Kosmos 2044

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Kosmos 2044 / Bion 9
Mission type Bioscience
Operator Institute of Biomedical Problems / NASA / ESA
COSPAR ID 1989-075A
SATCAT № 20242
Mission duration 14 days
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft type Bion
Manufacturer TsSKB Progress
Launch mass 6,000 kilograms (13,000 lb)
Start of mission
Launch date 15 September 1989, 06:30:00 (1989-09-15UTC06:30Z) UTC
Rocket Soyuz-U
Launch site Plesetsk 41/1
End of mission
Recovered by TK (HF 239.500 MHz)
Landing date 29 September 1989, 02:53 (1989-09-29UTC02:54) UTC
Landing site Mirny, Soviet Russia, USSR
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Regime LEO
Eccentricity 0.0028181
Perigee 183 kilometres (114 mi)
Apogee 220 kilometres (140 mi)
Inclination 82.3202º
Period 89.3 minutes
RAAN 102.1072 degress
Mean anomaly 300.1368 degress
Mean motion 16.26505095
Epoch 28 September 1989,
22:03:30 UTC[1]
Revolution number 221

Bion 9, or Cosmos 2044 (in Russian: Бион 9, Космос 2044) was a biomedical research mission involving nine countries (Soviet Union, Canada, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom and United States) and European Space Agency. It was part of the Bion program.

Mission[edit]

Eighty experiments were conducted in such categories as motion sickness, reproduction and regeneration, immunology, and readaption to a normal gravity environment. A number of different biological specimens were used, including rodents.

The joint U.S./Soviet Union experiments were conducted on 2 rhesus monkeys and 10 male Wistar rats. The biological payload also included cell cultures (Escherichia coli). The prime occupants were two macaque monkeys. The 2.3m diameter descent sphere was successfully recovered after 14 days, but a failure in the thermal control system resulted in the deaths of some of the specimens.

Scientific Experiments[edit]

The Bion 9 mission was composed of 30 scientific experiments:

