Jump to content


Coordinates: 42°35′N 21°00′E / 42.583°N 21.000°E / 42.583; 21.000
Page extended-protected
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Kosova)

Republic of Kosovo
  • Republika e Kosovës (Albanian)
  • Република Косово / Republika Kosovo (Serbian)
Anthem: Himni i Republikës së Kosovës
"Anthem of the Republic of Kosovo"
Location of Kosovo (green)
Location of Kosovo (green)
and largest city
42°40′N 21°10′E / 42.667°N 21.167°E / 42.667; 21.167
Official languagesAlbanian
Regional languages
Ethnic groups
  • Kosovar, Kosovan
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Vjosa Osmani
Albin Kurti
Glauk Konjufca
31 January 1946
2 July 1990
9 June 1999
10 June 1999
17 February 2008
10 September 2012
19 April 2013
• Total
10,887[6] km2 (4,203 sq mi)
• Water (%)
• 2024 census
Neutral decrease 1,586,659[8]
• Density
146/km2 (378.1/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2024 estimate
• Total
Increase $29.719 billion[9] (148th)
• Per capita
Increase $16,775[9] (100th)
GDP (nominal)2024 estimate
• Total
Increase $11.318 billion[9] (155th)
• Per capita
Increase $6,389[9] (104th)
Gini (2017)Negative increase 29.0[10]
HDI (2021)Increase 0.762[11]
CurrencyEuro ()b (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+383
ISO 3166 codeXK
Internet TLD.xkc (proposed)
  1. Pristina is the capital of Kosovo and its seat of government.[12][13] A separate law recognises Prizren as the historic capital of Kosovo.[13]
  2. The Euro is the official currency in Kosovo even though Kosovo is not a formal member of the eurozone.[14][15][16]
  3. XK is a "user assigned" ISO 3166 code not designated by the standard, but used by the European Commission, Switzerland, the Deutsche Bundesbank and other organisations. However, ISO 3166-2:RS-KM remains in use.

Kosovo,[a] officially the Republic of Kosovo,[b] is a country in Southeast Europe with partial diplomatic recognition. Kosovo lies landlocked in the centre of the Balkans, bordered by Serbia to the north and east, North Macedonia to the southeast, Albania to the southwest, and Montenegro to the west. Most of central Kosovo sits on the plains of Metohija and the Kosovo field. The Accursed Mountains and Šar Mountains rise in the southwest and southeast, respectively. Kosovo's capital and largest city is Pristina.

The Dardani tribe emerged in Kosovo and established the Kingdom of Dardania in the 4th century BC. It was later annexed by the Roman Empire in the 1st century BC. The territory remained in the Byzantine Empire, facing Slavic migrations from the 6th-7th century AD. Control shifted between the Byzantines and the First Bulgarian Empire. In the 13th century, Kosovo became integral to the Serbian medieval state and the seat of the Serbian Orthodox Church. Ottoman expansion in the Balkans in the late 14th and 15th century led to the decline and fall of the Serbian Empire; the Battle of Kosovo of 1389 is considered to be one of the defining moments, where a Serbian-led coalition consisting of various ethnicities fought against the Ottoman Empire. Various dynasties, mainly the Branković, would govern Kosovo for a significant portion of the period following the battle. The Ottoman Empire fully conquered Kosovo after the Second Battle of Kosovo, ruling for nearly five centuries until 1912. Kosovo was the center of the Albanian Renaissance and experienced the Albanian revolts of 1910 and 1912. After the Balkan Wars (1912–1913), it was ceded to the Kingdom of Serbia and in 1918 it became an Autonomous Province within Yugoslavia. Tensions between Kosovo's Albanian and Serb communities simmered through the 20th century and occasionally erupted into major violence, culminating in the Kosovo War of 1998 and 1999, which resulted in the withdrawal of the Yugoslav army and the establishment of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo.

Kosovo unilaterally declared its independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008,[17] and has since gained diplomatic recognition as a sovereign state by 104 member states of the United Nations. Although Serbia does not officially recognise Kosovo as a sovereign state and continues to claim it as its constituent Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija, it accepts the governing authority of the Kosovo institutions as a part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement.[18]

Kosovo is a developing country, with an upper-middle-income economy. It has experienced solid economic growth over the last decade as measured by international financial institutions since the onset of the financial crisis of 2007–2008. Kosovo is a member of the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, EBRD, Venice Commission, the International Olympic Committee, and has applied for membership in the Council of Europe, UNESCO, Interpol, and for observer status in the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. In December 2022, Kosovo filed a formal application to become a member of the European Union.[19]



The name Kosovo is of South Slavic origin. Kosovo (Serbian Cyrillic: Косово) is the Serbian neuter possessive adjective of kos (кос), 'blackbird',[20][21] an ellipsis for Kosovo Polje, 'Blackbird Field', the name of a karst field situated in the eastern half of today's Kosovo and the site of the 1389 Battle of Kosovo Field.[22] The name of the karst field was for the first time applied to a wider area when the Ottoman Vilayet of Kosovo was created in 1877.

The entire territory that corresponds to today's country is commonly referred to in English simply as Kosovo and in Albanian as Kosova (definite form) or Kosovë (indefinite form, pronounced [kɔˈsɔvə]). In Serbia, a formal distinction is made between the eastern and western areas of the country; the term Kosovo (Косово) is used for the eastern part of Kosovo centred on the historical Kosovo Field, while the western part of the territory of Kosovo is called Metohija (Albanian: Dukagjin). Thus, in Serbian the entire area of Kosovo is referred to as Kosovo and Metohija.[23]

Dukagjini or Dukagjini plateau (Albanian: 'Rrafshi i Dukagjinit') is an alternative name for Western Kosovo, having been in use since the 15th-16th century as part of the Sanjak of Dukakin with its capital Peja, and is named after the medieval Albanian Dukagjini family.[24]

Modern usage

Some Albanians also prefer to refer to Kosovo as Dardania, the name of an ancient kingdom and later Roman province, which covered the territory of modern-day Kosovo. The name is derived from the ancient tribe of the Dardani, which is considered be related to the Proto-Albanian term dardā, which means "pear" (Modern Albanian: dardhë).[22][25] The former Kosovo President Ibrahim Rugova had been an enthusiastic backer of a "Dardanian" identity, and the Kosovar presidential flag and seal refer to this national identity. However, the name "Kosova" remains more widely used among the Albanian population. The flag of Dardania remains in use as the official Presidential seal and standard and is heavily featured in the institution of the presidency of the country.

The official conventional long name, as defined by the constitution, is Republic of Kosovo.[26] Additionally, as a result of an arrangement agreed between Pristina and Belgrade in talks mediated by the European Union, Kosovo has participated in some international forums and organisations under the title "Kosovo*" with a footnote stating, "This designation is without prejudice to positions on status, and is in line with UNSC 1244 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo declaration of independence". This arrangement, which has been dubbed the "asterisk agreement", was agreed in an 11-point arrangement on 24 February 2012.[27]


The strategic position including the abundant natural resources were favorable for the development of human settlements in Kosovo, as is highlighted by the hundreds of archaeological sites identified throughout its territory.[28]

Stone Age

Neolithic Goddess on the Throne is one of the most significant archaeological artifacts of Kosovo and has been adopted as the symbol of Pristina.

Since 2000, the increase in archaeological expeditions has revealed many, previously unknown sites. The earliest documented traces in Kosovo are associated to the Stone Age; namely, indications that cave dwellings might have existed, such as Radivojce Cave near the source of the Drin River, Grnčar Cave in Viti municipality and the Dema and Karamakaz Caves in the municipality of Peja.

The earliest archaeological evidence of organised settlement, which have been found in Kosovo, belong to the Neolithic Starčevo and Vinča cultures.[29] Vlashnjë and Runik are important sites of the Neolithic era with the rock art paintings at Mrrizi i Kobajës near Vlashnjë being the first find of prehistoric art in Kosovo.[30] Amongst the finds of excavations in Neolithic Runik is a baked-clay ocarina, which is the first musical instrument recorded in Kosovo.[29]

Classical antiquity

Kingdom of Dardania in the 3rd century BCE.

The first archaeological expedition in Kosovo was organised by the Austro-Hungarian army during the World War I in the Illyrian tumuli burial grounds of Nepërbishti within the district of Prizren.[28]

The beginning of the Bronze Age coincides with the presence of tumuli burial grounds in western Kosovo, like the site of Romajë.[28]

The Dardani were the most important Paleo-Balkan tribe in the region of Kosovo. A wide area which consists of Kosovo, parts of Northern Macedonia and eastern Serbia was named Dardania after them in classical antiquity, reaching to the Thraco-Illyrian contact zone in the east. In archaeological research, Illyrian names are predominant in western Dardania, while Thracian names are mostly found in eastern Dardania.

Thracian names are absent in western Dardania, while some Illyrian names appear in the eastern parts. Thus, their identification as either an Illyrian or Thracian tribe has been a subject of debate, the ethnolinguistic relationship between the two groups being largely uncertain and debated itself as well. The correspondence of Illyrian names, including those of the ruling elite, in Dardania with those of the southern Illyrians suggests a thracianization of parts of Dardania.[31] The Dardani retained an individuality and continued to maintain social independence after Roman conquest, playing an important role in the formation of new groupings in the Roman era.[32]

Roman period

During Roman rule, Kosovo was part of two provinces, with its western part being part of Praevalitana, and the vast majority of its modern territory belonging to Dardania. Praevalitana and the rest of Illyria was conquered by the Roman Republic in 168 BC. On the other hand, Dardania maintained its independence until the year 28 BC, when the Romans, under Augustus, annexed it into their Republic.[33][34] Dardania eventually became a part of the Moesia province.[35] During the reign of Diocletian, Dardania became a full Roman province and the entirety of Kosovo's modern territory became a part of the Diocese of Moesia, and then during the second half of the 4th century, it became part of the Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum.[36]: 548 

Ruins of Ancient Ulpiana situated southeast of Pristina. The city, built by Trajan, was an important political, cultural, and economic center of the Roman province of Dardania.

During Roman rule, a series of settlements developed in the area, mainly close to mines and to the major roads. The most important of the settlements was Ulpiana,[37] which is located near modern-day Gračanica. It was established in the 1st century AD, possibly developing from a concentrated Dardanian oppidum, and then was upgraded to the status of a Roman municipium at the beginning of the 2nd century during the rule of Trajan.[38][39] Ulpiana became especially important during the rule of Justinian I, after the Emperor rebuilt the city after it had been destroyed by an earthquake and renamed it to Iustinianna Secunda.[40][41]

Other important towns that developed in the area during Roman rule were Vendenis, located in modern-day Podujevo; Viciano, possibly near Vushtrri; and Municipium Dardanorum, an important mining town in Leposavić. Other archeological sites include Çifllak in Western Kosovo, Dresnik in Klina, Pestova in Vushtrri, Vërban in Klokot, Poslishte between Vërmica and Prizren, Paldenica near Hani i Elezit, as well as Nerodimë e Poshtme and Nikadin near Ferizaj. The one thing all the settlements have in common is that they are located either near roads, such as Via Lissus-Naissus, or near the mines of North Kosovo and eastern Kosovo. Most of the settlements are archaeological sites that have been discovered recently and are being excavated.

It is also known that the region was Christianised during Roman rule, though little is known regarding Christianity in the Balkans in the three first centuries AD.[42] The first clear mention of Christians in literature is the case of Bishop Dacus of Macedonia, from Dardania, who was present at the First Council of Nicaea (325).[43] It is also known that Dardania had a Diocese in the 4th century, and its seat was placed in Ulpiana, which remained the episcopal center of Dardania until the establishment of Justiniana Prima in 535 AD.[44][39] The first known bishop of Ulpiana is Machedonius, who was a member of the council of Serdika. Other known bishops were Paulus (synod of Constantinople in 553 AD), and Gregentius, who was sent by Justin I to Ethiopia and Yemen to ease problems among different Christian groups there.[44]

Middle Ages: between Byzantine and Slavic rule

In the next centuries, Kosovo was a frontier province of the Roman, and later of the Byzantine Empire, and as a result it changed hands frequently. The region was exposed to an increasing number of raids from the 4th century CE onward, culminating with the Slavic migrations of the 6th and 7th centuries. Toponymic evidence suggests that Albanian was probably spoken in Kosovo prior to the Slavic settlement of the region.[45][46] The overwhelming presence of towns and municipalities in Kosovo with Slavic in their toponymy suggests that the Slavic migrations either assimilated or drove out population groups already living in Kosovo.[47]

There is one intriguing line of argument to suggest that the Slav presence in Kosovo and southernmost part of the Morava valley may have been quite weak in the first one or two centuries of Slav settlement. Only in the ninth century can the expansion of a strong Slav (or quasi-Slav) power into this region be observed. Under a series of ambitious rulers, the Bulgarians pushed westwards across modern Macedonia and eastern Serbia, until by the 850's they had taken over Kosovo and were pressing on the border of Serbian Principality.[48]

The First Bulgarian Empire acquired Kosovo by the mid-9th century, but Byzantine control was restored by the late 10th century. In 1072, the leaders of the Bulgarian Uprising of Georgi Voiteh traveled from their center in Skopje to Prizren and held a meeting in which they invited Mihailo Vojislavljević of Duklja to send them assistance. Mihailo sent his son, Constantine Bodin with 300 of his soldiers. After they met, the Bulgarian magnates proclaimed him "Emperor of the Bulgarians".[49] Demetrios Chomatenos is the last Byzantine archbishop of Ohrid to include Prizren in his jurisdiction until 1219.[50] Stefan Nemanja had seized the area along the White Drin in 1185 to 1195 and the ecclesiastical split of Prizren from the Patriarchate in 1219 was the final act of establishing Nemanjić rule. Konstantin Jireček concluded, from the correspondence of archbishop Demetrios of Ohrid from 1216 to 1236, that Dardania was increasingly populated by Albanians and the expansion started from Gjakova and Prizren area, prior to the Slavic expansion.[51]

Gračanica Monastery, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Visoki Dečani Monastery, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

During the 13th and 14th centuries, Kosovo was a political, cultural and religious centre of the Serbian Kingdom.[52] In the late 13th century, the seat of the Serbian Archbishopric was moved to Peja, and rulers centred themselves between Prizren and Skopje,[53] during which time thousands of Christian monasteries and feudal-style forts and castles were erected,[54] with Stefan Dušan using Prizren Fortress as one of his temporary courts for a time. When the Serbian Empire fragmented into a conglomeration of principalities in 1371, Kosovo became the hereditary land of the House of Branković.[52][55] During the late 14th and early 15th centuries, parts of Kosovo, the easternmost area located near Pristina, were part of the Principality of Dukagjini, which was later incorporated into an anti-Ottoman federation of all Albanian principalities, the League of Lezhë.[56]

Medieval Monuments in Kosovo is a combined UNESCO World Heritage Site consisting of four Serbian Orthodox churches and monasteries in Deçan, Peja, Prizren and Gračanica. The constructions were founded by members of the Nemanjić dynasty, a prominent dynasty of mediaeval Serbia.[57]

Ottoman rule

The Imperial Mosque of Pristina built by Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror, 1461


In 1389, as the Ottoman Empire expanded northwards through the Balkans, Ottoman forces under Sultan Murad I met with a Christian coalition led by Moravian Serbia under Prince Lazar in the Battle of Kosovo. Both sides suffered heavy losses and the battle was a stalemate and it was even reported as a Christian victory at first, but Serbian manpower was depleted and de facto Serbian rulers could not raise another equal force to the Ottoman army.[58][59][60][61]

Different parts of Kosovo were ruled directly or indirectly by the Ottomans in this early period. The medieval town of Novo Brdo was under Lazar's son, Stefan who became a loyal Ottoman vassal and instigated the downfall of Vuk Branković who eventually joined the Hungarian anti-Ottoman coalition and was defeated in 1395–96. A small part of Vuk's land with the villages of Pristina and Vushtrri was given to his sons to hold as Ottoman vassals for a brief period.[62]

Control and Islamisation

By 1455–57, the Ottoman Empire assumed direct control of all of Kosovo and the region remained part of the empire until 1912. During this period, Islam was introduced to the region. As Ottoman rule spread, Christian Serbs fled Kosovo to leave westwards and northwards causing the population of Kosovo to fall dramatically.[63] The continuous emigration from Kosovo reached its peak at the Great Migrations of the Serbs, which included some Christian Albanians.[64] To compensate for the population loss, the Turks encouraged settlement of non-Slav Muslim Albanians in the wider region of Kosovo.[65][66][67][68][69] By the end of the 18th century, Kosovo would attain an Albanian majority - with Peja, Prizren, Prishtina becoming especially important towns for the local Muslim population.[67][70][71][72]

Although initially stout opponents of the advancing Turks, Albanian chiefs ultimately came to accept the Ottomans as sovereigns. The resulting alliance facilitated the mass conversion of Albanians to Islam. Given that the Ottoman Empire's subjects were divided along religious (rather than ethnic) lines, the spread of Islam greatly elevated the status of Albanian chiefs. Centuries earlier, Albanians of Kosovo were predominantly Christian and Albanians and Serbs for the most part co-existed peacefully. The Ottomans appeared to have a more deliberate approach to converting the Roman Catholic population who were mostly Albanians in comparison with the mostly Serbian adherents of Eastern Orthodoxy, as they viewed the former less favorably due to its allegiance to Rome, a competing regional power.[69]

Serbian and Albanian nationalism, 19th century-1912

The city of Prizren was the cultural and intellectual centre of Kosovo during the Ottoman period in the Middle Ages and is now the historic capital of Kosovo.

