Kota, Rajasthan

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This article is about The municipality in Rajasthan, India. For its namesake district, see Kota district.
KOTA
कोटा
Metropolitan City
Jagmandir palace
Jagmandir palace
Nickname(s): Education city of India, Industrial city of Rajasthan
KOTA is located in Rajasthan
KOTA
KOTA
Coordinates: 25°0′0″N 76°10′0″E / 25.00000°N 76.16667°E / 25.00000; 76.16667Coordinates: 25°0′0″N 76°10′0″E / 25.00000°N 76.16667°E / 25.00000; 76.16667
Country India India
State Rajasthan
District Kota
Division Kota Division ( Hadoti Region )
Government
 • Type Democratic
 • Body Municipal Corporation
 • Mayor Mahesh Vijay (BJP)
 • Member of Parliament Kota-Bundi Om Birla (BJP)
 • Member of Legislative Assembly Kota South Sandeep Sharma (BJP)
 • Member of Legislative Assembly Kota North Prahlad Gunjal (BJP)
Area[1]
 • Total 527 km2 (203 sq mi)
Elevation 271 m (889 ft)
Population (2011)[2][3]
 • Total 1,001,694
 • Rank 46th
 • Density 1,900/km2 (4,900/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Hindi
 • Native English, Harauti, Hindi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 324001 to 324011 and 324022
Telephone code 0744
Vehicle registration RJ 20
Sex ratio 895 /
Website kota.rajasthan.gov.in

Kota (Listeni/ˈktə/) formerly known as Kotah, is a city located in the southeast of northern Indian state of Rajasthan.[4] It is located Around 250 kilometres (155 mi) south of the state capital, Jaipur. Situated on the banks of Chambal River, it is the third most populous city of Rajasthan after Jaipur and Jodhpur, 46th most populous city of India and 53rd most populous urban agglomeration of India. It serves as the administrative headquarters for Kota district and Kota Division. Kota is a major coaching hub of the country for competitive examination preparations and has a number of engineering and medical coaching institutes.[5]

The city of Kota was once the part of the erstwhile Rajput kingdom of Bundi. It became a separate princely state in the 17th century. Apart from the several monuments that reflect the glory of the town, Kota is also known for its palaces and gardens.[6][7]

Mahesh Vijay of Bhartiya Janta Party is the current Mayor of Kota.[8] In 2013, Kota was ranked the second most livable city in the state (after Jaipur) and forty-first in the country among 50 cities.[9] The city was also included among 98 Indian cities for Smart Cities Mission initiated by Indian prime minister Narendra Modi in 2015[10] and was listed at 67th place after results of first round were released following which top 20 cities were further selected for funding in the immediate financial year.[11]

History[edit]

See also: Kota State
Procession of Raja Ram Singh II of Kota Later Mughal Period, c. 1850

The history of the city dates back to the 12th century AD when Rao Deva, a Chauhan Rajput chieftain belonging to the Hada clan conquered the territory and founded Bundi and Hadoti. Later, in the early 17th century, during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir, the ruler of Bundi - Rao Ratan Singh, gave the smaller principality of Kota to his son, Madho Singh. Since then Kota became a hallmark of the Rajput gallantry and culture.[12]

The independent state of Kota became a reality in 1631 when Rao Madho Singh, the second son of Rao Ratan of Bundi was made the ruler, by the Mughal Emperor Jahangir.[13] Soon Kota outgrew its parent state to become bigger in area, richer in revenue and more powerful. Maharao Bhim Singh played a pivotal role in Kota's history, having held a 'Mansab'[13] of five thousand and being the first in his dynasty to have the title of Maharao. Zalim Singh, a diplomat and statesman emerged as an another prominent figure of the state in the 18th century. Although initially being a general of Kota's army, he rose to the regent of the kingdom after the king died leaving a minor on the throne.[12] He remained a direct administrator of the state. In 1817, a treaty of friendship was signed between him and the British on his condition of carving out a part from the existing state for his descendants resulting in Jhalawar coming into existence in 1838.[12] During the colonial period, firebrand social activist Guru Radha Kishan organised the masses against the policies of the government. He left Kota after local administration came to know about the arrest warrant issued against him for his participation in Indian Independence activities.

