envisioned, consolidated and guided the activities of many people in the Soviet space-exploration program. The plant later became known as the RKK Energia; when the Vostok space vehicle was being developed, this research center was designated as NII-88 or POB 989.

Russian Mission Control Center is also located in Korolyov. Though the real control is decentralized due to security reasons, and all space aircraft may be controlled from many different locations across Russia, the historic center of control is still in Korolev, and is called FCC - Flights Control Center.

In July 1996, the city was renamed in commemoration of Sergei Korolev, the father of the Soviet/Russian space program, who died in 1966. Since 1997, Korolyov has hosted the International Space Olympics, an annual competition for young people, to promote space related research.

History[edit]

The Mission control center "ЦУП" ("TsUP") of the Russian Federal Space Agency (April 2004)
Korolyova Avenue is one of the central streets of the city
Springtime evening panoram to central part of the city.

In the 12th century, a Slavic settlement was located on the site of modern Korolyov. The settlement stood on a junction of trade routes between the Moscow and Vladimir-Suzdal principalities. After the Mongol conquests in the 13th century, the region was in decline.

The village of Podlipki had formed on the site by the 18th century, when one of the first textile factories in Russia was established there.

In 1924, the first OGPU working commune in the Soviet Union was established at Podlipki. In 1938, the Kalininsky settlement near an artillery plant (which had previously been relocated from Leningrad to better protect it in case of any future war) was granted town status and named Kaliningrad (meaning Kalinin City, after Mikhail Kalinin, but conventionally not translated in English; not to be confused with the Baltic port city also renamed Kaliningrad several years later). Over the next 3 decades the town expanded greatly as a home of rocket manufacturing for both military missiles and the Soviet space program. As such it was a closed city.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Korolyov City Under Oblast Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, Korolyov City Under Oblast Jurisdiction is incorporated as Korolyov Urban Okrug.[2]

In June 2014, Yubileyny, Moscow Oblast Town Under Oblast Jurisdiction was merged into Korolyov City Under Oblast Jurisdiction[8] and, on the municipal side, Yubileyny Urban Okrug was merged into Korolyov Urban Okrug.[2] The town of Yubileyny ceased to exist as an independent entity.[8]

Demographics[edit]

As of the 1 of January 2016, Korolyov was on the 93 place out of 1112 Russian Federation cities' based on demographics.

On the 2 of June 2014, Yubileniy city officially became a part of Korolyov. Total population of both cities concluded 220 thousand people.[4] Korolyov became third largest city based on population among cities of Moscow Region after Balashiha (428 400[4]) & Khimki (239 967[4]).

Economy[edit]

The main enterprise of the city is the RKK Energia, but there are several kinds of industry in the city. This naukograd (science city) is the place in which was built the first Youth Residential Complex in the Soviet Union. Another notable company located in the city is OAO Kompozit, which is engaged in the field of materials science.

Today the city is prosperous overall. But in the Soviet-era economy, the city typified the wide contrasts and ironic juxtapositions that arose as some aspects of life were heavily funded by the government while others remained chronically underfunded. Yuri Krotkov described in his 1967 memoir[9] how, at the same time that advanced technology was being built for space rockets, the textile plants of old Podlipki went on for decades with nearly no improvement on their 1920s equipment, and starkly impoverished workers in various hard and glamourless jobs of prerevolutionary days crossed paths, sometimes resentfully, with the skilled technicians and scientists, who were substantially better paid despite the slogans of Soviet ideology around the equal dignity of manual labourers.

Sports[edit]

The bandy club Vympel[10] has played in the Russian Bandy Supreme League, which is the second-highest division.[11] Their home arena has a capacity of 10 000.[1] A plan existed to equip the stadium with artificial ice.[12] However, the project was abandoned. Although an indoor ice hockey-sized arena entered the plans instead, the official reason given was financial problems.[13] Now Vympel only plays in the amateur league of Moscow Oblast. In 2014 a bandy federation for the city was founded.[14]

Notable people[edit]

The area was a place of elite dachas at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century. Many famous people, such as Konstantin Stanislavsky, Anton Chekhov, Valery Bryusov, Boris Pasternak, Anna Akhmatova, Isaac Levitan, Pavel Tretyakov, Marina Tsvetaeva, and Vladimir Lenin, lived here.