In the 19th century, there was an awakening of ethnic nationalism throughout the Balkans. The underlying ethnic tensions became part of a broader struggle of Christian Serbs against Muslim Albanians.[59] The ethnic Albanian nationalism movement was centred in Kosovo. In 1878 the League of Prizren (Lidhja e Prizrenit) was formed, a political organisation that sought to unify all the Albanians of the Ottoman Empire in a common struggle for autonomy and greater cultural rights,[73] although they generally desired the continuation of the Ottoman Empire.[74] The League was dis-established in 1881 but enabled the awakening of a national identity among Albanians,[75] whose ambitions competed with those of the Serbs, the Kingdom of Serbia wishing to incorporate this land that had formerly been within its empire.

The modern Albanian-Serbian conflict has its roots in the expulsion of the Albanians in 1877–1878 from areas that became incorporated into the Principality of Serbia.[76][77] During and after the Serbian–Ottoman War of 1876–78, between 30,000 and 70,000 Muslims, mostly Albanians, were expelled by the Serb army from the Sanjak of Niš and fled to the Kosovo Vilayet.[78][79][80][81][82][83] According to Austrian data, by the 1890s Kosovo was 70% Muslim (nearly entirely of Albanian descent) and less than 30% non-Muslim (primarily Serbs).[69] In May 1901, Albanians pillaged and partially burned the cities of Novi Pazar, Sjenica and Pristina, and killed many Serbs near Pristina and in Kolašin (now North Kosovo).[84][85]

Balkan Wars, WWI, Serbian rule, and WWII: ethno-demographic changes

Division of Kosovo vilayet between the Kingdom of Serbia (yellow) and the Kingdom of Montenegro (green) following the Balkan Wars 1913.

In the spring of 1912, Albanians under the lead of Hasan Prishtina revolted against the Ottoman Empire. The rebels were joined by a wave of Albanians in the Ottoman army ranks, who deserted the army, refusing to fight their own kin. The rebels defeated the Ottomans and the latter were forced to accept all fourteen demands of the rebels, which foresaw an effective autonomy for the Albanians living in the Empire.[86] However, this autonomy never materialised, and the revolt created serious weaknesses in the Ottoman ranks, luring Montenegro, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Greece into declaring war on the Ottoman Empire and starting the First Balkan War.

After the Ottomans' defeat in the First Balkan War, the 1913 Treaty of London was signed with Metohija ceded to the Kingdom of Montenegro and eastern Kosovo ceded to the Kingdom of Serbia.[87] During the Balkan Wars, over 100,000 Albanians left Kosovo and about 50,000 were killed in the massacres that accompanied the war.[88][89] Soon, there were concerted Serbian colonisation efforts in Kosovo during various periods between Serbia's 1912 takeover of the province and World War II, causing the population of Serbs in Kosovo to grow by about 58,000 in this period.[90][91]

Serbian authorities promoted creating new Serb settlements in Kosovo as well as the assimilation of Albanians into Serbian society, causing a mass exodus of Albanians from Kosovo.[92] The figures of Albanians forcefully expelled from Kosovo range between 60,000 and 239,807, while Malcolm mentions 100,000–120,000. In combination with the politics of extermination and expulsion, there was also a process of assimilation through religious conversion of Albanian Muslims and Albanian Catholics into the Serbian Orthodox religion which took place as early as 1912. These politics seem to have been inspired by the nationalist ideologies of Ilija Garašanin and Jovan Cvijić.[93]

In the winter of 1915–16, during World War I, Kosovo saw the retreat of the Serbian army as Kosovo was occupied by Bulgaria and Austria-Hungary. In 1918, the Allied Powers pushed the Central Powers out of Kosovo.

German soldiers set fire to a Serbian village near Mitrovica, circa 1941.

A new administration system since 26 April 1922 split Kosovo among three districts (oblast) of the Kingdom: Kosovo, Raška and Zeta. In 1929, the country was transformed into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and the territories of Kosovo were reorganised among the Banate of Zeta, the Banate of Morava and the Banate of Vardar. In order to change the ethnic composition of Kosovo, between 1912 and 1941 a large-scale Serbian colonisation of Kosovo was undertaken by the Belgrade government. Kosovar Albanians' right to receive education in their own language was denied alongside other non-Slavic or unrecognised Slavic nations of Yugoslavia, as the kingdom only recognised the Slavic Croat, Serb, and Slovene nations as constituent nations of Yugoslavia. Other Slavs had to identify as one of the three official Slavic nations and non-Slav nations deemed as minorities.[92]

Albanians and other Muslims were forced to emigrate, mainly with the land reform which struck Albanian landowners in 1919, but also with direct violent measures.[94][95] In 1935 and 1938, two agreements between the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and Turkey were signed on the expatriation of 240,000 Albanians to Turkey, but the expatriation did not occur due to the outbreak of World War II.[96]

After the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in 1941, most of Kosovo was assigned to Italian-controlled Albania, and the rest was controlled by Germany and Bulgaria. A three-dimensional conflict ensued, involving inter-ethnic, ideological, and international affiliations.[97] Albanian collaborators persecuted Serb and Montenegrin settlers.[98] Estimates differ, but most authors estimate that between 3,000 and 10,000 Serbs and Montenegrins died in Kosovo during the Second World War. Another 30,000 to 40,000, or as high as 100,000, Serbs and Montenegrins, mainly settlers, were deported to Serbia in order to Albanianise Kosovo.[97][99] A decree from Yugoslav leader Josip Broz Tito, followed by a new law in August 1945 disallowed the return of colonists who had taken land from Albanian peasants.[100] During the war years, some Serbs and Montenegrins were sent to concentration camps in Pristina and Mitrovica.[99] Nonetheless, these conflicts were relatively low-level compared with other areas of Yugoslavia during the war years. Two Serb historians also estimate that 12,000 Albanians died.[97] An official investigation conducted by the Yugoslav government in 1964 recorded nearly 8,000 war-related fatalities in Kosovo between 1941 and 1945, 5,489 of them Serb or Montenegrin and 2,177 Albanian.[101] Some sources note that up to 72,000 individuals were encouraged to settle or resettle into Kosovo from Albania by the short-lived Italian administration.[102][99] As the regime collapsed, this was never materialised with historians and contemporary references emphasising that a large-scale migration of Albanians from Albania to Kosovo is not recorded in Axis documents.[103]

Communist Yugoslavia

The flag of the Albanian minority of Kosovo in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

The existing province took shape in 1945 as the Autonomous Region of Kosovo and Metohija, with a final demarcation in 1959.[104][105] Until 1945, the only entity bearing the name of Kosovo in the late modern period had been the Vilayet of Kosovo, a political unit created by the Ottoman Empire in 1877. However, those borders were different.[106]

Tensions between ethnic Albanians and the Yugoslav government were significant, not only due to ethnic tensions but also due to political ideological concerns, especially regarding relations with neighbouring Albania.[107] Harsh repressive measures were imposed on Kosovo Albanians due to suspicions that there were sympathisers of the Stalinist regime of Enver Hoxha of Albania.[107] In 1956, a show trial in Pristina was held in which multiple Albanian Communists of Kosovo were convicted of being infiltrators from Albania and given long prison sentences.[107] High-ranking Serbian communist official Aleksandar Ranković sought to secure the position of the Serbs in Kosovo and gave them dominance in Kosovo's nomenklatura.[108]

Fadil Hoxha, the vice-president of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, from 1978 to 1979.

Islam in Kosovo at this time was repressed and both Albanians and Muslim Slavs were encouraged to declare themselves to be Turkish and emigrate to Turkey.[107] At the same time Serbs and Montenegrins dominated the government, security forces, and industrial employment in Kosovo.[107] Albanians resented these conditions and protested against them in the late 1960s, calling the actions taken by authorities in Kosovo colonialist, and demanding that Kosovo be made a republic, or declaring support for Albania.[107]

After the ouster of Ranković in 1966, the agenda of pro-decentralisation reformers in Yugoslavia succeeded in the late 1960s in attaining substantial decentralisation of powers, creating substantial autonomy in Kosovo and Vojvodina, and recognising a Muslim Yugoslav nationality.[109] As a result of these reforms, there was a massive overhaul of Kosovo's nomenklatura and police, that shifted from being Serb-dominated to ethnic Albanian-dominated through firing Serbs in large scale.[109] Further concessions were made to the ethnic Albanians of Kosovo in response to unrest, including the creation of the University of Pristina as an Albanian language institution.[109] These changes created widespread fear among Serbs that they were being made second-class citizens in Yugoslavia.[110] By the 1974 Constitution of Yugoslavia, Kosovo was granted major autonomy, allowing it to have its own administration, assembly, and judiciary; as well as having a membership in the collective presidency and the Yugoslav parliament, in which it held veto power.[111]

Republics and provinces of the SFR Yugoslavia.

In the aftermath of the 1974 constitution, concerns over the rise of Albanian nationalism in Kosovo rose with the widespread celebrations in 1978 of the 100th anniversary of the founding of the League of Prizren.[107] Albanians felt that their status as a "minority" in Yugoslavia had made them second-class citizens in comparison with the "nations" of Yugoslavia and demanded that Kosovo be a constituent republic, alongside the other republics of Yugoslavia.[112] Protests by Albanians in 1981 over the status of Kosovo resulted in Yugoslav territorial defence units being brought into Kosovo and a state of emergency being declared resulting in violence and the protests being crushed.[112] In the aftermath of the 1981 protests, purges took place in the Communist Party, and rights that had been recently granted to Albanians were rescinded – including ending the provision of Albanian professors and Albanian language textbooks in the education system.[112]

While Albanians in the region had the highest birth rates in Europe, other areas of Yugoslavia including Serbia had low birth rates. Increased urbanisation and economic development led to higher settlements of Albanian workers into Serb-majority areas, as Serbs departed in response to the economic climate for more favorable real estate conditions in Serbia.[113] While there was tension, charges of "genocide" and planned harassment have been discredited as a pretext to revoke Kosovo's autonomy. For example, in 1986 the Serbian Orthodox Church published an official claim that Kosovo Serbs were being subjected to an Albanian program of 'genocide'.[114]

Even though they were disproved by police statistics,[114][page needed] they received wide attention in the Serbian press and that led to further ethnic problems and eventual removal of Kosovo's status. Beginning in March 1981, Kosovar Albanian students of the University of Pristina organised protests seeking that Kosovo become a republic within Yugoslavia and demanding their human rights.[115] The protests were brutally suppressed by the police and army, with many protesters arrested.[116] During the 1980s, ethnic tensions continued with frequent violent outbreaks against Yugoslav state authorities, resulting in a further increase in emigration of Kosovo Serbs and other ethnic groups.[117][118] The Yugoslav leadership tried to suppress protests of Kosovo Serbs seeking protection from ethnic discrimination and violence.[119]

Kosovo War

Ibrahim Rugova played a significant role in advocating for the rights of Kosovar Albanians and their aspirations for self-determination.

Inter-ethnic tensions continued to worsen in Kosovo throughout the 1980s. In 1989, Serbian President Slobodan Milošević, employing a mix of intimidation and political maneuvering, drastically reduced Kosovo's special autonomous status within Serbia and started cultural oppression of the ethnic Albanian population.[120] Kosovar Albanians responded with a non-violent separatist movement, employing widespread civil disobedience and creation of parallel structures in education, medical care, and taxation, with the ultimate goal of achieving the independence of Kosovo.[121]

In July 1990, the Kosovo Albanians proclaimed the existence of the Republic of Kosova, and declared it a sovereign and independent state in September 1992.[122] In May 1992, Ibrahim Rugova was elected its president.[123] During its lifetime, the Republic of Kosova was only officially recognised by Albania. By the mid-1990s, the Kosovo Albanian population was growing restless, as the status of Kosovo was not resolved as part of the Dayton Agreement of November 1995, which ended the Bosnian War. By 1996, the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), an ethnic Albanian guerrilla paramilitary group that sought the separation of Kosovo and the eventual creation of a Greater Albania,[124] had prevailed over the Rugova's non-violent resistance movement and launched attacks against the Yugoslav Army and Serbian police in Kosovo, resulting in the Kosovo War.[120][125]

By 1998, international pressure compelled Yugoslavia to sign a ceasefire and partially withdraw its security forces. Events were to be monitored by Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) observers according to an agreement negotiated by Richard Holbrooke. The ceasefire did not hold and fighting resumed in December 1998, culminating in the Račak massacre, which attracted further international attention to the conflict.[120] Within weeks, a multilateral international conference was convened and by March had prepared a draft agreement known as the Rambouillet Accords, calling for the restoration of Kosovo's autonomy and the deployment of NATO peacekeeping forces. The Yugoslav delegation found the terms unacceptable and refused to sign the draft. Between 24 March and 10 June 1999, NATO intervened by bombing Yugoslavia, aiming to force Milošević to withdraw his forces from Kosovo,[126] though NATO could not appeal to any particular motion of the Security Council of the United Nations to help legitimise its intervention. Combined with continued skirmishes between Albanian guerrillas and Yugoslav forces the conflict resulted in a further massive displacement of population in Kosovo.[127]

Kosovar Albanian soldiers holding pictures in memory of the men who were killed or went missing in the Krusha massacres.

During the conflict, roughly a million ethnic Albanians fled or were forcefully driven from Kosovo, as part of a ethnic cleansing plan towards Albanians called Operation Horseshoe (1999).[128][129][130] In 1999 more than 11,000 deaths were reported to the office of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia prosecutor Carla Del Ponte.[131] As of 2010, some 3,000 people were still missing, including 2,500 Albanians, 400 Serbs and 100 Roma.[132] By June, Milošević agreed to a foreign military presence in Kosovo and the withdrawal of his troops. During the Kosovo War, over 90,000 Serbian and other non-Albanian refugees fled the province. In the days after the Yugoslav Army withdrew, over 80,000 Serb and other non-Albanian civilians (almost half of 200,000 estimated to live in Kosovo) were expelled from Kosovo, and many of the remaining civilians were victims of abuse.[133][134][135][136][137] After the Kosovo and other Yugoslav Wars, Serbia became home to the highest number of refugees and IDPs (including Kosovo Serbs) in Europe.[138][139][140]

Serbian and other children refugees, Cernica, Gjilan.