Princely city of Kota[edit]

Princely city: Kota (कोटा)
Region Hadoti
19th-century flag Kotah.svg
Independence from: Bundi State
State existed: 1579-1949
Dynasties Rajput Chauhan Hada
Capital Kota
See also: Hadoti

Kota city became independent in 1579, after Bundi state in Hadoti region had become weak. Then, Kota ruled the territory which now is Kota district and Baran district.

Geography[edit]

Kota is located along the banks of the Chambal River in the southern part of Rajasthan. It is the 3rd largest city of Rajasthan after Jaipur and Jodhpur. The cartographic coordinates are 25°11′N 75°50′E / 25.18°N 75.83°E / 25.18; 75.83.[14] It covers an area of 527 km2.[1][15] It has an average elevation of 271 metres (889 ft). The district is bound on the north and north west by Sawai Madhopur, Tonk and Bundi districts. The Chambal River separates these districts from Kota district, forming the natural boundary.

The city of Kota is situated at a centre of the southeastern region of Rajasthan a region very widely known as Hadoti, the land of the Hadas. Kota lies along the banks of the Chambal river on a high sloping tableland forming a part of the Malwa Plateau. The general slope of city is towards the north. The comparatively rocky, barren and elevated land in southern part of city descends towards a plain agricultural land in the north. The Mokandarra hills run from southeast to northwest axis of the town. The historical places and temples are getting surrounded by signs of modern development.

Kota has fertile land and greenery with irrigation facilities through canals. The two main canals; called as left main canal (towards Bundi) and right main canal (towards Baran) originate from the reservoir created by Kota Barrage.[16][17] The tributaries of these canals make up a network in the city and surrounding areas of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh and supplements the irrigation of these areas.[17]

Climate[edit]

Kota
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
10
 
 
23
11
 
 
20
 
 
26
13
 
 
10
 
 
33
19
 
 
10
 
 
39
25
 
 
20
 
 
42
29
 
 
50
 
 
40
29
 
 
250
 
 
34
26
 
 
240
 
 
32
26
 
 
110
 
 
34
25
 
 
20
 
 
34
22
 
 
10
 
 
30
16
 
 
10
 
 
25
12
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Kota weather

Kota has a semi arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSh) with high temperatures throughout the year. Summers are long, hot and dry, starting in late March and lasting till the end of June. The temperatures average above 40 °C in May and June and frequently exceed 45 °C with temperatures as high as 48.4 °C also been recorded.[18] The monsoon season follows with comparatively lower temperatures, but higher humidity and frequent, torrential downpours. The monsoons subside in October and temperatures rise again. The brief, mild winter starts in late November and lasts until the last week of February. Temperatures hover between 26.7 °C (max) to 12 °C (min). This can be considered the best time to visit Kota because of intense heat in the summer.[19]

The average annual rainfall in the Kota district is 660.6 mm.[15] Most of the rainfall can be attributed to the southwest monsoon which has its beginning around the last week of June and may last till mid-September. Pre-monsoon showers begin towards the middle of June with post-monsoon rains occasionally occurring in October. The winter is largely dry, although some rainfall does occur as a result of the Western Disturbance passing over the region.[19]