  • Bone Biochemistry and Mineral Distribution in the Femurs of Rats: Determine the biochemical nature of the mineralization defects in the femurs of young rats after spaceflight. The institutions participating in this experiment were NASA Ames Research Center, University of North Carolina, University of Connecticut, University of California, Santa Cruz, University College in London and IMBP (Institute of Biomedical Problems in Moscow).
  • Biomechanical and Morphological Alteration of Intramuscular Connective Tissues: The objective of this experiment was to characterize the structural and material properties of cortical and trabecular bone samples, tendons and intervertebral disks; and to correlate the biomechanical properties of these tissues to the type and quality of structural proteins. The institutions participating in this experiment were University of Iowa, West Virginia University, University of Wisconsin-Madison and IMBP.
  • Gravity and Skeletal Growth: The objective of this experiment was to study bone cells, bone matrix and mineral characteristics, bone cell kinetics, and bone blood supply. The institutions participating in this experiment were NASA Ames Research Center, University of Indiana, Columbia University, University of Saint Louis and IMBP.
  • Mineral Distribution and Balance in Rats during Space Flight: The objective of this experiment was to determine the abundance and distribution of mineral components and protein (osteocalcin) within a vertebra; and to determine absorption and excretion of manganese, magnesium and zinc and their relationship to calcium balance and bone osteocalcin. The institutions participating in this experiment were University of California in San Francisco and IMBP.
  • Morphometric and EM Analyses of Tibial Epiphyseal Plates: The objective of this experiment was to measure the growth plate of the tibia as an index of its longitudinal growth, and to study the ultrastructure and chemical composition of the growth plate. The institutions participating in this experiment were University of Texas Medical School and IMBP.
  • Metabolic and Morphologic Properties of Muscle Fibers and Motor Neurons: The objective of this experiment was to study microgravity related muscular atrophy effects in various types of muscle and in spinal motor neurons, with emphasis on the metabolic changes. The institutions participating in this experiment were UC Los Angeles, University of Alberta in the Canada, University of Kansas, University of Wisconsin and IMBP.
  • Skeletal Muscle Atrophy: The objective of this experiment was to determine the morphological and biochemical responses of various types of muscles to microgravity. The institutions participating in this experiment were the University of Louisville in the Kentucky and IMBP.
  • Investigation of Microgrovity Induced Nerve and Muscle Breakdown: This experiment was a morphological, histochemical, immunocytochemical, and biochemical investigation of microgravity induced nerve and muscle breakdown. Its main objective was to study, by light and electron microscopy, the long term effects of microgravity and early readaptation to gravity on the structure of nerve and skeletal muscles; and to study the biochemistry of muscle protein breakdown. The institutions participating in this experiment were San Jose State University, Medical College of Wisconsin, IMBP and University of Sydney.
  • Myosin Isoform Expression in Rodent Skeletal Muscle: The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of microgravity and contractile protein expression in antigravity and non-antigravity rodent skeletal muscle. The institutions participating in this experiment were University of California, Irvine and IMBP.
  • Messenger RNA Levels in Skeletal and Smooth Muscles: The objective of this experiment was to measure certain messenger RNA levels in various skeletal muscles and intestinal smooth muscle as an index of protein synthesis. Participated in the experiment the University of Texas Medical School and IMBP.
  • Measurement of Heart Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Concentrations: The objective of this experiment was to measure the cardiac hormone, which plays a role in water and salt balance, in cardiac tissue of rats exposed to spaceflight. Participed in the experiment the IMBP and NASA Ames Research Center.
  • Morphological and Biochemical Examination of Heart Tissue: The objective of this experiment was to determine microgravity effects on rodent heart tissue (ventricle). Participed in the experiment the University of Chicago, University of California, Irvine, University of Texas Medical School, the Ames Research Center, Baylor University and IMBP.
  • Hepatic Function in Rats After Space Flight: The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of microgravity on liver and plasma constituents, on the ability of the liver to metabolize food stuffs and foreign substances, and on liver histology. The institutions participating in this experiment were Emory University, University of Louisville and IMBP.
  • Erythroid Colony Formation In Vitro and Erythropoietin Determinations: The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of microgravity on the red blood cell production of rodents. Participed in the experiment the University of Tennessee, the Institute of Developmental Biology (U.S.S.R.), the Institute of Biophysics (Czechoslovakia) and IMBP.
  • Rat Testis Morphology and Physiology: The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of microgravity on rodent testis physiology. The institutions participating in this experiment were IMBP, Colorado State University, Columbia University, Pennsylvania State University and Johns Hopkins University.
  • Structural Changes and Cell Turnover in the Rats Small Intestine: The objective of this experiment was to determine the structural changes and cell turnover in the small intestines of rats as a result of spaceflight. Participed in the experiment the Colorado State University and IMBP.
  • Effects of Muscle Atrophy on Motor End Plates: The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of spaceflight on neurotransmitter receptors of the brain and spinal cord, and on the morphology and histochemistry of nerve-muscle junctions. Specifically, it studied the muscarinic and gaba (benzodiazepine) receptors in the sensory-motor cortex and spinal cord. The institutions participating in this experiment were the Ames Research Center and IMBP.
  • Pineal Physiology in Microgravity and Its Relation to Gonadal Function: The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of microgravity on selected pineal gland neurotransmitters associated with rodent circadian rhythm control and correlate this with testis function. Participed in the experiment the IMBP, the San Jose State University and the Florida A&M University.
  • Pituitary Oxytocin and Vasopressin Content: The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of microgravity on two pituitary hormones (oxytocin and vasopressin) involved in water balance. Participed in the experiment the Ames Research Center and IMBP.
  • Study of the Effect of Microgravity on Enzymes: The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of microgravity on 1) metabolic enzymes of type I, IIA, and IIB muscle fibers; and on 2) metabolic enzymes, neurotransmitter amino acids, and neurotransmitter associated enzymes in selected regions of the central nervous system. Participed in the experiment the Washington University and IMBP.
  • Growth Hormone Regulation, Synthesis and Secretion in Microgravity: The objective of this experiment was to study growth hormone physiology in rodents during spaceflight. The institutions participating in this experiment were Pennsylvania State University, IMBP, Ames Research Center and Salk Institute of Biological Studies.
  • Effect of Space Flight on Level and Function of Immune Cells: The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of spaceflight on various immunological parameters using rat spleen, bone marrow cells and lymphocytes. Participed the NASA Johnson Space Center, Pennsylvania State University, University of Louisville and IMBP.
  • Histologic Examination of Lung Tissue: The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of microgravity on rat lung tissue. Participed the University of California in San Diego and IMBP.
  • Rodent Tissue Repair: The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of microgravity on the repair of skin connective tissue and skeletal muscle. The institutions participating in this experiment were the University of Kansas, IMBP, West Virginia University and the University of Wisconsin.
  • Adaptation of Optokinetic Nystagmus to Microgravity: The objective of this experiment was to study primate eye movement responses in an upright position and at various angles of tilt, before and after spaceflight. The institutions participating in this experiment were Brooklyn College in New York, Mount Sinai Medical Center and IMBP.
  • Studies of Vestibular Primary Afferents In Normal, Hyper- and Hypogravity: The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of microgravity on a primates vestibular system by measuring brain and eye movement responses to rotational stimuli preflight and postflight. Participed in the experiment University of Texas Medical School and IMBP.
  • Functional Neuromuscular Adaption to Spaceflight: The objective of this experiment was to study primate electromyographic activity (EMG) and to determine its importance to the maintenance of normal muscle properties. The biochemical and morphological effects of microgravity on muscles was also studied. Participed in the experiment UCLA, IMBP and Moscow Medical Institute.
  • Biological Rhythm and Temperature Regulation: The objective of this experiment was to determine the functioning of a primate's circadian rhythm and thermoregulatory systems. Participed in the experiment the University of California, Davis and IMBP.
  • Rhesus Monkey Metabolism during Spaceflight: The objective of this experiment was to determine the metabolic rates of primates during spaceflight. Participed in the experiment the University of California, Davis and IMBP.
  • Radiation Dosimetry and Spectrometry: Passive Systems: The objective of this experiment was to conduct a set of radiation measurements with passive detectors in order to study high and low energy neutrons, various flux and energy spectra, and the attenuation of space radiation as a function of shielding. The institutions participating in this experiment were the Marshall Space Flight Center, University of San Francisco and IMBP.[2]

Details[edit]

NSSDC ID
1989-075A[3]
Other Names
  • Biocosmos 9
  • Cosmos 2044
  • 20242
Launch Date/Time
1989-09-15 at 06:30:00 UTC
On-orbit Dry Mass
6000 kg

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chris Peat. COSMOS 2044. Heavens Above. Retrieved 2016-06-18.
  2. ^ Bion 9 Experiments. NASA NSSDC Master Catlog. Retrieved 2016-06-20.
  3. ^ "NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details". Nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. 2013-08-16. Retrieved 2014-03-12. 

External links[edit]