In some villages under Albanian control in 1998, militants drove ethnic Serbs from their homes.[citation needed] Some of those who remained are unaccounted for and are presumed to have been abducted by the KLA and killed. The KLA detained an estimated 85 Serbs during its 19 July 1998 attack on Rahovec. 35 of these were subsequently released but the others remained. On 22 July 1998, the KLA briefly took control of the Belaćevac mine near the town of Obiliq. Nine Serb mineworkers were captured that day and they remain on the International Committee of the Red Cross's list of the missing and are presumed to have been killed.[141] In August 1998, 22 Serbian civilians were reportedly killed in the village of Klečka, where the police claimed to have discovered human remains and a kiln used to cremate the bodies.[141][142] In September 1998, Serbian police collected 34 bodies of people believed to have been seized and murdered by the KLA, among them some ethnic Albanians, at Lake Radonjić near Glođane (Gllogjan) in what became known as the Lake Radonjić massacre.[141] Human Rights Watch have raised questions about the validity of at least some of these allegations made by Serbian authorities.[143]

"Heroinat" (Heroines) monument in Pristina. It is dedicated to women victims of sexual violence perpetrated by Serbian forces, during the Kosovo War, of which the vast majority were Albanian women.[144]

The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) prosecuted crimes committed during the Kosovo War. Nine senior Yugoslav officials, including Milošević, were indicted for crimes against humanity and war crimes committed between January and June 1999. Six of the defendants were convicted, one was acquitted, one died before his trial could commence, and one (Milošević) died before his trial could conclude.[145] Six KLA members were charged with crimes against humanity and war crimes by the ICTY following the war, and one was convicted.[146][147][148][149]

In total around 10,317 civilians were killed during the war, of whom 8,676 were Albanians, 1,196 Serbs and 445 Roma and others in addition to 3,218 killed members of armed formations.[150]


US President Bill Clinton with Albanian children during his visit to Kosovo, June 1999.

On 10 June 1999, the UN Security Council passed UN Security Council Resolution 1244, which placed Kosovo under transitional UN administration (UNMIK) and authorised Kosovo Force (KFOR), a NATO-led peacekeeping force. Resolution 1244 provided that Kosovo would have autonomy within the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and affirmed the territorial integrity of Yugoslavia, which has been legally succeeded by the Republic of Serbia.[151]

Estimates of the number of Serbs who left when Serbian forces left Kosovo vary from 65,000[152] to 250,000.[153] Within post-conflict Kosovo Albanian society, calls for retaliation for previous violence done by Serb forces during the war circulated through public culture.[154] Widespread attacks against Serbian cultural sites commenced following the conflict and the return of hundreds of thousands of Kosovo Albanian refugees to their homes.[155] In 2004, prolonged negotiations over Kosovo's future status, sociopolitical problems and nationalist sentiments resulted in the Kosovo unrest.[156][157] 11 Albanians and 16 Serbs were killed, 900 people (including peacekeepers) were injured, and several houses, public buildings and churches were damaged or destroyed.

International negotiations began in 2006 to determine the final status of Kosovo, as envisaged under UN Security Council Resolution 1244. The UN-backed talks, led by UN Special Envoy Martti Ahtisaari, began in February 2006. Whilst progress was made on technical matters, both parties remained diametrically opposed on the question of status itself.[158]

In February 2007, Ahtisaari delivered a draft status settlement proposal to leaders in Belgrade and Pristina, the basis for a draft UN Security Council Resolution which proposed 'supervised independence' for the province. A draft resolution, backed by the United States, the United Kingdom and other European members of the Security Council, was presented and rewritten four times to try to accommodate Russian concerns that such a resolution would undermine the principle of state sovereignty.[159]

Camp Bondsteel is the main base of the United States Army under KFOR command in south-eastern part of Kosovo near the city of Ferizaj.

Russia, which holds a veto in the Security Council as one of five permanent members, had stated that it would not support any resolution which was not acceptable to both Belgrade and Kosovo Albanians.[160] Whilst most observers had, at the beginning of the talks, anticipated independence as the most likely outcome, others have suggested that a rapid resolution might not be preferable.[161]

After many weeks of discussions at the UN, the United States, United Kingdom and other European members of the Security Council formally 'discarded' a draft resolution backing Ahtisaari's proposal on 20 July 2007, having failed to secure Russian backing. Beginning in August, a "Troika" consisting of negotiators from the European Union (Wolfgang Ischinger), the United States (Frank G. Wisner) and Russia (Alexander Botsan-Kharchenko) launched a new effort to reach a status outcome acceptable to both Belgrade and Pristina. Despite Russian disapproval, the U.S., the United Kingdom, and France appeared likely to recognise Kosovar independence.[162] A declaration of independence by Kosovar Albanian leaders was postponed until the end of the Serbian presidential elections (4 February 2008). A significant portion of politicians in both the EU and the US had feared that a premature declaration could boost support in Serbia for the nationalist candidate, Tomislav Nikolić.[163]

In November 2001, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe supervised the first elections for the Assembly of Kosovo.[164] After that election, Kosovo's political parties formed an all-party unity coalition and elected Ibrahim Rugova as president and Bajram Rexhepi (PDK) as Prime Minister.[165] After Kosovo-wide elections in October 2004, the LDK and AAK formed a new governing coalition that did not include PDK and Ora. This coalition agreement resulted in Ramush Haradinaj (AAK) becoming Prime Minister, while Ibrahim Rugova retained the position of President. PDK and Ora were critical of the coalition agreement and have since frequently accused that government of corruption.[166]

Parliamentary elections were held on 17 November 2007. After early results, Hashim Thaçi who was on course to gain 35 per cent of the vote, claimed victory for PDK, the Democratic Party of Kosovo, and stated his intention to declare independence. Thaçi formed a coalition with president Fatmir Sejdiu's Democratic League which was in second place with 22 percent of the vote.[167] The turnout at the election was particularly low. Most members of the Serb minority refused to vote.[168]

Declaration of independence

The Newborn monument unveiled at the celebration of the 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence proclaimed earlier that day, 17 February 2008, Pristina.

Kosovo declared independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008.[169] As of 4 September 2020, 114 UN states recognised its independence, including all of its immediate neighbours, with the exception of Serbia;[170] 10 states have subsequently withdrawn that recognition.[171][172] Of the UN Security Council members, while the US, UK and France do recognise Kosovo's independence, Russia and China do not.[173] Since declaring independence, it has become a member of international institutions such as the International Monetary Fund and World Bank,[174][175] though not of the United Nations.

The Serb minority of Kosovo, which largely opposes the declaration of independence, has formed the Community Assembly of Kosovo and Metohija in response. The creation of the assembly was condemned by Kosovo's President Fatmir Sejdiu, while UNMIK has said the assembly is not a serious issue because it will not have an operative role.[176] On 8 October 2008, the UN General Assembly resolved, on a proposal by Serbia, to ask the International Court of Justice to render an advisory opinion on the legality of Kosovo's declaration of independence. The advisory opinion, which is not binding over decisions by states to recognise or not recognise Kosovo, was rendered on 22 July 2010, holding that Kosovo's declaration of independence was not in violation either of general principles of international law, which do not prohibit unilateral declarations of independence, nor of specific international law – in particular UNSCR 1244 – which did not define the final status process nor reserve the outcome to a decision of the Security Council.[177]

Some rapprochement between the two governments took place on 19 April 2013 as both parties reached the Brussels Agreement, an agreement brokered by the EU that allowed the Serb minority in Kosovo to have its own police force and court of appeals.[178] The agreement is yet to be ratified by either parliament.[179] Presidents of Serbia and Kosovo organised two meetings, in Brussels on 27 February 2023 and Ohrid on 18 March 2023, to create and agree upon an 11-point agreement on implementing a European Union-backed deal to normalise ties between the two countries, which includes recognising "each other's documents such as passports and license plates".[180]

A number of protests and demonstrations took place in Kosovo between 2021 and 2023, some of which involved weapons and resulted in deaths on both sides. Amongst the injured were 30 NATO peacekeepers. The main reason behind the 2022–23 demonstrations ended on 1 January 2024 when each country recognised each other's vehicle registration plates.


Vjosa Osmani
Albin Kurti
Prime Minister

Kosovo is a multi-party parliamentary representative democratic republic. It is governed by legislative, executive and judicial institutions, which derive from the constitution, although, until the Brussels Agreement, North Kosovo was in practice largely controlled by institutions of Serbia or parallel institutions funded by Serbia. Legislative functions are vested in both the Parliament and the ministers within their competencies. The Government exercises the executive power and is composed of the Prime Minister as the head of government, the Deputy Prime Ministers and the Ministers of the various ministries.

The judiciary is composed of the Supreme Court and subordinate courts, a Constitutional Court, and independent prosecutorial institutions. There also exist multiple independent institutions defined by the constitution and law, as well as local governments. All citizens are equal before the law and gender equality is ensured by the constitution.[181][182] The Constitutional Framework guarantees a minimum of ten seats in the 120-member Assembly for Serbs, and ten for other minorities, and also guarantees Serbs and other minorities places in the Government.

The president serves as the head of state and represents the unity of the people, elected every five years, indirectly by the parliament through a secret ballot by a two-thirds majority of all deputies. The head of state is invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers. The president has the power to return draft legislation to the parliament for reconsideration and has a role in foreign affairs and certain official appointments.[183] The Prime Minister serves as the head of government elected by the parliament. Ministers are nominated by the Prime Minister, and then confirmed by the parliament. The head of government exercises executive power of the territory.

Corruption is a major problem and an obstacle to the development of democracy in the country. Those in the judiciary appointed by the government to fight corruption are often government associates. Moreover, prominent politicians and party operatives who commit offences are not prosecuted due to the lack of laws and political will. Organised crime also poses a threat to the economy due to the practices of bribery, extortion and racketeering.[184]

Foreign relations

The foreign relations of Kosovo are conducted through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Pristina. As of 2023, 104 out of 193 United Nations member states recognise the Republic of Kosovo. Within the European Union, it is recognised by 22 of 27 members and is a potential candidate for the future enlargement of the European Union.[185][186] On 15 December 2022 Kosovo filed a formal application to become a member of the European Union.[19]

Kosovo is a member of several international organisations including the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, International Road and Transport Union, Regional Cooperation Council, Council of Europe Development Bank, Venice Commission and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.[187] In 2015, Kosovo's bid to become a member of UNESCO fell three votes short of the two-thirds majority required to join.[188] 23 countries maintain embassies in Kosovo.[189] Kosovo maintains 24 diplomatic missions and 28 consular missions abroad.[190][191]

The relations with Albania are in a special case considering that both countries share the same language and culture. The Albanian language is one of the official languages of Kosovo. Albania has an embassy in the capital Pristina and Kosovo an embassy in Tirana. In 1992, Albania was the only country whose parliament voted to recognise the Republic of Kosova. Albania was also one of the first countries to officially announce its recognition of the Republic of Kosovo in February 2008.

From 1 January 2024 Kosovo nationals became exempt from visa requirements within the Schengen Area for periods of up to 90 days in any 180-day period.[192]


The Kosovo Police is the main law enforcement agency in Kosovo.

The judicial system of Kosovo follows a civil law framework and comprises regular civil and criminal courts, alongside administrative courts. Administered by the judicial council in Pristina, the system includes the supreme court as the highest judicial authority, a constitutional court and an independent prosecutorial institution. Following the independence of Kosovo in 2008, the Kosovo Police assumed the primary law enforcement responsibilities within the country.

Covering a broad range of issues related to the status of Kosovo, the Ahtisaari Plan introduced two forms of international supervision for Kosovo following its independence, including the International Civilian Office (ICO) and the European Union Rule of Law Mission to Kosovo (EULEX).[193] The ICO monitored plan implementation and possessed veto powers, while EULEX focused on developing judicial systems and had arrest and prosecution authority. These bodies were granted powers under Kosovo's declaration of independence and constitution.

The legal status of the ICO depended upon the de facto situation and Kosovo legislation, with oversight provided by the International Steering Group (ISG) comprising states that recognied Kosovo. Serbia and non-recognising states did not acknowledge the ICO. Despite initial opposition, EULEX gained acceptance from Serbia and the UN Security Council in 2008. It operated under the UNMIK mandate with operational independence. The ICO concluded operations in 2012 after fulfilling obligations, while EULEX continues to operate within Kosovo and international law. Its role has been extended, primarily focusing on monitoring with reduced responsibilities.[194]


The Kosovo Security Force is the military of Kosovo.

The Kosovo Security Force (KSF) is the national security force of Kosovo commissioned with the task of preserving and safeguarding the country's territorial integrity, national sovereignty and the security interests of its population.[195] Functioning under the president of Kosovo as the commander-in-chief, the security force adheres to the principle of non-discrimination, guaranteeing equal protection for its personnel regardless of gender or ethnicity.[195][196] Kosovo's notable challenges are identified in the realms of persistent conflicts and societal safety and security, both of which are intertwined with the country's diplomatic ties to neighboring countries and its domestic social and political stability.[197]

The Kosovo Force (KFOR) is a NATO-led international peacekeeping force in Kosovo.[198] Its operations are gradually reducing until Kosovo's Security Force, established in 2009, becomes self-sufficient.[199] KFOR entered Kosovo on 12 June 1999,[200] one day after the United Nations Security Council adopted the UNSC Resolution 1244. Camp Bondsteel is the operation headquarters of the Kosovo Force (KFOR) in Kosovo. It is located near Ferizaj/Uroševac[201] in southeastern Kosovo. It is the Regional Command-East headed by the United States Army (U.S. Army) and it is supported by troops from Greece, Italy, Finland, Hungary, Poland, Slovenia, Switzerland and Turkey.

In 2008, under the leadership of NATO, the Kosovo Force (KFOR) and the Kosovo Protection Corps (KPC) undertook preparations for the formation of the Kosovo Security Force. A significant milestone occurred in 2014 when the government officially announced its decision to establish a Ministry of Defence by 2019, with the aim of transforming the existing Kosovo Security Force into the Kosovo Armed Forces. This transformation would entail aligning the armed forces with the high standards expected of NATO members, reflecting Kosovo's aspiration to join the alliance in the future.[202] Subsequently, in December 2018, the government enacted legislation to redefine the mandate of the Kosovo Security Force, effecting its transformation into an army. Concurrently, the establishment of a Ministry of Defence was set in motion, further solidifying these developments and ensuring the necessary infrastructure and oversight for the newly formed armed forces.[203]

In 2023, the Kosovo Security Force had over 5,000 active members, using vehicles and weapons acquired from a number of NATO countries. KFOR continues to operate in Kosovo under its UN mandate.[204]

Administrative divisions

Kosovo is divided into seven districts (Albanian: rajon; Serbian: okrug), according to the Law of Kosovo and the Brussels Agreement of 2013, which stipulated the formation of new municipalities with Serb majority populations. The districts are further subdivided into 38 municipalities (komunë; opština). The largest and most populous district of Kosovo is the District of Pristina with the capital in Pristina, having a surface area of 2,470 km2 (953.67 sq mi) and a population of 477,312.

Districts Seat Area (km2) Population
District of Peja Peja 1,365 174,235
District of Mitrovica Mitrovica 2,077 272,247
District of Pristina Pristina 2,470 477,312
District of Gjilan Gjilan 1,206 180,783
District of Gjakova Gjakova 1,129 194,672
District of Prizren Prizren 1,397 331,670
District of Ferizaj Ferizaj 1,030 185,806


Landscape in Rugova within the Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park bordering Albania.

Defined in a total area of 10,887 square kilometres (4,203 square miles), Kosovo is landlocked and located in the center of the Balkan Peninsula in Southeastern Europe. It lies between latitudes 42° and 43° N, and longitudes 20° and 22° E.[205] The northernmost point is Bellobërda at 43° 14' 06" northern latitude; the southernmost is Restelicë at 41° 56' 40" northern latitude; the westernmost point is Bogë at 20° 3' 23" eastern longitude; and the easternmost point is Desivojca at 21° 44' 21" eastern longitude. The highest point of Kosovo is Gjeravica at 2,656 metres (8,714 ft) above sea level,[206][207][208] and the lowest is the White Drin at 297 metres (974 ft).

The Šar Mountains encompass one-tenth of Kosovo's territory.[209]

Most of the borders of Kosovo are dominated by mountainous and high terrain. The most noticeable topographical features are the Accursed Mountains and the Šar Mountains. The Accursed Mountains are a geological continuation of the Dinaric Alps. The mountains run laterally through the west along the border with Albania and Montenegro. The southeast is predominantly the Šar Mountains, which constitute the border with North Macedonia. Besides the mountain ranges, Kosovo's territory consists mostly of two major plains, the Kosovo Plain in the east and the Metohija Plain in the west.

Additionally, Kosovo consists of multiple geographic and ethnographic regions, such as Drenica, Dushkaja, Gollak, Has, Highlands of Gjakova, Llap, Llapusha and Rugova.

Kosovo's hydrological resources are relatively small; there are few lakes in Kosovo, the largest of which are Lake Batllava, Badovc Lake, Lake Gazivoda, Lake Radoniq.[210][211] In addition to these, Kosovo also does have karst springs, thermal and mineral water springs.[212] The longest rivers of Kosovo include the White Drin, the South Morava and the Ibar. Sitnica, a tributary of Ibar, is the largest river lying completely within Kosovo's territory. Nerodime river represents Europe's only instance of a river bifurcation flowing into the Black Sea and Aegean Sea.