Climate data for Kota (A)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.4
(92.1)
37.0
(98.6)
42.7
(108.9)
48.5
(119.3)
48.4
(119.1)
47.3
(117.1)
44.3
(111.7)
41.0
(105.8)
41.0
(105.8)
40.4
(104.7)
38.0
(100.4)
33.2
(91.8)
48.5
(119.3)
Average high °C (°F) 23.7
(74.7)
26.9
(80.4)
32.9
(91.2)
38.8
(101.8)
42.1
(107.8)
40.0
(104)
34.2
(93.6)
32.0
(89.6)
33.7
(92.7)
34.3
(93.7)
29.9
(85.8)
25.3
(77.5)
32.82
(91.07)
Average low °C (°F) 10.9
(51.6)
13.7
(56.7)
19.1
(66.4)
25.0
(77)
29.3
(84.7)
29.2
(84.6)
26.5
(79.7)
25.4
(77.7)
25.0
(77)
21.8
(71.2)
16.3
(61.3)
11.9
(53.4)
21.18
(70.11)
Record low °C (°F) 1.8
(35.2)
4.5
(40.1)
8.6
(47.5)
14.0
(57.2)
20.0
(68)
18.8
(65.8)
20.4
(68.7)
18.4
(65.1)
16.4
(61.5)
14.1
(57.4)
7.1
(44.8)
3.8
(38.8)
1.8
(35.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 5.4
(0.213)
4.4
(0.173)
4.0
(0.157)
3.2
(0.126)
10.3
(0.406)
62.9
(2.476)
257.0
(10.118)
245.8
(9.677)
98.5
(3.878)
19.6
(0.772)
7.8
(0.307)
3.5
(0.138)
722.4
(28.441)
Average rainy days 0.9 1.0 0.6 0.4 2.1 6.9 13.1 15.2 5.6 1.6 1.2 0.5 49.1
Average relative humidity (%) 48 38 25 19 23 43 67 74 58 40 41 48 43.7
Source #1: Kota weather, India Meteorological Department: (Kota (A) record highs and lows up to 2010),[20] Monthly mean maximum and minimum temperature and rainfall (1961-2000)[21]
Source #2: NOAA (1971-1990)[22]

Demographics[edit]

Demographic Distribution of Religion in Kota, Rajasthan[23]
Religion Percent(%)
Hinduism
  
80.50%
Islam
  
15.87%
Jainism
  
2.17%
Sikhism
  
0.86%
Christianity
  
0.42%
Others
  
0.18%

According to 2011 Census of India, Kota City had a population of 1,001,694, of which male and female are 528,601 and 473,093 respectively.[24][3] The provisional results of census 2011 reported city's population as 1,001,365.[25] The urban agglomeration of Kota consists of city only.[26][24] The sex ratio was 895 and 12.14% were under six years of age. The effective literacy rate was 82.80%, with male literacy at 89.49% and female literacy at 75.33%.[24]

Harauti, a dialect of Rajasthani is widely spoken in Kota with Hindi, Marwari and English being the other languages spoken.[27]

According to 2011 census, Hinduism is the majority religion in the city practised by about 80.5% of the population. Muslims form large minorities (15.9%) followed by Jains (2.2%), Sikhs (0.9%) and Christians (0.4%).[23]

Government institutions and courts[edit]

Governmental institutions in Kota include:

  • Municipal Corporation
  • Collectorate
  • Office of the Divisional Commissioner
  • Rajasthan Housing Board
  • Command Area Development (CAD)
  • Urban Improvement Trust (UIT)
  • Office of the Superintendent of Police, Inspector General of Police and the Income Tax commissioner of Kota range.
  • Office of the Divisional Railway Manager, Kota Division, West Central Railway
  • Office of Deputy Commissioner of central excise and service tax

Instrumentation Ltd is a Public Sector company based in Kota.[28] Its clientele includes public sector entities such as the Indian Railways, BSNL and VSNL.

The District court provides court and notary services.[29]

Health services[edit]

Healthcare is provided by a combination of public and private-sector hospitals.[30][31][32]

The main hospitals include:

  • MBS Hospital, Civil Lines
  • Acharya Children Hospital, Jawahar Nagar
  • J K Lon Hospital, Nayapura
  • Global Modi Hospital, Swami Vivekanand Nagar
  • Medical college Hospital, R.K. Puram
  • Maitri Hospital, Talwandi
  • Sudha Hospital, Talwandi
  • Sudha Heart Institute. Talwandi, Kota
  • Cancer Hospital, Dadabari
  • Kota Heart institute, Talwandi
  • PMC American Hospital, Indra Vihar
  • Bharat Vikas Parishad Hospital, Pratap Nagar
  • E.S.I. Hospital, Vigyan Nagar
  • Kharoliwal Hospital, Nayapura
  • Ratna Nursing Home, Nayapura
  • M.J.Hospital, Vasant Vihar
  • Shri Hari Hospital, Kunhari
  • Jaiswal hospital & Neuro institute, Vigyan Nagar