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Korolyov is twinned with:

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #11/2013-OZ
  2. ^ a b c d Law #53/2014-OZ
  3. ^ a b Главой города избран А. Н. Ходырев (in Russian). City of Korolyov. Retrieved September 24, 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  5. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  6. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica. Entry on Korolyov
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  8. ^ a b Law #54/2014-OZ. Additionally, the town of Yubileyny was struck from the Inventory Data of the Administrative-Territorial and Territorial Units of Moscow Oblast in August 2014.
  9. ^ Krotkov 1967, p. 76 ff.
  10. ^ "На встречу к звёздам – Вымпел (хоккейный клуб)". vimpel-bandy.ru. 
  11. ^ "КАЛЕНДАРЬ —игр Первенства России по хоккею с мячом среди команд первой лиги — на сезон 2008/09 г.г." (in Russian language).
  12. ^ https://translate.google.co.uk/translate?hl=en&sl=ru&u=http://www.rusbandy.ru/news/8922/
  13. ^ https://translate.google.co.uk/translate?hl=sv&sl=ru&u=http://www.rusbandy.ru/news/9285/
  14. ^ "グルコサミンを摂取しよう|やわたなら間違いない". korolev-bandy.com. 

↑ Population of Russian Federation by municipality from 1 January 2016. Численность населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2016 года. Таблица «31. Численность населения городов и пгт по федеральным округам и субъектам Российской Федерации на 1 января 2016 года». RAR-архив (1,0 Mб) http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2016/bul_dr/mun_obr2016.rar

Sources[edit]

  • Московская областная Дума. Закон №11/2013-ОЗ от 31 января 2013 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Московской области», в ред. Закона №72/2015-ОЗ от 5 мая 2015 г. «Об отнесении города Озёры Озёрского района Московской области к категории города областного подчинения Московской области, упразднении Озёрского района Московской области и внесении изменений в Закон Московской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Московской области"». Вступил в силу на следующий день после официального опубликования (13 января 2013 г.). Опубликован: "Ежедневные Новости. Подмосковье", №24, 12 февраля 2013 г. (Moscow Oblast Duma. Law #11/2013-OZ of January 31, 2013 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Moscow Oblast, as amended by the Law #72/2015-OZ of May 5, 2015 On Re-Classifying the Town of Ozyory in Ozyorsky District of Moscow Oblast as the Town Under Oblast Jurisdiction, on Abolishing Ozyorsky District of Moscow Oblast, and on Amending the Law of Moscow Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Moscow Oblast". Effective as of the day following the day of the official publication (January 13, 2013).).
  • Московская областная Дума. Закон №53/2014-ОЗ от 21 мая 2014 г. «О преобразовании городского округа Королёв и городского округа Юбилейный, о статусе и установлении границы вновь образованного муниципального образования», в ред. Закона №87/2014-ОЗ от 15 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменения в Закон Московской области "О преобразовании городского округа Королёв и городского округа Юбилейный, о статусе и установлении границы вновь образованного муниципального образования"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования, за исключением статей 4 и 5. Опубликован: Официальный Интернет-портал Правительства Московской области http://www.mosreg.ru, 23 мая 2014 г. (Moscow Oblast Duma. Law #53/2014-OZ of May 21, 2014 On the Transformation of Korolyov Urban Okrug and Yubileyny Urban Okrug, on the Status and the Border of the Newly Established Municipal Formation, as amended by the Law #87/2014-OZ of July 15, 2014 On Amending the Law of Moscow Oblast "On the Transformation of Korolyov Urban Okrug and Yubileyny Urban Okrug, on the Status and the Border of the Newly Established Municipal Formation". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication, with the exception of Articles 4 and 5.).
  • Московская областная Дума. Закон №54/2014–ОЗ от 21 мая 2014 г. «Об объединении городов областного подчинения Московской области Королёв и Юбилейный и внесении изменения в Закон Московской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Московской области"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: Официальный Интернет-портал Правительства Московской области http://www.mosreg.ru, 28 мая 2014 г. (Moscow Oblast Duma. Law #54/2014-OZ of May 21, 2014 On the Merger of Korolyov and Yubileyny Towns Under Oblast Jurisdiction in Moscow Oblast and Amending the Law of Moscow Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Moscow Oblast". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication.).
  • Губернатор Московской области. Постановление №123-ПГ от 28 сентября 2010 г. «Об учётных данных административно-территориальных и территориальных единиц Московской области», в ред. Постановления №252-ПГ от 26 июня 2015 г. «О внесении изменения в учётные данные административно-территориальных и территориальных единиц Московской области». Опубликован: "Информационный вестник Правительства МО", №10, 30 октября 2010 г. (Governor of Moscow Oblast. Resolution #123-PG of September 28, 2010 On the Inventory Data of the Administrative-Territorial and Territorial Units of Moscow Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #252-PG of June 26, 2015 On Amending the Inventory Data of the Administrative-Territorial and Territorial Units of Moscow Oblast. ).
  • Krotkov, Yuri (1967), I Am From Moscow: A View of the Russian Miracle, E.P. Dutton, OCLC 855279920. 

Further reading[edit]

  • "People duty and honor" – A. A. Shmelev, "libris", 1996. ISBN 5-86568-133-3
  • "People duty and honor" – A. A. Shmelev, the second book. M: Editorial Board "Moscow journal", 1998.