Alpine climate in Pashallora as seen from Brezovica.

Most of Kosovo experiences predominantly a Continental climate with Mediterranean and Alpine influences,[213] strongly influenced by Kosovo's proximity to the Adriatic Sea in the west, the Aegean Sea in the south as well as the European continental landmass in the north.[214]

The coldest areas are situated in the mountainous region to the west and southeast, where an Alpine climate is prevalent. The warmest areas are mostly in the extreme southern areas close to the border with Albania, where a Mediterranean climate is the norm. Mean monthly temperature ranges between 0 °C (32 °F) (in January) and 22 °C (72 °F) (in July). Mean annual precipitation ranges from 600 to 1,300 mm (24 to 51 in) per year, and is well distributed year-round.

To the northeast, the Kosovo Plain and Ibar Valley are drier with total precipitation of about 600 millimetres (24 inches) per year and more influenced by continental air masses, with colder winters and very hot summers. In the southwest, climatic area of Metohija receives more mediterranean influences with warmer summers, somewhat higher precipitation (700 mm (28 in)) and heavy snowfalls in the winter. The mountainous areas of the Accursed Mountains in the west, Šar Mountains on the south and Kopaonik in the north experiences alpine climate, with high precipitation (900 to 1,300 mm (35 to 51 in) per year), short and fresh summers, and cold winters.[215] The average annual temperature of Kosovo is 9.5 °C (49.1 °F). The warmest month is July with average temperature of 19.2 °C (66.6 °F), and the coldest is January with −1.3 °C (29.7 °F). Except Prizren and Istog, all other meteorological stations in January recorded average temperatures under 0 °C (32 °F).[216]


Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park is home to a wide range of flora and fauna species.

Located in Southeastern Europe, Kosovo receives floral and faunal species from Europe and Eurasia. Forests are widespread in Kosovo and cover at least 39% of the region. Phytogeographically, it straddles the Illyrian province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. In addition, it falls within three terrestrial ecoregions: Balkan mixed forests, Dinaric Mountains mixed forests, and Pindus Mountains mixed forests.[217] Kosovo's biodiversity is conserved in two national parks, eleven nature reserves and one hundred three other protected areas.[218] The Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park and Sharr Mountains National Park are the most important regions of vegetation and biodiversity in Kosovo.[219] Kosovo had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 5.19/10, ranking it 107th globally out of 172 countries.[220]

Deers during the winter in Blinaja

Flora encompasses more than 1,800 species of vascular plant species, but the actual number is estimated to be higher than 2,500 species.[221][222] The diversity is the result of the complex interaction of geology and hydrology creating a wide variety of habitat conditions for flora growth. Although, Kosovo represents only 2.3% of the entire surface area of the Balkans, in terms of vegetation it has 25% of the Balkan flora and about 18% of the European flora.[221] The fauna is composed of a wide range of species.[219]: 14  The mountainous west and southeast provide a great habitat for several rare or endangered species including brown bears, lynxes, wild cats, wolves, foxes, wild goats, roebucks and deers.[223] A total of 255 species of birds have been recorded, with raptors such as the golden eagle, eastern imperial eagle and lesser kestrel living principally in the mountains of Kosovo.

Environmental issues

Environmental issues in Kosovo include a wide range of challenges pertaining to air and water pollution, climate change, waste management, biodiversity loss and nature conservation.[224] The vulnerability of the country to climate change is influenced by various factors, such as increased temperatures, geological and hydrological hazards, including droughts, flooding, fires and rains.[224] Kosovo is not a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol or the Paris Agreement.[225] Consequently, the country is not mandated to submit a Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) that are voluntary commitments outlining a nation's actions and strategies for mitigating climate change and adapting to its impacts.[225] However, since 2021, Kosovo is actively engaged in the process of formulating a voluntary NDC, with assistance provided from Japan.[225][226] In 2023, the country has established a goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by approximately 16.3% as part of its broader objective to achieve carbon neutrality by the year 2050.[226]


The population of Kosovo from 1921 to 2015.

The Agency of Statistics estimated Kosovo's population in 2021 to be approximately 1,774,000.[227] In 2023, the overall life expectancy at birth is 79.68 years; 77.38 years for males and 81.87 years for females.[228] The estimated total fertility rate in 2023 is 1.88 children born per woman.[229] The country is the 11th most populous country in the Southeastern Europe (Balkans) and ranks as the 148th most populous country in the world. The country's population rose steadily over the 20th century and peaked at an estimated 2.2 million in 1998. The Kosovo War and subsequent migration have decreased the population of Kosovo over time.

Distribution of ethnic groups within Kosovo, as of the 2011 census.[230]

In 2019, Albanians constituted 92% of the population of Kosovo, followed by ethnic Serbs (4%), Bosniaks (2%), Turks (1%), Romani (1%), and the Gorani (<1%).[231] Albanians constitute the majority of the population in most of Kosovo. Ethnic Serbs are concentrated in the north of the country, as well as in other municipalities in the east of the country, such as Gračanica and Štrpce. Turks form a local majority in the municipality of Mamusha, just north of Prizren, while the Bosniaks are mainly located within Prizren itself. The Gorani are concentrated in the southernmost tip of the country, in Dragash. The Romani are spread across the entire country.

The official languages of Kosovo are Albanian and Serbian[2] and the institutions are committed to ensure the equal use of those two official languages of Kosovo.[232] Municipal civil servants are only required to speak one of the two languages in a professional setting and, according to Language Commissioner of Kosovo Slaviša Mladenović, no government organisation has all of its documents available in both languages.[233] The Law on the Use of Languages gives Turkish the status of an official language in the municipality of Prizren, irrespective of the size of the Turkish community living there.[234] Otherwise, Turkish, Bosnian and Roma hold the status of official languages at municipal level if the linguistic community represents at least 5% of the total population of municipality.[235][234] Albanian is spoken as a first language by all Albanians, as well as some of the Romani people, such as the Ashkali and Balkan Egyptians. Serbian, Bosnian, and Turkish are spoken as first languages by their respective communities.

Largest municipalities by population (2015)[236]

Rank Municipality Population Rank Municipality Population
1 Pristina 204,721 11 Suva Reka 59,681
2 Prizren 186,986 12 Rahovec 58,908
3 Ferizaj 101,174 13 Malisheva 57,301
4 Peja 97,890 14 Lipjan 56,643
5 Gjakova 94,543 15 Skenderaj 51,746
6 Podujevo 83,425 16 Viti 46,742
7 Mitrovica 80,623 17 Deçan 41,173
8 Gjilan 80,525 18 Istog 39,604
9 Vushtrri 64,578 19 Klina 39,208
10 Drenas 60,175 20 Kosovo Polje 37,048


The relations between Kosovar Albanians and Kosovar Serbs have been hostile since the rise of nationalism in the Balkans during the 19th century.[237] During Communism in Yugoslavia, the ethnic Albanians and Serbs were strongly irreconcilable, with sociological studies during the Tito-era indicating that ethnic Albanians and Serbs rarely accepted each other as neighbors or friends and few held inter-ethnic marriages.[238] Ethnic prejudices, stereotypes and mutual distrust between ethnic Albanians and Serbs have remained common for decades.[238] The level of intolerance and separation between both communities during the Tito-period was reported by sociologists to be worse than that of Croat and Serb communities in Yugoslavia, which also had tensions but held some closer relations between each other.[238]

Despite their planned integration into the Kosovar society and their recognition in the Kosovar constitution, the Romani, Ashkali, and Egyptian communities continue to face many difficulties, such as segregation and discrimination, in housing, education, health, employment and social welfare.[239] Many camps around Kosovo continue to house thousands of internally displaced people, all of whom are from minority groups and communities.[240] Because many of the Roma are believed to have sided with the Serbs during the conflict, taking part in the widespread looting and destruction of Albanian property, Minority Rights Group International report that Romani people encounter hostility by Albanians outside their local areas.[241] A 2020 research report funded by the EU shows that there is a limited scale of trust and overall contact between the major ethnic groups in Kosovo.[242]


Religion in Kosovo[243]
 – Roman Catholic
 – Eastern Orthodox

Kosovo is a secular state with no state religion; freedom of belief, conscience and religion is explicitly guaranteed in the Constitution of Kosovo.[245][181][182] Kosovar society is strongly secularised and is ranked first in Southern Europe and ninth in the world as free and equal for tolerance towards religion and atheism.[246][247]

In the 2011 census, 95.6% of the population of Kosovo was counted as Muslim and 3.7% as Christian including 2.2% as Roman Catholic and 1.5% as Eastern Orthodox.[243] The remaining 0.3% of the population reported having no religion, or another religion, or did not provide an adequate answer. Protestants, although recognised as a religious group in Kosovo by the government, were not represented in the census. The census was largely boycotted by the Kosovo Serbs, who predominantly identify as Serbian Orthodox Christians, especially in North Kosovo,[248] leaving the Serb population underrepresented.[249]

Islam is the most widely practiced religion in Kosovo and was introduced in the Middle Ages by the Ottomans. Today, Kosovo has the second-highest number of Muslims as a percentage of its population in Europe after Turkey.[250] The majority of the Muslim population of Kosovo are ethnic Albanians, Turks, and Slavs such as Gorani and Bosniaks.[251]

Followers of the Roman Catholic Church are predominantly Albanians while ethnic Serbs follow the Eastern Orthodox Church. In 2008, Protestant pastor Artur Krasniqi, primate of the Kosovo Protestant Evangelical Church, claimed that "as many as 15,000" Kosovar Albanians had converted to Protestantism since 1985.[252]

Relations between the Albanian Muslim and Albanian Catholic communities in Kosovo are good; however, both communities have few or no relations with the Serbian Orthodox community. In general, the Albanians define their ethnicity by language and not by religion, while religion reflects a distinguishing identity feature among the Slavs of Kosovo and elsewhere.[253]


Kosovo has the fifth-largest lignite reserves in the world.

The economy of Kosovo is a transitional economy. It suffered from the combined results of political upheaval, the Serbian dismissal of Kosovo employees and the following Yugoslav Wars. Despite declining foreign assistance, the GDP has mostly grown since its declaration of independence. This was despite the financial crisis of 2007–2008 and the subsequent European debt crisis. Additionally, the inflation rate has been low. Most economic development has taken place in the trade, retail and construction sectors. Kosovo is highly dependent on remittances from the diaspora, foreign direct investment, and other capital inflows.[254] In 2018, the International Monetary Fund reported that approximately one-sixth of the population lived below the poverty line and one-third of the working age population was unemployed, the highest rate in Europe.[255]

Kosovo's largest trading partners are Albania, Italy, Switzerland, China, Germany and Turkey. The Euro is its official currency.[256] The Government of Kosovo has signed free-trade agreements with Albania, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and North Macedonia.[257][258][259][260] Kosovo is a member of CEFTA, agreed with UNMIK, and enjoys free trade with most nearby non-European Union countries.[261]

Kosovo is dominated by the services sector, accounting for 54% of GDP and employing approximately 56.6% of the population.[262] The industry accounted for 37.3% of GDP and employs roughly 24.8% of the labour force.[262] There are several reasons for the stagnation, ranging from consecutive occupations, political turmoil and the War in Kosovo in 1999.[263] While agriculture accounts for only 6.6% of GDP, albeit an increase of 0.5 percentage points from 2019, it forms 18.7% of Kosovo's workforce, the highest proportion of agricultural employment in the region after Albania.[262]

Since 2019, the Port of Durrës in Albania on the Adriatic Sea is facilitating customs processes for cargo heading to Kosovo.[264][265] A dedicated customs office for Kosovo also operates within the port facilities.[266]

Kosovo has large reserves of lead, zinc, silver, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron and bauxite.[267] The nation has the fifth-largest lignite reserves in the world and the third in Europe.[268] The Directorate for Mines and Minerals and the World Bank estimated that Kosovo had €13.5 billion worth of minerals in 2005.[269] The primary sector is based on small to medium-sized family-owned dispersed units.[270] 53% of the nation's area is agricultural land, 41% forest and forestry land, and 6% for others.[271]

Wine has historically been produced in Kosovo. The main heartland of Kosovo's wine industry is in Rahovec. The main cultivars include Pinot noir, Merlot, and Chardonnay. Kosovo exports wines to Germany and the United States.[272] The four state-owned wine production facilities were not as much "wineries" as they were "wine factories". Only the Rahovec facility that held approximately 36% of the total vineyard area had the capacity of around 50 million litres annually. The major share of the wine production was intended for exports. At its peak in 1989, the exports from the Rahovec facility amounted to 40 million litres and were mainly distributed to the German market.[273]


Bajgora Wind Farm, the largest wind farm in Kosovo

The electricity sector in Kosovo is considered one of the sectors with the greatest potential of development.[274] Kosovo's electricity sector is highly dependent on coal-fired power plants, which use the abundant lignite, so efforts are being made to diversify electricity generation with more renewables sources, such as wind farms in Bajgora and Kitka.[275][276]

A joint energy bloc between Kosovo and Albania, is in work after an agreement which was signed in December 2019.[277] With that agreement Albania and Kosovo will now be able to exchange energy reserves, which is expected to result in €4 million in savings per year for Kosovo.[278]


Brezovica ski resort is one of the best destinations for winter tourism in Kosovo.

The natural values of Kosovo represent quality tourism resources. The description of Kosovo's potential in tourism is closely related to its geographical location, in the center of the Balkan Peninsula in Southeastern Europe. It represents a crossroads which historically dates back to antiquity. Kosovo serves as a link in the connection between Central and Southern Europe and the Adriatic Sea and Black Sea. Kosovo is generally rich in various topographical features, including high mountains, lakes, canyons, steep rock formations and rivers.[279] The mountainous west and southeast of Kosovo has great potential for winter tourism. Skiing takes place at the Brezovica ski resort within the Šar Mountains,[279] with the close proximity to the Pristina Airport (60 km) and Skopje International Airport (70 km) which is a popular destination for international tourists.

Kosovo also has lakes like Lake Batllava that serves as a popular destination for watersports, camping, and swimming.[280] Other lakes include Ujmani Lake, Liqenati Lake, Zemra Lake.[280]

Other major attractions include the capital, Pristina, the historical cities of Prizren, Peja and Gjakova but also Ferizaj and Gjilan.

The New York Times included Kosovo on the list of 41 places to visit in 2011.[281][282]


The Pristina International Airport (PRN) handles more than 2.9 million passengers per year.

Road transportation of passengers and freight is the most common form of transportation in Kosovo. There are two main motorways in Kosovo: the R7 connecting Kosovo with Albania and the R6 connecting Pristina to the North Macedonian border at Hani i Elezit. The construction of the R7.1 Motorway began in 2017.

The R7 Motorway (part of Albania-Kosovo Highway) links Kosovo to Albania's Adriatic coast in Durrës. Once the remaining European route (E80) from Pristina to Merdare section project will be completed, the motorway will link Kosovo through the present European route (E80) highway with the Pan-European corridor X (E75) near Niš in Serbia. The R6 Motorway, forming part of the E65, is the second motorway constructed in the region. It links the capital Pristina with the border with North Macedonia at Hani i Elezit, which is about 20 km (12 mi) from Skopje. Construction of the motorway started in 2014 and finished in 2019.[283]

Trainkos operates daily passenger trains on two routes: PristinaFushë KosovëPejë, as well as PristinaFushë KosovëFerizajSkopje, North Macedonia (the latter in cooperation with Macedonian Railways).[284] Also, freight trains run throughout the country.