There are several other hospitals within the city limit.[30]

Economy[edit]

The city is the trade centre for an area in which cotton, millet, wheat, coriander and oilseeds are grown; industries include cotton and oilseed milling, textile weaving, distilling, dairying, and the manufacture of metal handcrafts.[33] Kota also has an extensive industry of stone-polishing of a stone called Kota Stone, used for the floor and walls of residential and business buildings. Since last 15 years Kota has emerged as an Education hub of the country as producing excellent results in IIT-JEE and medical entrance exams.[5][34][35]

Kota doria and saris[edit]

Main article: Kota doria
Kota Sari with Gota Patti embroidery

Kota is known for the fine translucent muslins called Masuria Malmal. Originally, such saris were called Masuria because they were woven in Mysore. The weavers were subsequently brought to Kota by Rao Kishore Singh who was a general in the Mughal army. The weavers were brought to Kota in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and the saris came to be known as 'Kota-Masuria'. Kota saris are popularly known as 'Masuria' in Kota and Kotadoria outside the state. 'Doria' means thread.

Weaving in Kota was started by Maharana Bhimdeo in the 18th century.[36] Maharaja Bhim Singh of Kota brought some weavers from the Deccan in the early 18th Century and the craft blossomed under the royal patronage. The warp and weft use a combination of threads creating a fine chequered pattern (Khat) where the cotton portion provides firmness while the silk lends a gossamer finish to the fabric.

The Kota saris like most traditional piece of work had started becoming lost before designer Vidhi Singhania moved to Kota and started working with the workers to revive its market.[37] Many textile shops in the city sell different varieties of Kota doria. These saris have become one of the trademarks of the city.[38]

Kota stone[edit]

Storage area of Kota Stone
Main article: Kota Stone

The fine-grained variety of limestone quarried from Kota district is known as Kota stone, with rich greenish-blue and brown colours. Kota stone are tough, non water-absorbent, non-slip, and non-porous. The varieties include Kota Blue Natural, Kota Blue Honed, Kota Blue Polished, Kota Blue Cobbles, Kota Brown Natural and Kota Brown Polished.[39] The industry of polishing of this Kota stone is also a significant contributor to the city's economy.

Industries[edit]

Kota is one of the industrial hubs in northern India, with chemical, engineering and power plants based there. The total number of industrial units in the district from 2010-11 stood at 12908 with 705 registered units.[40] The district power plants show annual growth of 15-20 % due to their strategic locations.[40]

Power Plants[edit]

Kota is surrounded by five power stations within its 50 km radius.

  1. Kota Super Thermal Power Plant - Thermal[41]
  2. Rajasthan Atomic Power Station in Rawatbhatha Chittorgarh district (65 kilometres from Kota )-Nuclear[42]
  3. NTPC Anta Gas Power Plant in Antah Baran district (50 kilometres from Kota ) - Gas
  4. Jawahar Sagar Power Plant - Hydro[43]
  5. Kalisindh Thermal Power Station - (In Jhalrapatan, Jhalawar)-Thermal

Education[edit]

The government and private schools in the city are affiliated with either Central Board of Secondary Education or Board of Secondary Education, Rajasthan and follow a 10+2 plan. The medium of instruction is either English or Hindi.