The nation hosts two airports, Pristina International Airport and Gjakova Airport. Pristina International Airport is located southwest of Pristina. It is Kosovo's only international airport and the only port of entry for air travelers to Kosovo. Gjakova Airport was built by the Kosovo Force (KFOR) following the Kosovo War, next to an existing airfield used for agricultural purposes, and was used mainly for military and humanitarian flights. The local and national government plans to offer Gjakova Airport for operation under a public-private partnership with the aim of turning it into a civilian and commercial airport.[285]



In the past, Kosovo's capabilities to develop a modern health care system were limited.[286] Low GDP during 1990 worsened the situation even more. However, the establishment of Faculty of Medicine in the University of Pristina marked a significant development in health care. This was also followed by launching different health clinics which enabled better conditions for professional development.[286]

Nowadays the situation has changed, and the health care system in Kosovo is organised into three sectors: primary, secondary and tertiary health care.[287] Primary health care in Pristina is organised into thirteen family medicine centres[288] and fifteen ambulatory care units.[288] Secondary health care is decentralised in seven regional hospitals. Pristina does not have any regional hospital and instead uses University Clinical Center of Kosovo for health care services. University Clinical Center of Kosovo provides its health care services in twelve clinics,[289] where 642 doctors are employed.[290] At a lower level, home services are provided for several vulnerable groups which are not able to reach health care premises.[291] Kosovo health care services are now focused on patient safety, quality control and assisted health.[292]


The National Library of Kosovo

Education for primary, secondary, and tertiary levels is predominantly public and supported by the state, run by the Ministry of Education. Education takes place in two main stages: primary and secondary education, and higher education.

The primary and secondary education is subdivided into four stages: preschool education, primary and low secondary education, high secondary education and special education. Preschool education is for children from the ages of one to five. Primary and secondary education is obligatory for everyone. It is provided by gymnasiums and vocational schools and also available in languages of recognised minorities in Kosovo, where classes are held in Albanian, Serbian, Bosnian, Turkish and Croatian. The first phase (primary education) includes grades one to five, and the second phase (low secondary education) grades six to nine. The third phase (high secondary education) consists of general education but also professional education, which is focused on different fields. It lasts four years. However, pupils are offered possibilities of applying for higher or university studies. According to the Ministry of Education, children who are not able to get a general education are able to get a special education (fifth phase).[293] Higher education can be received in universities and other higher-education institutes. These educational institutions offer studies for Bachelor, Master and PhD degrees. The students may choose full-time or part-time studies.


The National Museum of Kosovo


The Great Hamam of Pristina was built in the 15th century and was part of the Imperial Mosque in Pristina.

The architecture of Kosovo dates back to the Neolithic, Bronze and Middle Ages. It has been influenced by the presence of different civilisations and religions as evidenced by the structures which have survived to this day.

Kosovo is home to many monasteries and churches from the 13th and 14th centuries that represent the Serbian Orthodox legacy. Architectural heritage from the Ottoman Period includes mosques and hamams from the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries. Other historical architectural structures of interest include kullas from the 18th and 19th centuries, as well as a number of bridges, urban centers and fortresses. While some vernacular buildings are not considered important in their own right, taken together they are of considerable interest. During the 1999 conflict in Kosovo, many buildings that represent this heritage were destroyed or damaged.[294][295] In the Dukagjini region, at least 500 kullas were attacked, and most of them destroyed or otherwise damaged.[296]

In 2004, UNESCO recognised the Visoki Dečani monastery as World Heritage Site for its outstanding universal value. Two years later, the site of patrimony was extended as a serial nomination, to include three other religious monuments: Patriarchate of Peja, Our Lady of Ljeviš and Gračanica monastery under the name of Medieval Monuments in Kosovo.[297] It consists of four Serbian Orthodox churches and monasteries, which represent the fusion of the eastern Orthodox Byzantine and the western Romanesque ecclesiastical architecture to form the Palaiologan Renaissance style.

These monuments have come under attack, especially during the 2004 ethnic violence. In 2006, the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger due to difficulties in its management and conservation stemming from the region's political instability.[298]

Kosovar art was unknown to the international public for a very long time, because of the regime, many artists were unable to display their art in art galleries, and so were always on the lookout for alternatives, and even resorted to taking matters into their own hands. Until 1990, artists from Kosovo presented their art in many prestigious worldwide renowned centers. They were affirmed and evaluated highly because of their unique approach to the arts considering the circumstances in which they were created, making them distinguished and original.[299][300]

In February 1979, the Kosova National Art Gallery was founded. It became the highest institution of visual arts in Kosovo. It was named after one of the most prominent artists of Kosovo Muslim Mulliqi. Engjëll Berisha, Masar Caka, Tahir Emra, Abdullah Gërguri, Hysni Krasniqi, Nimon Lokaj, Aziz Nimani, Ramadan Ramadani, Esat Valla and Lendita Zeqiraj are some of few Albanian painters born in Kosovo.


Flia is one of the most favored dishes of the traditional Albanian cuisine in Kosovo.

The Kosovar cuisine is influenced by the Albanian origins of its majority population. Located at the crossroad of Albanian, Ottoman, Romance and Slavic cultures, Kosovo has enriched its own cuisine adopting and maintaining some of their cooking traditions and techniques.

Food is an important component in the social life of the people of Kosovo particularly during religious holidays such as Christmas, Easter and Ramadan. For festive occasions, Baklava, Lokum and Halva are traditionally prepared in almost every household throughout Kosovo and the Balkans regardless of ethnicity or cultural identity.[301][self-published source?]

Perhaps the most prominent and traditional examples of Kosovar food include the Flia and Pite which are served with assorted vegetables, fruit preserves, honey and yogurt. Flia is composed of multiple layered crepe and is predominantly brushed with cream while Pite are filled with a mixture of salty cheese, meat, potatoes or leek.

The cuisine of Kosovo features a wide range of fresh fruits, vegetables and herbs such as salt, red and black pepper and vegeta.[302][better source needed] The people of Kosovo enjoy a wide variety of meat and fish products among other chicken, beef, kebab, Sujuk and lamb which is considered to be the traditional meat for religious occasions due to its religious connections.

Tea such as Albanian-style mountain tea or Russian and Turkish-style black tea are a widely consumed beverage throughout Kosovo and particularly served at cafés, restaurants or at home. Coffee is another popular drink although Kosovo is steeped in culture and their coffee culture is a big part of the modern society.[303][better source needed]


Majlinda Kelmendi, an Olympic, World and European champion.

Sport is a significant component of the society and culture of Kosovo. The most prominent sports in Kosovo include football, basketball, judo, boxing, volleyball and handball. The Olympic Committee of Kosovo became a full member of the International Olympic Committee in 2014.[304] It participated at the 2015 European Games in Azerbaijan, 2019 European Games in Belarus, the 2023 European Games in Poland, the 2016 Summer Olympics in Brazil and the 2020 Summer Olympics in Japan. Kosovo is due to host the 2030 Mediterranean Games.

By far the most popular sport in Kosovo is football. 1922 saw the founding of Kosovo's first clubs, including KF Vëllaznimi and FC Prishtina. During the Cold War era from 1945 until 1991, football in former Yugoslavia advanced so rapidly that in 1946, the Federation of Kosovo was formed as a subsidiary of the Federation of Yugoslavia. Prishtina were the nation's most successful club during that period, spending five years in the top-tier Yugoslav First League and reaching the semi-finals of the 1987-88 Yugoslav Cup. In 1991, an unsanctioned Kosovar league system known as the Liga e Pavarur e Kosovës ("Independent League of Kosovo") was set up, running parallel to the official Yugoslav leagues; in 1999, in the wake of the Kosovo War, this became Kosovo's official league system.[305]

Three footballers from Kosovo – Milutin Šoškić, Fahrudin Jusufi, and Vladimir Durković – were part of the Yugoslavia squad that won a gold medal at the 1960 Summer Olympics and a silver medal at the 1960 European Championship. Kosovar-born goalkeeper Stevan Stojanović became the first goalkeeper to captain a European Cup-winning team when he captained Red Star Belgrade to victory in the 1991 European Cup Final.

The 2010s saw an increase in the number of Kosovar players of Albanian origin playing in top European teams. These include Lorik Cana, who captained Marseille and Sunderland as well as the Albanian national team; Valon Behrami who played for West Ham United, Udinese, and the Swiss national team; Xherdan Shaqiri, who won the 2018-19 UEFA Champions League with Liverpool and also plays for Switzerland internationally;[306][307] and Adnan Januzaj, who began his career at Manchester United and represents Belgium.

Basketball is also a popular sport in Kosovo. The first championship was held in 1991, with the participation of eight teams. The Basketball Federation of Kosovo was accepted as a full member of FIBA on 13 March 2015.[308] Notable players born in Kosovo who played for the successful Yugoslavia and Serbia national teams include Zufer Avdija, Marko Simonović and Dejan Musli, some of whom continue to compete for Serbia despite FIBA's recognition of Kosovo.

Judoka Majlinda Kelmendi became World Champion in 2013 and 2014, and also the European Champion in 2014. At the Summer Olympics 2016, Kelmendi became the first decorated Kosovar athlete to win a gold medal, also the first gold medal for Kosovo in a major sport tournament.[309] Nora Gjakova won the first medal for Kosovo at the first European Games in 2015, when she earned bronze in 57 kg category. In the second European Games in 2019, Kelmendi won a gold medal, Gjakova a silver medal and Loriana Kuka a bronze medal.


Kosovo ranks 56th out of 180 countries in the 2023 Press Freedom Index report compiled by the Reporters Without Borders.[310] The Media consists of different kinds of communicative media such as radio, television, newspapers, and internet web sites. Most of the media survive from advertising and subscriptions. As according to IREX there are 92 radio stations and 22 television stations.[311]


Although the music in Kosovo is diverse, authentic Albanian and Serbian music still exist. Albanian music is characterised by the use of the Çifteli. Classical music is well known in Kosovo and has been taught at several music schools and universities. In 2014, Kosovo submitted their first film for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, with Three Windows and a Hanging directed by Isa Qosja.[312]

A baked-clay ocarina was found in the village of Runik which is considered to be the oldest musical instrument found in Kosovo and one of the oldest ocarinas ever found in Europe.[313] Runik ocarina is thought to be at least 8,000 years old.[314]

The Neolithic Runik ocarina is the oldest musical instrument found in Kosovo to date and one of the oldest in Europe.[314]

In the past, epic poetry in Kosovo and Northern Albania was sung on a lahuta and then a more tuneful çiftelia was used which has two strings-one for the melody and one for drone. Kosovar music is influenced by Turkish music due to the almost 500-year span of Ottoman rule in Kosovo though Kosovar folklore has preserved its originality and exemplary.[315] Archaeological research tells how old this tradition is and how it was developed in parallel with other traditional music in the Balkans. Roots dating to the 5th century BC have been found in paintings on stones of singers with instruments. (There is a famous portrait of "Pani" holding an instrument similar to a flute).[316]

The contemporary music artists Rita Ora, Dua Lipa and Era Istrefi, are all of Albanian origin and have achieved international recognition for their music.[317] One widely recognised musician from Prizren is guitarist Petrit Çeku, winner of several international prizes.[318]

Serbian music from Kosovo presents a mixture of traditional music, which is part of the wider Balkan tradition, with its own distinctive sound, and various Western and Turkish influences.[319] Serb songs from Kosovo were an inspiration for 12th song wreath by composer Stevan Mokranjac. Most of Serbian music from Kosovo was dominated by church music, with its own share of sung epic poetry.[319] Serbian national instrument Gusle is also used in Kosovo.[320]

Viktorija is the only artist from Kosovo who represented Yugoslavia in the Eurovision Song Contest as part of Aska in 1982. Singer Rona Nishliu finished 5th in the 2012 Eurovision Song Contest, while Lindita represented Albania in 2017. Several Serbian singers from Kosovo have also participated in the Serbian national selection for the Eurovision Song Contest. Nevena Božović represented Serbia in the Junior Eurovision Song Contest and twice in the Eurovision Song Contest, firstly as a member of Moje 3 in 2013 and as a solo act in 2019.


Bekim Fehmiu was the first Eastern European actor to star in Hollywood during the Cold War.

The film industry of Kosovo dates from the 1970s. In 1969, the parliament of Kosovo established Kosovafilm, a state institution for the production, distribution and showing of films. Its initial director was the actor Abdurrahman Shala, followed by writer and noted poet Azem Shkreli, under whose direction the most successful films were produced. Subsequent directors of Kosovafilm were Xhevar Qorraj, Ekrem Kryeziu and Gani Mehmetaj. After producing seventeen feature films, numerous short films and documentaries, the institution was taken over by the Serbian authorities in 1990 and dissolved. Kosovafilm was reestablished after Yugoslav withdrawal from the region in June 1999 and has since been endeavoring to revive the film industry in Kosovo.

Dokufest in Prizren.

The International Documentary and Short Film Festival is the largest film event in Kosovo. The Festival is organised in August in Prizren, which attracts numerous international and regional artists. In this annually organised festival, films are screened twice a day in three open-air cinemas as well as in two regular cinemas. Except for its films, the festival is also well known for lively nights after the screening. Various events happen within the scope of the festival: workshops, DokuPhoto exhibitions, festival camping, concerts, which altogether turn the city into a charming place to be. In 2010, Dokufest was voted as one of the 25 best international documentary festivals.[321]

International actors of Albanian origin from Kosovo include Arta Dobroshi, James Biberi, Faruk Begolli and Bekim Fehmiu. The Prishtina International Film Festival is the largest film festival, held annually in Pristina, in Kosovo that screens prominent international cinema productions in the Balkan region and beyond, and draws attention to the Kosovar film industry.

The movie Shok was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Live Action Short Film at the 88th Academy Awards.[322] The movie was written and directed by Oscar nominated director Jamie Donoughue, based on true events during the Kosovo war. Shok's distributor is Ouat Media, and the social media campaign is led by Team Albanians.

See also


  1. ^ /ˈkɒsəv/ KOSS-ə-voh; Albanian: Kosova [kɔˈsɔva]; Serbian Cyrillic: Косово [kôsovo]
  2. ^ Albanian: Republika e Kosovës; Serbian: Република Косово, romanized: Republika Kosovo