In the past decade the city has emerged as a popular coaching destination for competitive exams preparation and for profit educational services. The education sector of Kota has become a major contributor to the city's economy.[44] Kota is popularly referred to as "the coaching capital of India".[5][34][45] Over 1.5 lakh students from all over the country flock every year towards the city for preparation of various exams such as IIT-JEE, NEET-UG and AIIMS etc.[46][47][48][49][50] Many hostels and PGs are located in Kota near the vicinity of coaching centres for students. Students live here for 2–3 years and prepare for the exams. In the past few years, reports of students committing suicide in the city have increased. As per reports, students feel stressed and get pressurised in order to crack their target competitive exam. For the same cause, many coaching centres have also appointed counsellors to help students.[51][52][53][54]

Major universities and colleges[edit]

Major coaching institutions[edit]

Places of interest[edit]

Chambal Express, a toy train in Chatra Vilas Garden

Some of the popular visitor attractions in and near the city include Chambal Garden, Seven Wonders Park, Chatra Vilas Garden, Kota Zoological Park, Kishore Sagar Lake, Jag Mandir, Maharao Madho Singh Museum, Kota Government Museum, Brijraj Bhawan Palace, Garh Palace, Abheda Mahal, Godavari Dham Temple, Rangbari Balaji Temple, Garadia Mahadev Temple, Agamgarh Gurudwara Sahib, Sawan Phuhar Waterpark, Hanging Rock Fountain, Royal Cenotaphs at Kesar Bagh, Kota Barrage, Adarshila Dargah, Noori Jama Masjid, Darrah National Park and Jawahar Sagar Dam.[55][56][57][58][59]

There are several shopping malls and complexes in Kota. City Mall on Jhalawar road, Centre Square Mall in Gumanpura and Ahluwalia's The Great Mall of Kota near DCM road are some of the notable retail malls in the city.[60][61]

Transport[edit]

Kota is well connected with road and rail to all major cities within Rajasthan as well as those located outside the state. It is also connected by air, although only chartered flights are available.[62]

Roadways[edit]

The city is well connected with neighboring cities and districts and with major cities outside the state. National highway No.12 (JaipurJabalpur) and National Highway No.76 pass through the city.[63] National Highway No.76 is a part of East-West Corridor. The total road length in Kota district is 2,052 km. as of March 2011.

There are three bus stations in Kota:[citation needed]

  • New Roadways Bus Stand at Ramchandrapura
  • Nayapura Bus Stand at Nayapura
  • Rawatbhata Bus Stand at Ghode Wale Baba Crossing

Daily buses carry passengers inter-state as well as within the city. Auto-rickshaws and tempos are also widely used means of public transport[citation needed] within the city.

Railways[edit]

Entrance of Kota Railway station

Kota is well connected to all the major cities of India. Kota Junction is one of the divisions in West Central Railway.[64] It is an important station on the Delhi-Mumbai main line. There are four railway stations within Kota and in its vicinity. Another suburban station of South Kota city is Dakaniya Talav Railway station which has a stoppage of Avadh Express, Dehradun Express and Ranthambore Express.[65]

Kota Junction

The city is a halt for over 150 trains,[66] including Jaipur - Indore SuperFast, Udaipur SuperFast (Delhi - Udaipur City Express), Dayodaya Express (Jaipur - Jabalpur Express / Ajmer - Jabalpur Express), Jodhpur - Indore Intercity, Hazrat Nizamuddin - Indore Express, Garbha Express, Marusagar Express (Ajmer - Ernakulam Express / Ernakulam Express), Jaipur - Mysore Express, Jaipur - Chennai Express, Jaipur - Coimbatore Express, Jodhpur - Puri Express, Jodhpur - Bhopal Express and Mumbai Rajdhani Express.

The DelhiMumbai railway line passes through the Kota junction. The district has 148.83 km of railway line in the Kota — Ruthia section, 98.72 km on NagdaMathura (Mumbai-Delhi) section and 24.26 km on Kota —Chittorgarh section.

A broad-gauge railway facility between Kota and Jodhpur via Jaipur exists.

Kota is also an originating point for many trains like Kota - Damoh Passenger (Kota - Katni Passenger) connecting Kota to Damoh in Madhya Pradesh. The Kota - Indore Intercity Express connects to another major city of Madhya Pradesh, Indore Junction. There is also a Jan Shatabdi Express train, from Kota to national capital Delhi. The other trains include, Kota - Vadodara Passenger, Kota - Sriganganagar Express, Kota - Ajmer, Kota - Jabalpur & Kota - Bina Passenger. Patna – Kota Express connects Kota and Patna cities via Agra, Kanpur, Lucknow and Varanasi.