  1. ^ "Israel's ties with Kosovo: What new opportunities await?". The Jerusalem Post. 1 February 2021. Archived from the original on 7 February 2021. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
  2. ^ a b "LANGUAGES SPOKEN IN KOSOVO". Archived from the original on 19 December 2023. Retrieved 19 December 2023.
  3. ^ "Municipal language compliance in Kosovo". OSCE Minsk Group. Archived from the original on 5 March 2021. Retrieved 17 February 2021. Turkish language is currently official in Prizren and Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša municipalities. In 2007 and 2008, the municipalities of Gjilan/Gnjilane, southern Mitrovicë/Mitrovica, Prishtinë/Priština and Vushtrri/Vučitrn also recognized Turkish as a language in official use.
  4. ^ "Kosovo Population 2019". World Population Review. Archived from the original on 28 July 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  5. ^ "2022 Report on International Religious Freedom: Kosovo". U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 27 October 2023. Retrieved 15 October 2023.
  6. ^ "Kosovo profile". BBC. 28 June 2023. Archived from the original on 27 September 2023. Retrieved 12 September 2023.
  7. ^ "Water percentage in Kosovo (Facts about Kosovo; 2011 Agriculture Statistics)". Kosovo Agency of Statistics, KAS. Archived from the original on 29 August 2017.
  8. ^ "Regjistrimi i popullsisë, ekonomive familjare dhe banesave në Kosovë - Rezultatet paraprake korrik 2024" [The census of population, families, and dwellings in Kosovo - Preliminary results July 2024] (PDF) (in Albanian). Kosovo Statistics Agency. Retrieved 12 July 2024.
  9. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2024 Edition. (Kosovo)". www.imf.org. International Monetary Fund. 16 April 2024. Archived from the original on 17 April 2024. Retrieved 17 April 2024.
  10. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate)–Kosovo". World Bank. Archived from the original on 24 January 2019. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  11. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Archived from the original on 29 November 2022.
  12. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo (PDF) (13). Assembly of the Republic of Kosovo. 9 April 2008.
  13. ^ a b "Ligji Nr. 06/L-012 për Kryeqytetin e Republikës së Kosovës, Prishtinën" (in Albanian). Gazeta Zyrtare e Republikës së Kosovës. 6 June 2018. Archived from the original on 24 September 2020. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  14. ^ "The euro outside the euro area". Economy and Finance. European Commission. Archived from the original on 28 January 2024. Retrieved 28 January 2024.
  15. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo (PDF) (11). Assembly of the Republic of Kosovo. 9 April 2008.
  16. ^ "Përfundon periudha transitore: Nga sot, euro valuta e vetme për transaksione në Kosovë" [The transitory period is over: from today euro is the only currency for transactions in Kosovo]. Telegrafi (in Albanian). Prishtina: Telegrafi. 12 May 2024. Archived from the original on 13 May 2024. Retrieved 13 May 2024.
  17. ^ "Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Respect of Kosovo" (PDF). International Court of Justice (ICJ). 22 July 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2020. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  18. ^ Gvosdev, Nikolas K. (24 April 2013). "Kosovo and Serbia Make a Deal". Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016.
  19. ^ a b "Kosovo formally applies for EU membership". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 16 December 2022. Retrieved 15 December 2022.
  20. ^ Judah, Tim (2008). Kosovo: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford University Press. p. 31. ISBN 9780195373455. Archived from the original on 15 August 2023. Retrieved 15 August 2023.
  21. ^ Manić, Emilija; Nikitović, Vladimir; Djurović, Predrag, eds. (2021). The Geography of Serbia: Nature, People, Economy. Springer. p. 47. ISBN 9783030747015. Archived from the original on 15 August 2023. Retrieved 15 August 2023.
  22. ^ a b J. Everett-Heath (1 August 2000). Place Names of the World - Europe: Historical Context, Meanings and Changes. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 373–. ISBN 978-0-230-28673-3. Archived from the original on 30 September 2023. Retrieved 13 August 2023.
  23. ^ "Constitution of the Republic of Serbia". Parlament.gov.rs. Archived from the original on 27 November 2010. Retrieved 2 January 2011.
  24. ^ Drançolli, Jahja. "Illyrian-Albanian Continuity the Areal of Kosova". academia.edu. Archived from the original on 20 November 2023. Retrieved 11 February 2024.
  25. ^ Albanian Etymological Dictionary, V.Orel, Koninklijke Brill, Leiden Boston Köln 1998, p. 56
  26. ^ "Kosovo's Constitution of 2008 (with Amendments through 2016)" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 November 2019. Retrieved 2 November 2019 – via constituteproject.org.
  27. ^ "Agreement on regional representation of Kosovo". B92. 25 February 2012. Archived from the original on 11 November 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  28. ^ a b c Schermer, Shirley; Shukriu, Edi; Deskaj, Sylvia (2011). Marquez-Grant, Nicholas; Fibiger, Linda (eds.). The Routledge Handbook of Archaeological Human Remains and Legislation: An International Guide to Laws and Practice in the Excavation and Treatment of Archaeological Human Remains. Taylor & Francis. p. 235. ISBN 978-1136879562. Archived from the original on 4 February 2022. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  29. ^ a b Berisha, Milot (2012). "Archaeological Guide of Kosovo" (PDF). Ministry of Culture of Kosovo. pp. 17–18. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  30. ^ Shukriu, Edi (2006). "Spirals of the prehistoric open rock painting from Kosova". Proceedings of the XV World Congress of the International Union for Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences. 35: 59. Archived from the original on 14 September 2021. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  31. ^ Wilkes, John (1996) [1992]. The Illyrians. Wiley. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-631-19807-9. Archived from the original on 2 May 2020. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  32. ^ Papazoglu, Fanula (1978). The Central Balkan Tribes in pre-Roman Times: Triballi, Autariatae, Dardanians, Scordisci and Moesians. Amsterdam: Hakkert. p. 131. ISBN 9789025607937. Archived from the original on 11 April 2021. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
  33. ^ Errington, Robert Malcolm (1990). A History of Macedonia. Translated by Catherine Errington. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-520-06319-8.
  34. ^ Hammond, N.G.L. (1988). A History of Macedonia: 336-167 B.C. Clarendon Press. p. 253. ISBN 0-19-814815-1.
  35. ^ Starinar. Vol. 45–47. Arheološki institut. 1995. p. 33.
  36. ^ Roisman, Joseph (2010). "Classical Macedonia to Perdiccas III". In Roisman, Joseph; Worthington, Ian (eds.). A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 145–165. ISBN 978-1-4051-7936-2.
  37. ^ Teichner 2015, p. 81.
  38. ^ Gassmann, Guntram; Körlin, Gabriele; Klein, Sabine (2011). "Römischer Erzbergbau im Umfeld der antiken Stadt Ulpiana bei Pristina (Kosovo)" (PDF). Der Anschnitt. 63: 157–167. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 February 2024. Retrieved 18 August 2023.
  39. ^ a b Hoxhaj, Enver (1999). "Die frühchristliche dardanische Stadt Ulpiana und ihr Verhältnis zu Rom". Dardanica. 8: 21–33.
  40. ^ Berisha, Milot. "Archaeological Guide of Kosovo". Academia.edu. Archived from the original on 27 April 2023. Retrieved 5 December 2021.
  41. ^ Teichner 2015, p. 83.
  42. ^ Harnack, Adolf (1998). The Expansion of Christianity in the First Three Centuries. Vol. 1–2. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 371. ISBN 978-1-57910-002-5.
  43. ^ Harnack 1998, p. 80.
  44. ^ a b Çetinkaya, Halûk (2016). Zakharova, Anna; Maltseva, Svetlana; Stanyukovich-Denisova, Ekaterina (eds.). "To Excavate or not? Case of Discovery of an Early Christian Baptistery and Church at Ulpiana, Kosovo" (PDF). Actual Problems of Theory and History of Art. 6. Saint Petersburg: NP-Print Publ.: 111–118. doi:10.18688/aa166-2-11. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 March 2024. Retrieved 18 August 2023.
  45. ^ Curtis, Matthew Cowan (2012). Slavic-Albanian Language Contact, Convergence, and Coexistence (Thesis). The Ohio State University. p. 42. Archived from the original on 30 September 2023. Retrieved 15 December 2022.
  46. ^ Prendergast, Eric (2017). The Origin and Spread of Locative Determiner Omission in the Balkan Linguistic Area (Thesis). UC Berkeley. p. 80. Archived from the original on 12 May 2022. Retrieved 7 June 2022.
  47. ^ Kingsley, Thomas (2019). Albanian Onomastics Using Toponymic Correspondences to Understand the History of Albanian Settlement. 6th Annual Linguistics Conference at the University of Georgia. United States. pp. 110–151. Archived from the original on 27 January 2023. Retrieved 23 January 2023.
  48. ^ Malcolm, Noel (2002). Kosovo: A Short History. ISBN 9780330412247. Archived from the original on 11 January 2021. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
  49. ^ McGeer, Eric (2019). Byzantium in the Time of Troubles: The Continuation of the Chronicle of John Skylitzes (1057–1079). BRILL. p. 149. ISBN 978-9004419407. Archived from the original on 26 April 2021. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  50. ^ Prinzing, Günter (2008). "Demetrios Chomatenos, Zu seinem Leben und Wirken". Demetrii Chomateni Ponemata diaphora: [Das Aktencorpus des Ohrider Erzbischofs Demetrios. Einleitung, kritischer Text und Indices]. Walter de Gruyter. p. 30. ISBN 978-3110204506. Archived from the original on 5 August 2021. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  51. ^ Ducellier, Alain (21 October 1999). The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 5, c.1198-c.1300. Cambridge University Press. p. 780. ISBN 978-0-521-36289-4. Archived from the original on 3 January 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
  52. ^ a b Sharpe, M. E. (2003). Ethnic Groups and Population Changes in Twentieth-Century Central-Eastern Europe. M.E. Sharpe. p. 364. ISBN 9780765618337. Archived from the original on 3 August 2017.
  53. ^ Denis P Hupchik. The Balkans. From Constantinople to Communism. p. 93 "Dusan.. established his new state primate's seat at Peć (Ipek), in Kosovo"
  54. ^ Bieber, p. 12
  55. ^ RFE/RL Research Report: Weekly Analyses from the RFE/RL Research Institute, Том 3. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
  56. ^ Sellers, Mortimer (2010). The Rule of Law in Comparative Perspective. Springer. p. 207. ISBN 978-90-481-3748-0. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
  57. ^ "Medieval Monuments in Kosovo". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 13 May 2015. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
  58. ^ Barbara Jelavich (1983). History of the Balkans. Cambridge University Press. pp. 31–. ISBN 978-0-521-27458-6.
  59. ^ a b "Essays: 'The battle of Kosovo' by Noel Malcolm, Prospect Magazine May 1998 issue 30". Prospect-magazine.co.uk. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2009.
  60. ^ Humphreys 2013, p. 46: "Both armies – and this is a fact that is ignored by the hagiographic telling – contained soldiers of various origins; Bosnians, Albanians, Hungarians, Greeks, Bulgars, perhaps even Catalans (on the Ottoman side)."
  61. ^ Somel, S.A. (2010). The A to Z of the Ottoman Empire. The A to Z Guide Series. Scarecrow Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-4617-3176-4. Archived from the original on 28 November 2023. Retrieved 10 May 2024. The coalition consisted of Serbians, Bosnians, Croatians, Hungarians, Wallachians, Bulgarians, and Albanians.
  62. ^ Fine 1994, pp. 409–415
  63. ^ Casiday, Augustine (2012), The Orthodox Christian World (PDF), Routledge, p. 135, archived (PDF) from the original on 21 January 2022, retrieved 16 September 2023
  64. ^ Shinasi A. Rama (2019). Nation Failure, Ethnic Elites, and Balance of Power: The International Administration of Kosova. Springer. p. 64.
  65. ^ J. Everett-Heath (1 August 2000). Place Names of the World - Europe: Historical Context, Meanings and Changes. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 365. ISBN 978-0-230-28673-3. Archived from the original on 30 September 2023. Retrieved 13 August 2023.
  66. ^ Geniş, Şerife, and Kelly Lynne Maynard (2009). Formation of a diasporic community: The history of migration and resettlement of Muslim Albanians in the Black Sea Region of Turkey." Middle Eastern Studies. 45. (4): 556–557.
  67. ^ a b Lampe, John R.; Lampe, Professor John R. (2000). Yugoslavia as History: Twice There Was a Country. Cambridge University Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-521-77401-7. Archived from the original on 30 September 2023. Retrieved 3 April 2020. The first Ottoman encouragement of Albanian migration did follow the Serb exodus of 1690
  68. ^ Anscombe, Frederick F 2006 - http://eprints.bbk.ac.uk/577/1/Binder2.pdf Archived 14 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  69. ^ a b c Cohen, Paul A. (2014). History and Popular Memory: The Power of Story in Moments of Crisis. Columbia University Press. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-0-23153-729-2. Archived from the original on 30 November 2021. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  70. ^ Malcolm, Noel (10 July 2020). Noel Malcolm 2020 p . 135. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-259922-3. Archived from the original on 30 September 2023. Retrieved 16 September 2023.
  71. ^ Rebels, Believers, Survivors: Studies in the history of the Albanians - Malcolm 2020 p. 132-133/p
  72. ^ Rebels, Believers, Survivors: Studies in the history of the Albanians - Malcolm 2020 p. 143/p
  73. ^ Kosovo: What Everyone Needs to Know by Tim Judah, Publisher Oxford University Press, US, 2008 ISBN 0-19-537673-0, 978-0-19-537673-9 p. 36
  74. ^ Cirkovic. p. 244.
  75. ^ George Gawlrych, The Crescent and the Eagle, (Palgrave/Macmillan, London, 2006), ISBN 1-84511-287-3
  76. ^ Frantz, Eva Anne (2009). "Violence and its Impact on Loyalty and Identity Formation in Late Ottoman Kosovo: Muslims and Christians in a Period of Reform and Transformation". Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs. 29 (4): 460–461. doi:10.1080/13602000903411366. S2CID 143499467.
  77. ^ Müller, Dietmar (2009). "Orientalism and Nation: Jews and Muslims as Alterity in Southeastern Europe in the Age of Nation-States, 1878–1941". East Central Europe. 36 (1): 70. doi:10.1163/187633009x411485.
  78. ^ Pllana, Emin (1985). "Les raisons de la manière de l'exode des refugies albanais du territoire du sandjak de Nish a Kosove (1878–1878) [The reasons for the manner of the exodus of Albanian refugees from the territory of the Sanjak of Niš to Kosovo (1878–1878)] ". Studia Albanica. 1: 189–190.
  79. ^ Rizaj, Skënder (1981). "Nënte Dokumente angleze mbi Lidhjen Shqiptare të Prizrenit (1878–1880) [Nine English documents about the League of Prizren (1878–1880)]". Gjurmine Albanologjike (Seria e Shkencave Historike). 10: 198.
  80. ^ Şimşir, Bilal N, (1968). Rumeli'den Türk göçleri. Emigrations turques des Balkans [Turkish emigrations from the Balkans]. Vol I. Belgeler-Documents. p. 737.
  81. ^ Bataković, Dušan (1992). The Kosovo Chronicles. Plato. Archived from the original on 26 December 2016.
  82. ^ Elsie, Robert (2010). Historical Dictionary of Kosovo. Scarecrow Press. p. xxxii. ISBN 9780333666128.
  83. ^ Stefanović, Djordje (2005). "Seeing the Albanians through Serbian eyes: The Inventors of the Tradition of Intolerance and their Critics, 1804–1939." European History Quarterly. 35. (3): 470.
  84. ^ Iain King; Whit Mason (2006). Peace at Any Price: How the World Failed Kosovo. Cornell University Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-8014-4539-2. Archived from the original on 9 January 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2018.
  85. ^ Skendi, Stavro (2015). The Albanian National Awakening. Cornell University Press. p. 201. ISBN 978-1-4008-4776-1. Archived from the original on 28 July 2021. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
  86. ^ Malcolm 1998, p. 246-248.
  87. ^ "Treaty of London, 1913". Mtholyoke.edu. Archived from the original on 1 May 1997. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
  88. ^ Malcolm, Noel (1999). "Kosovo – A Short History". Verfassung in Recht und Übersee. 32 (3): 422–423. doi:10.5771/0506-7286-1999-3-422. ISSN 0506-7286.
  89. ^ Aggression Against Yugoslavia Correspondence. Faculty of Law, University of Belgrade. 2000. p. 42. ISBN 978-86-80763-91-0. Archived from the original on 30 September 2023. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  90. ^ Malcolm 1998, p. 279.
  91. ^ Pavlović, Aleksandar (2008). "Prostorni raspored Srba i Crnogoraca kolonizovanih na Kosovo i Metohiju u periodu između 1918. i 1941. godine" (PDF). Baština. 24: 235. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 August 2011.
  92. ^ a b Schabnel, Albrecht; Thakur, Ramesh (eds). Kosovo and the Challenge of Humanitarian Intervention: Selective Indignation, Collective action, and International Citizenship. New York: The United Nations University, 2001. p. 20.
  93. ^ I. Mehmeti, Leandrit; Radeljic, Branislav (24 March 2017). Kosovo and Serbia: Contested Options and Shared Consequences. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. pp. 63–64. ISBN 978-0822944690. Archived from the original on 7 March 2022. Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  94. ^ Daskalovski, Židas. Claims to Kosovo: Nationalism and Self-determination. In: Florian Bieber & Zidas Daskalovski (eds.), Understanding the War in Kosovo. L.: Frank Cass, 2003. ISBN 0-7146-5391-8. pp. 13–30.
  95. ^ Malcolm 1998.
  96. ^ Ramet, Sabrina P. The Kingdom of God or the Kingdom of Ends: Kosovo in Serbian Perception. In Mary Buckley & Sally N. Cummings (eds.), Kosovo: Perceptions of War and Its Aftermath. L. – N.Y.: Continuum Press, 2002. ISBN 0-8264-5670-7. pp. 30–46.
  97. ^ a b c Malcolm 1998, p. 312.
  98. ^ Bieber, Florian; Daskalovski, Zidas (2004). Understanding the War in Kosovo. Routledge. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-13576-155-4. Archived from the original on 19 November 2021. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  99. ^ a b c Ramet, Sabrina P. (2006). The Three Yugoslavias: State-building and Legitimation, 1918-2005. Indiana University Press. pp. 114, 141. ISBN 978-0-25334-656-8. Archived from the original on 19 November 2021. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  100. ^ Malcolm 1998, p. 317-318.
  101. ^ Frank, Chaim (2010). Petersen, Hans-Christian; Salzborn, Samuel (eds.). Antisemitism in Eastern Europe: History and Present in Comparison. Bern: Peter Lang. pp. 97–98. ISBN 978-3-631-59828-3. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015.
  102. ^ Vickers, Miranda (1998), Between Serb and Albanian : a history of Kosovo, New York: Columbia University Press, ISBN 9781850652786, archived from the original on 4 March 2016, The Italian occupation force encouraged an extensive settlement programme involving up to 72,000 Albanians from Albania in Kosovo
  103. ^ Malcolm 1998, pp. 312–313.
  104. ^ Flere, Sergej; Klanjšek, Rudi (2019). The Rise and Fall of Socialist Yugoslavia: Elite Nationalism and the Collapse of a Federation. United Kingdom: Lexington Books. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-4985-4197-8.
  105. ^ Pavlowitch, Stevan K. (2002). Serbia: The History behind the Name. London: Hurst & Company. p. 159. ISBN 9781850654773.
  106. ^ Fowkes, Ben (2002). Ethnicity and Ethnic Conflict in the Post-Communist World. United States of America: Palgrave. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-349-41937-1.
  107. ^ a b c d e f g Independent International Commission on Kosovo. The Kosovo report: conflict, international response, lessons learned. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. p. 35.
  108. ^ Melissa Katherine Bokovoy, Jill A. Irvine, Carol S. Lilly. State-society relations in Yugoslavia, 1945–1992. Scranton, Pennsylvania: Palgrave Macmillan, 1997. p. 295.
  109. ^ a b c Melissa Katherine Bokovoy, Jill A. Irvine, Carol S. Lilly. State-society relations in Yugoslavia, 1945–1992. Scranton, Pennsylvania: Palgrave Macmillan, 1997. p. 296.
  110. ^ Melissa Katherine Bokovoy, Jill A. Irvine, Carol S. Lilly. State-society relations in Yugoslavia, 1945–1992. Scranton, Pennsylvania: Palgrave Macmillan, 1997. p. 301.
  111. ^ Independent International Commission on Kosovo. The Kosovo report: conflict, international response, lessons learned. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. pp. 35–36.
  112. ^ a b c Independent International Commission on Kosovo. The Kosovo report: conflict, international response, lessons learned. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. p. 36.
  113. ^ Qirezi, Arben (2017). "Settling the Self Determination Dispute in Kosovo". In Mehmeti, Leandrit I.; Radeljić, Branislav (eds.). Kosovo and Serbia: Contested Options and Shared Consequences. University of Pittsburgh Press. pp. 53–57. ISBN 978-0-8229-8157-2. Archived from the original on 4 July 2023. Retrieved 4 July 2023.
  114. ^ a b Prentiss, Craig R, ed. (2003). Religion and the Creation of Race and Ethnicity: An Introduction. New York University Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-6701-6. Archived from the original on 24 November 2021. Retrieved 20 July 2009.
  115. ^ New York Times 1981-04-19, "One Storm has Passed but Others are Gathering in Yugoslavia"
  116. ^ Elsie, Robert. Historical Dictionary of Kosova. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8108-5309-4.
  117. ^ Reuters 1986-05-27, "Kosovo Province Revives Yugoslavia's Ethnic Nightmare"
  118. ^ Christian Science Monitor 1986-07-28, "Tensions among ethnic groups in Yugoslavia begin to boil over"
  119. ^ New York Times 1987-06-27, "Belgrade Battles Kosovo Serbs"
  120. ^ a b c Rogel, Carole (2003). "Kosovo: Where It All Began". International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society. 17 (1): 167–182. doi:10.1023/A:1025397128633. S2CID 141051220. Archived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
  121. ^ Clark, Howard. Civil Resistance in Kosovo. London: Pluto Press, 2000. ISBN 0-7453-1569-0.
  122. ^ Malcolm 1998, pp. 346–347.
  123. ^ Babuna, Aydın. Albanian national identity and Islam in the post-Communist era. Perceptions 8(3), September–November 2003: 43–69.
  124. ^ See:
  125. ^ Rama, Shinasi A. The Serb-Albanian War, and the International Community's Miscalculations Archived 29 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine. The International Journal of Albanian Studies, 1 (1998), pp. 15–19.
  126. ^ "Operation Allied Force". NATO. Archived from the original on 12 September 2016.
  127. ^ Larry Minear; Ted van Baarda; Marc Sommers (2000). "NATO and Humanitarian Action in the Kosovo Crisis" (PDF). Brown University. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 February 2008. Retrieved 23 February 2008.
  128. ^ "KOSOVO: THE MILITARY CAMPAIGN". Parliament of the United Kingdom. 7 June 2000. Retrieved 14 June 2024.
  129. ^ Lambeth, Benjamin S., NATO's Air War for Kosovo: A Strategic and Operational Assessment. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2001. https://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/MR1365.html.
  130. ^ Freedman, Lawrence. "Victims and victors: reflections on the Kosovo War" (PDF).{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  131. ^ "World: Europe UN gives figure for Kosovo dead". BBC News. 10 November 1999. Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
  132. ^ KiM Info-Service (7 June 2000). "3,000 missing in Kosovo". BBC News. Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
  133. ^ "Abuses against Serbs and Roma in the new Kosovo". Human Rights Watch. August 1999. Archived from the original on 15 October 2012.
  134. ^ Hudson, Robert; Bowman, Glenn (2012). After Yugoslavia: Identities and Politics Within the Successor States. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 30. ISBN 9780230201316. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016.
  135. ^ "Kosovo Crisis Update". UNHCR. 4 August 1999. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015.
  136. ^ "Forced Expulsion of Kosovo Roma, Ashkali and Egyptians from OSCE Participated state to Kosovo". OSCE. 6 October 2006. Archived from the original on 26 November 2015.
  137. ^ Siobhán Wills (2009). Protecting Civilians: The Obligations of Peacekeepers. Oxford University Press. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-19-953387-9. Archived from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  138. ^ "Serbia home to highest number of refugees and IDPs in Europe". B92. 20 June 2010. Archived from the original on 26 March 2017.
  139. ^ "Serbia: Europe's largest proctracted refugee situation". OSCE. 2008. Archived from the original on 26 March 2017.
  140. ^ Cross, Sharyl; Kentera, Savo; Nation, R. Craig; Vukadinović, Radovan, eds. (2013). Shaping South East Europe's Security Community for the Twenty-First Century: Trust, Partnership, Integration. Springer. p. 169. ISBN 9781137010209. Archived from the original on 26 March 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
  141. ^ a b c "Abuses against Serbs and Roma in the new Kosovo". Human Rights Watch. August 1999. Archived from the original on 15 October 2012.
  142. ^ The Guardian, "Kosovo, drugs and the West". Archived from the original on 11 September 2007. Retrieved 27 June 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link), 14 April 1999.
  143. ^ "UNDER ORDERS: War Crimes in Kosovo – 2. Background". www.hrw.org. Archived from the original on 7 April 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  144. ^ ""Wounds that burn our souls": Compensation for Kosovo's wartime rape survivors, but still no justice". Amnesty International. 13 December 2017. Archived from the original on 25 July 2023. Retrieved 25 July 2023.
  145. ^ "ICTY – TPIY : Judgement List". icty.org. Archived from the original on 1 March 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  146. ^ "ICTY.org" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 August 2010. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  147. ^ "ICTY.org" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 March 2011. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  148. ^ "Second Amended Indictment – Limaj et al" (PDF). Icty.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2009.
  149. ^ "Kosovo ex-PM Ramush Haradinaj cleared of war crimes". BBC News. 29 November 2012. Archived from the original on 29 November 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
  150. ^ "Kosovo Memory Book Database Presentation and Expert Evaluation" (PDF). Kosovo Memory Book 1998-2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 January 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  151. ^ "Resolution 1244 (1999)". BBC News. 17 June 1999. Archived from the original on 7 April 2008. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
  152. ^ European Stability Initiative (ESI): The Lausanne Principle: Multiethnicity, Territory and the Future of Kosovo's Serbs (.pdf) Archived 24 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine, 7 June 2004.
  153. ^ Coordinating Centre of Serbia for Kosovo-Metohija: Principles of the program for return of internally displaced persons from Kosovo and Metohija.
  154. ^ Herscher 2010, p. 14.
  155. ^ András Riedlmayer. "Introduction in Destruction of Islamic Heritage in the Kosovo War, 1998–1999" (PDF). p. 11. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 July 2019. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  156. ^ Rausch & Banar 2006, p. 246.
  157. ^ Egleder 2013, p. 79.
  158. ^ "UN frustrated by Kosovo deadlock Archived 7 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine ", BBC News, 9 October 2006.
  159. ^ Southeast European Times (29 June 2007). "Russia reportedly rejects fourth draft resolution on Kosovo status". Archived from the original on 2 July 2007. Retrieved 24 July 2009.
  160. ^ Southeast European Times (10 July 2007). "UN Security Council remains divided on Kosovo". Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 24 July 2009.
  161. ^ James Dancer (30 March 2007). "A long reconciliation process is required". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 8 February 2008.
  162. ^ Simon Tisdall (13 November 2007). "Bosnian nightmare returns to haunt EU". The Guardian. UK. Archived from the original on 7 March 2022. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
  163. ^ "Europe, Q&A: Kosovo's future". BBC News. 11 July 2008. Archived from the original on 23 January 2009. Retrieved 20 July 2009.
  164. ^ "OSCE Mission in Kosovo – Elections Archived 9 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine ", Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
  165. ^ "Power-sharing deal reached in Kosovo Archived 25 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine", BBC News, 21 February 2002.
  166. ^ "Publicinternationallaw.org" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  167. ^ "Kosovo gets pro-independence PM Archived 8 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine", BBC News, 9 January 2008.
  168. ^ EuroNews: Ex-guerilla chief claims victory in Kosovo election Archived 6 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 18 November 2007.
  169. ^ "Kosovo MPs proclaim independence Archived 15 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine", BBC News Online, 17 February 2008.
  170. ^ BBC News Archived 3 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 10 October 2008.
  171. ^ "Nauru withdraws recognition of Kosovo's independence, Pristina denies". N1. 22 November 2019. Archived from the original on 13 May 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  172. ^ "Serbia claims Sierra Leone has withdrawn Kosovo recognition". Prishtina Insight. 3 March 2020. Archived from the original on 22 April 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  173. ^ Kostreci, Keida (5 September 2020). "US-Brokered Serbia-Kosovo Deal a 'Step Forward' But Challenges Remain". Voice of America. Archived from the original on 7 September 2020. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
  174. ^ "Republic of Kosovo – IMF Staff Visit, Concluding Statement". Imf.org. 24 June 2009. Archived from the original on 29 June 2009. Retrieved 20 July 2009.
  175. ^ "World Bank Cauntries". Archived from the original on 16 July 2006.
  176. ^ "Kosovo Serbs convene parliament; Pristina, international authorities object". SETimes.com. 30 June 2008. Archived from the original on 13 January 2009. Retrieved 20 July 2009.
  177. ^ "Advisory Proceedings | International Court of Justice". icj-cij.org. Archived from the original on 8 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  178. ^ "Serbia and Kosovo reach EU-brokered landmark accord". BBC News. 19 April 2013. Archived from the original on 8 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  179. ^ "Belgrade, Pristina initial draft agreement". Serbian government website. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  180. ^ "Serbia, Kosovo agree on implementation of EU-backed agreement to normalize ties". Anadolu Agency. 19 March 2023. Archived from the original on 19 March 2023. Retrieved 19 March 2023.
  181. ^ a b Perritt, Henry H. Jr. (2009). The Road to Independence for Kosovo: A Chronicle of the Ahtisaari Plan. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139479431. Archived from the original on 16 February 2018 – via Google Books.
  182. ^ a b Naamat, Talia; Porat, Dina; Osin, Nina (2012). Legislating for Equality: A Multinational Collection of Non-Discrimination Norms. Volume I: Europe. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 978-9004226128. Archived from the original on 7 March 2022. Retrieved 1 November 2020 – via Google Books.
  183. ^ "Kosovo's Constitution of 2008 (with Amendments through 2016), chapter V" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 November 2019. Retrieved 2 November 2019 – via constituteproject.org.
  184. ^ Phillips, David L. (2012). Liberating Kosovo: Coercive Diplomacy and U. S. Intervention. MIT Press. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-26230-512-9. Archived from the original on 3 August 2020. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  185. ^ EU 5 "less likely than ever" to recognize Kosovo Archived 17 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine "B92 – News", Retrieved 31 March 2014.
  186. ^ Kosovo Archived 28 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ec.europa.eu.
  187. ^ "Will the EBRD do the right thing for Kosovo, its newest member?". neurope.eu. 10 February 2013. Archived from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
  188. ^ "Kosovo fails in UNESCO membership bid". Guardian. 9 November 2015. Archived from the original on 22 October 2017.
  189. ^ "Foreign Missions in Kosovo". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kosovo. Archived from the original on 6 May 2016. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  190. ^ "Embassies of the Republic of Kosovo". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kosovo. Archived from the original on 13 May 2016. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  191. ^ "Consular Missions of the Republic of Kosovo". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kosovo. Archived from the original on 13 May 2016. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  192. ^ "European Parliament Votes to Scrap Visa Regime for Kosovo Citizens". 18 April 2023. Archived from the original on 19 July 2023. Retrieved 19 July 2023.
  193. ^ Letter dated 26 March 2007 from the Secretary-General addressed to the President of the Security Council (PDF), United Nations Security Council (UNSC), 26 March 2007, Annex, archived from the original (PDF) on 14 December 2007
  194. ^ "EULEX Kosovo: new role for the EU rule of law mission". European Council. 8 June 2018. Archived from the original on 3 December 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  195. ^ a b "Constitution of Kosovo" (PDF). Prime Minister of Kosovo. p. 47. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 June 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2023.
  196. ^ Law on Service in the Kosovo Security Force (PDF) (Law No. 03/L-082, Article 3, Section 3(a)). 13 June 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 May 2016. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
  197. ^ Global Peace Index 2020: Measuring Peace in a Complex World. Sydney: Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP). 2020. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2017. Retrieved 8 July 2023.
  198. ^ Khakee, Anna; Florquin, Nicolas (1 June 2003). "Kosovo: Difficult Past, Unclear Future" (PDF). Kosovo and the Gun: A Baseline Assessment of Small Arms and Light Weapons in Kosovo. 10. Pristina, United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo and Geneva, Switzerland: Small Arms Survey: 4–6. JSTOR resrep10739.9. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 June 2022. Retrieved 3 March 2023. Kosovo—while still formally part of the so-called State Union of Serbia and Montenegro dominated by Serbia—has, since the war, been a United Nations protectorate under the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK). [...] However, members of the Kosovo Serb minority of the territory (circa 6–7 per cent in 2000) have, for the most part, not been able to return to their homes. For security reasons, the remaining Kosovo Serb enclaves are, in part, isolated from the rest of Kosovo and protected by the multinational NATO-led Kosovo Force (KFOR).
  199. ^ "NATO's role in Kosovo". nato.int. 29 November 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  200. ^ "NATO's role in Kosovo". nato.int. Retrieved 12 June 2024.
  201. ^ Philips, John (2004). Macedonia: Warlords and Rebels in the Balkans. I.B.Tauris. p. 171. ISBN 978-1-86064-841-0.
  202. ^ "Kosovo to create national army of 5,000 soldiers". Reuters. 4 March 2014. Archived from the original on 9 March 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  203. ^ Shehu, Bekim (14 December 2018). "Kosova bëhet me ushtri". Deutsche Welle (in Albanian). Archived from the original on 7 March 2022. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  204. ^ "The Federal Armed Forces to continue their participation in the Kosovo peace mission in Kosovo". 3 May 2023. Archived from the original on 30 September 2023. Retrieved 9 September 2023.
  205. ^ "Europe: Kosovo–The World Factbook". The World Factbook. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  206. ^ Warrander, Gail; Knaus, Verena (2007). Kosovo. Bradt Travel Guides. ISBN 978-1-84162-199-9.
  207. ^ Elsie, Robert (15 November 2010). Historical Dictionary of Kosovo. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-7483-1. Archived from the original on 17 January 2023. Retrieved 16 December 2023.
  208. ^ "Highest peaks of 4 countries". Balkans Hiking | Peaks of the balkans and more. Archived from the original on 16 December 2023. Retrieved 16 December 2023.
  209. ^ "Parku Kombëtar Sharri Plani Hapësinor" (PDF) (in Albanian). Ministria e Ekonomisë dhe Ambientit and Agjencia për Mbrojtjen e Mjedisit të Kosovës. February 2013. p. 13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2017. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  210. ^ "VISIT KOSOVO". Archived from the original on 30 June 2023. Retrieved 30 June 2023.
  211. ^ "Istitue of Statistics, Albania". Archived from the original on 10 February 2019. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  212. ^ [1] Archived 2015-04-03 at the Wayback Machine Independent Commission for Mines and Minerals of Kosovo
  213. ^ "Kosovo Environment and Climate Analysis" (PDF). University of Gothenburg. 11 March 2008. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 October 2018. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  214. ^ "Overview: Climate Change in Albania and Kosovo" (PDF). Sustainicum Collection. p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2020. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  215. ^ "Climatic Conditions". Independent Commission for Mines and Minerals of Kosovo. Archived from the original on 16 May 2007. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
  216. ^ Çavolli, Riza (1993). Gjeografia e Kosovës. p. 23.
  217. ^ Dinerstein, Eric; et al. (2017). "An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm". BioScience. 67 (6): 534–545. doi:10.1093/biosci/bix014. ISSN 0006-3568. PMC 5451287. PMID 28608869.
  218. ^ Veselaj, Zeqir; Mustafa, Behxhet (28 December 2015). "Overview of Nature Protection Progress in Kosovo" (PDF). p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2018. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
  219. ^ a b Maxhuni, Qenan. "Biodiversiteti i Kosovës" (PDF) (in Albanian). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 August 2020. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
  220. ^ Grantham, H. S.; et al. (2020). "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity – Supplementary Material". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 5978. Bibcode:2020NatCo..11.5978G. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19493-3. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7723057. PMID 33293507. S2CID 228082162.
  221. ^ a b "Kosovo Biodiversity Assessment" (PDF). pdf.usaid.gov. pp. 15–16. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 March 2017.
  222. ^ "Biodiversity conservation status in the Republic of Kosovo with focus on biodiversity centres" (PDF). jeb.co.in. p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 October 2017.
  223. ^ "Kosovo Biodiversity Assessment" (PDF). pdf.usaid.gov (in Albanian). p. 17. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 March 2017.
  224. ^ a b "Climate Change Strategy 2019 – 2028 | Action Plan on Climate Change 2019 – 2021" (PDF). Ministry of Environment, Spatial Planning and Infrastructure of Kosovo (MESP). Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 June 2023. Retrieved 26 June 2023.
  225. ^ a b c "Climate Promise: Kosovo". United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Archived from the original on 26 June 2023. Retrieved 26 June 2023.
  226. ^ a b "Republic of Kosovo: Request for Stand-By Arrangement and an Arrangement Under the Resilience and Sustainability Facility-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Republic of Kosovo". International Monetary Fund (IMF). 7 June 2023. Archived from the original on 26 June 2023. Retrieved 26 June 2023.
  227. ^ Kosovo Agency of Statistics. "Estimation of Kosovo population 2021" (PDF). Pristina. Archived from the original on 17 November 2022. Retrieved 18 November 2022.
  228. ^ "Life Expectancy of Kosovo (under UNSC res. 1244) 1950-2023 & Future Projections". database.earth. Retrieved 18 June 2023.[permanent dead link]
  229. ^ "Kosovo". The World Factbook (2024 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 15 August 2023.
  230. ^ "Ethnic composition of Kosovo 2011". pop-stat.mashke.org. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
  231. ^ "Kosovo Population 2019". World Population Review. Archived from the original on 28 July 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  232. ^ "The Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo". Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2022.
  233. ^ "Kosovo Language Commissioner lauds trainings". European Centre for Minority Issues. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  234. ^ a b "Municipal language compliance in Kosovo, June 2014" (PDF). Council of Europe. Archived from the original on 3 July 2015. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  235. ^ "Kosovo's Constitution of 2008 (with Amendments through 2016), article 5" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 November 2019. Retrieved 2 November 2019 – via constituteproject.org.
  236. ^ "Vlerësim Popullsia e Kosovës 2015". ask.rks-gov.net (in Albanian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 October 2016.
  237. ^ Schabnel, Albrecht; Thakur (ed), Ramesh (ed). Kosovo and the Challenge of Humanitarian Intervention: Selective Indignation, Collective Action, and International Citizenship, New York: The United Nations University, 2001. p. 20.
  238. ^ a b c Schabnel, Albrecht; Thakur (ed), Ramesh (ed), 2001. p. 24.
  239. ^ "The Roma and "Humanitarian" Ethnic Cleansing in Kosovo". Dissidentvoice.org. Archived from the original on 21 May 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
  240. ^ Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) – Norwegian Refugee Council. "IDMC, Internally Displaced persons (IDPs) in Kosovo". Internal-displacement.org. Archived from the original on 21 May 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
  241. ^ Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) – Norwegian Refugee Council. "IDMC: Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre, Countries, Kosovo, Roma, Ashkaelia and Egyptians in Kosovo (2006)". Internal-displacement.org. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
  242. ^ "Index of ethnic stereotypes in Kosovo" (PDF). kcs-ks.org. 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 July 2020. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
  243. ^ a b "World Factbook–Kosovo". The World Factbook. 19 June 2014. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
  244. ^ Ghaffar, Mughal Abdul (30 December 2015). "Muslims in Kosovo: A Socio-economic and Demographic Profile: Is the Muslim Population Exploding?". Balkan Social Science Review. 6: 155–201. Archived from the original on 20 December 2021. Retrieved 20 December 2021.
  245. ^ "Kosovo's Constitution of 2008 (with Amendments through 2016), article 8" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 November 2019. Retrieved 2 November 2019 – via constituteproject.org.
  246. ^ Olivier Roy, Arolda Elbasani (2015). The Revival of Islam in the Balkans: From Identity to Religiosity. Springer. p. 67. ISBN 9781137517845. Archived from the original on 7 March 2022. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
  247. ^ "Freedom of Thought 2014 report (map)". Freedom of Thought. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
  248. ^ Petrit Collaku (29 March 2011). "Kosovo Census to Start Without the North". Balkan Insight. Archived from the original on 25 September 2020. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
  249. ^ Perparim Isufi (14 September 2017). "Kosovo Police Stop 'Illegal' Serb Census Attempts". Balkan Insight. Archived from the original on 25 September 2020. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
  250. ^ Mughal Abdul Ghaffar. "Muslims in Kosovo: A Socio-economic and Demographic Profile: Is the Muslim Population Exploding?" (PDF). js.ugd.edu.mk. Archived from the original on 24 November 2018. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  251. ^ "Muslims in Europe: Country guide". BBC News. 23 December 2005. Archived from the original on 26 January 2009.
  252. ^ "Conversion rate". The Economist. 30 December 2008. ISSN 0013-0613. Archived from the original on 5 November 2017. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  253. ^ "Religion in Kosovo". crisisgroup.org. International Crisis Group. 31 July 2001. Archived from the original on 14 February 2024. Retrieved 14 February 2024.
  254. ^ IMF Country Report No 12/100 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2012.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Unemployment, around 40% of the population, is a significant problem that encourages outward migration and black market activity."
  255. ^ Republic of Kosovo: Selected Issues. International Monetary Fund. 2018. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-48434-056-1. Archived from the original on 28 May 2021. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  256. ^ "Invest in Kosovo – EU Pillar top priorities: privatisation process and focus on priority economic reforms". Euinkosovo.org. Archived from the original on 28 January 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  257. ^ Croatia, Kosovo sign Interim Free Trade Agreement, B92, 2 October 2006 Archived 6 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  258. ^ ""UNMIK and Bosnia and Herzegovina Initial Free Trade Agreement". UNMIK Press Release, 17 February 2006" (PDF). euinkosovo.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2016.
  259. ^ "Oda Eknomike e Kosovės/Kosova Chambre of Commerce – Vision". 10 October 2007. Archived from the original on 10 October 2007.
  260. ^ "Doing business in Kosovo". buyusa.gov. Archived from the original on 13 July 2009.
  261. ^ "Trade Agreements". Kosovo Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on 23 April 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  262. ^ a b c "Home". www.oecd-ilibrary.org. Archived from the original on 6 June 2023. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
  263. ^ Asllan, Pushka. "Gjeografia 12". Libri Shkollor (2005). p. 77.
  264. ^ "Çelet Zyra Doganore e Kosovës në Portin e Durrësit" (in Albanian). Kryeministria Shqipëtare. 15 January 2019. Archived from the original on 11 September 2023. Retrieved 11 September 2023.
  265. ^ Hammond, Joseph (12 November 2022). "Landlocked Kosovo Opens Customs Port In Albania". Forbes. Archived from the original on 11 September 2023. Retrieved 11 September 2023.
  266. ^ "The Customs Office of Kosovo Inauguration at the Port of Durres". Dogana. Archived from the original on 11 September 2023. Retrieved 11 September 2023.
  267. ^ "Kosovo: Natural resources key to the future, say experts". adnkronos.com. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
  268. ^ "Lignite Mining Development Strategy" (PDF). esiweb.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 June 2010. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  269. ^ "World Bank survey puts Kosovo's mineral resources at 13.5bn euros". BBC Monitoring European. KosovaLive. 28 January 2005. ProQuest 459422903. Archived from the original on 8 October 2022. Retrieved 31 August 2022 – via ProQuest.
  270. ^ "Kosovo – Bilateral relations in agriculture" (PDF). European Commission. November 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 October 2019.
  271. ^ "5. Agriculture". henrin.grida.no. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017.
  272. ^ "Kosovo's wines flowing again". BBC News. 29 October 2011. Archived from the original on 29 October 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
  273. ^ "Investing in Kosovo – Vineyards". Archived from the original on 4 April 2013. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  274. ^ "Projekti Energjetik i Kosovës" (PDF). World Bank. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 March 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  275. ^ Balkan Green Energy News (25 October 2021). "Kosovo's 102.6 MW wind farm Bajgora goes on stream". Balkan Green Energy News. Archived from the original on 18 November 2022. Retrieved 18 November 2022.
  276. ^ Todorović, Igor (14 September 2020). "Kitka wind farm in Kosovo* to be expanded by 20 MW". Balkan Green Energy News. Archived from the original on 18 November 2022. Retrieved 18 November 2022.
  277. ^ "Kostt gains independence from Serbia". Prishtinainsight.com. 21 April 2020. Archived from the original on 22 April 2020. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  278. ^ "Kosovos electricity transmission system becomes independent from serbia". Exit.al. 21 April 2020. Archived from the original on 3 August 2020. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  279. ^ a b "Investing in Kosovo" (PDF). p. 15. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
  280. ^ a b "Top 6 Best Lakes to Visit in Kosovo". toplist.info. Archived from the original on 5 June 2023. Retrieved 5 June 2023.
  281. ^ "The 41 Places to Go in 2011". The New York Times. 7 January 2011. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
  282. ^ "Picturesque Kosovo". Diplomat. 2 August 2012. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
  283. ^ ""Arbën Xhaferi"e gatshme për qarkullim" (in Albanian). Ministry of Environment, Spatial Planning and Infrastructure of Kosovo. 29 May 2019. Archived from the original on 5 September 2022. Retrieved 5 September 2022.
  284. ^ "Transporti i udhëtarëve" (in Albanian). Trainkos. Archived from the original on 16 May 2021. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  285. ^ "Aktivitetet e Ministrisë së Tregtisë dhe Industrisë: Themelohet Ndërmarrja Publike 'Aeroporti i Gjakovës'". Ministria e Tregtisë dhe Industrisë. Archived from the original on 27 February 2015.
  286. ^ a b "Strategjia Sektoriale e Shendetesise" (PDF). Ministry of Health – Republic of Kosovo. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  287. ^ "Strategjia Sektoriale e Shendetesise" (PDF). Ministry of Health. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  288. ^ a b QKMF. (2010–2014). Njesite me Adresa dhe Nr.Telefonit. Available: [2]. Last accessed 23 February 2014.
  289. ^ "Stafi i QKUK-se". QKUK. Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
  290. ^ "Statistikat e Shëndetësisë 2012". Kosovo Agency of Statistics. Archived from the original on 2 March 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  291. ^ "Informatë – 13 shkurt 2012". Municipality of Prishtina – Republic of Kosovo. Archived from the original on 6 July 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  292. ^ "Strategjia e permiresimit te cilesise se sherbimeve shendetesore 2012–2016" (PDF). Ministry of Health – Republic of Kosovo. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  293. ^ "Elementary and secondary education". rks-gov.net. Archived from the original on 18 August 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  294. ^ "Prioritized Intervention List". Regional Programme for Cultural and Natural Heritage in South-east Europe: 8. 23 January 2009. Archived from the original on 2 March 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  295. ^ "Cultural Heritage in South-East: Kosovo". United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization: 5. Archived from the original on 22 March 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  296. ^ "7 Years of Kosovo Howard Smith of Geelong". Archived from the original on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  297. ^ "Medieval Monuments in Kosovo". UNESCO. 2006. Archived from the original on 13 May 2015.
  298. ^ World Heritage Committee puts Medieval Monuments in Kosovo on Danger List and extends site in Andorra, ending this year's inscriptions Archived 2 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine, UNESCO World Heritage Centre, 13 July 2006. Accessed 31 January 2017.
  299. ^ "Photography academic invited by President to attend ceremony for popstar Rita Ora". www.dmu.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 9 May 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  300. ^ Library of Congress (2010). Library of Congress Subject Headings. Library of Congress. pp. 4303–. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  301. ^ "Tavares blog » Embelsira kosovare". Archived from the original on 7 April 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
  302. ^ "Cuisine of Kosovo". Podravka. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  303. ^ Ondozi, Qerim (25 December 2017). "Coffee Culture Is Rooted in Our Society". kosovotwopointzero.com. Archived from the original on 24 November 2018. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  304. ^ "127th IOC Session comes to close in Monaco". olympic.org. 9 December 2014. Archived from the original on 4 January 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  305. ^ "Historia e futbollit në Kosovë!" [History of Football in Kosovo]. Korneri.net (in Albanian). 20 November 2013. Archived from the original on 2 March 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  306. ^ "Xherdan Shaqiri: Liverpool sign Stoke forward after triggering release clause". BBC Sport. 13 July 2018. Archived from the original on 14 July 2018. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
  307. ^ "History of Sports in Kosovo" (in Albanian). The President of Kosovo Office. Archived from the original on 18 March 2013. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  308. ^ "Kosovo becomes 215th National Member Federation of FIBA". FIBA. 13 March 2015. Archived from the original on 15 March 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
  309. ^ MacPhail, Cameron (7 August 2016). "Majlinda Kelmendi makes history with victory in women's judo as Kosovo wins first ever gold medal". rio2016.com. Rio 2016. Archived from the original on 8 August 2016. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
  310. ^ "Kosovo | RSF". rsf.org. 21 December 2022. Archived from the original on 28 May 2023. Retrieved 28 May 2023.
  311. ^ "Kosovo" (PDF). Media Sustainability Index 2012 (Report). 2012. pp. 74–85. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 May 2014.
  312. ^ "Oscars: Kosovo Selects 'Three Windows and a Hanging' for Foreign-Language Category". Hollywood Reporter. 23 September 2014. Archived from the original on 26 September 2014. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
  313. ^ Cacciafoco, Francesco Perono (1 December 2019). "A Prehistoric 'Little Goose': A New Etymology for the Word 'Ocarina'". Annals of the University of Craiova: Series Philology, Linguistics.
  314. ^ a b Kayode (24 September 2022). "History Of The Ocarina". Phamox Music. Archived from the original on 10 December 2023. Retrieved 10 December 2023.
  315. ^ Knaus, Warrander, Verena, Gail (2010). Kosovo. Kosovo: Brad Travel Guides. p. 41.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  316. ^ Kruta, Beniamin (1990). Vendi i polifonise shqiptare ne polifonike ballkanike. Kultura Popullore. pp. 13–14.
  317. ^ "Rita Ora". The Hollywood Reporter. 24 February 2012. Archived from the original on 1 May 2012.
  318. ^ "Petrit Ceku". naxos.com. Archived from the original on 14 February 2024. Retrieved 14 February 2024.
  319. ^ a b Warrander, Gail (2011). Kosovo. Bradt Guides. p. 41. ISBN 9781841623313. Archived from the original on 17 August 2017.
  320. ^ Biddle, Ian (2013). Music National Identity and the Politics of Location: Between the Global and the Local. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 9781409493778. Archived from the original on 17 August 2017.
  321. ^ "Home – DOKUFEST 2013". dokufest.com. Archived from the original on 20 August 2016.
  322. ^ Johnson, Zach (14 January 2016). "Oscars 2016 Nominations: Complete List of Nominees". E! Online. Archived from the original on 15 January 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2016.


External links

Wikimedia Atlas of Kosovo

42°35′N 21°00′E / 42.583°N 21.000°E / 42.583; 21.000