Airports[edit]

Kota Airport has had no scheduled services operating since 1999.[67] The nearest international airport is Jaipur International Airport situated 250 km away from Kota.

Sports[edit]

The city is home to Jay Kaylon Cricket Stadium located in Nayapura area. Among several matches, six Ranji Trophy matches have been played in the stadium.[68][69] The stadium also hosted RCL T20 2016, an inter state cricket league with six participating teams.[70]

Media[edit]

Television[edit]

There are five major regional TV Channels in Kota.[71]

A wide range of other Hindi, English and other language channels are accessible via cable subscription and direct-broadcast satellite services. Dish TV, Tata Sky, Radiant Digitek, Airtel Digital TV are the prominent DTH entertainment services in Kota.

Newspapers[edit]

There are six major daily newspapers in Kota.[72][73][74]

Radio[edit]

There are four radio stations in Kota, with three broadcasting on the FM band, and one All India Radio stations broadcasting on the AM band.

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Kota District Census 2011 Handbook: VILLAGE AND TOWN WISE PRIMARY CENSUS ABSTRACT (PCA)" (PDF). Censusofindia.gov.in. p. 29 (pdf) Urban Section. Retrieved 19 April 2016. 
  2. ^ "2011 census: Kota Municipal Corporation Demographics". Censusofindia.gov.in. Retrieved 2016-04-07. 
  3. ^ a b "Kota (Kota, Rajasthan, India) - Population Statistics and Location in Maps and Charts - City Population". Citypopulation. de. Retrieved 20 July 2016. 
  4. ^ "Major Cities in Rajasthan". Indiatravelportal.com. Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  5. ^ a b c Anjali Puri (31 December 2015). "How Kota became India's capital for educational coaching". Business Standard. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  6. ^ "Tours to Kota". Indian Horizons. Retrieved 2016-06-05. 
  7. ^ "Lakes and Gardens in Kota". Indian Horizons. Retrieved 2016-06-05. 
  8. ^ "कोटा में महेश विजय होंगे नए महापौर". Rajasthan Patrika. 2014-11-26. Retrieved 2016-05-24. 
  9. ^ "Liveability Index: The Best Cities in India" (PDF). Competitiveness.in. p. 22. Retrieved 2 July 2016. 
  10. ^ Mehboob Jeelani (2015-08-28). "Centre unveils list of 98 smart cities; UP, TN strike it rich". The Hindu. Retrieved 2016-05-24. 
  11. ^ "Ranking of Smart Cities" (PDF). Ministry of Urban Development. Retrieved 2016-05-24. 
  12. ^ a b c "About Kota". Rajasthan Travel. Retrieved 2016-06-24. 
  13. ^ a b "History of Kota". Maps of India. Retrieved 5 June 2016. 
  14. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Kota
  15. ^ a b Statistics by Govt. of Rajasthan
  16. ^ "COMMAND AREA DEVELOPMENT CHAMBAL, KOTA". kotadivision.nic.in. Retrieved 3 July 2016. 
  17. ^ a b "Chambal Valley Project". Water Resources Department, Govt. of Rajasthan. Retrieved 3 July 2016. 
  18. ^ "Heat wave claims 10 lives; Kota hottest at 48.4 °C". Zee News. 26 May 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2016. 
  19. ^ a b "Kota Climate details: Monthly Temperature, Rainfall and Sunshine". Weather and climate.com. Retrieved 2016-05-08. 
  20. ^ "Ever Recorded Maximum Temperature, Minimum Temperature and 24 Hours Heaviest Rainfall up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. p. 64. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  21. ^ "Monthly mean maximum & minimum temperature and total rainfall based upon 1901-2000 data" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. p. 38. Retrieved 2016-06-06. 
  22. ^ "Kota (A) Climate Normals 1971-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  23. ^ a b "Religion in Kota". Census 2011. 
  24. ^ a b c Kota City Census report census 2011
  25. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  26. ^ Kota District Demographics, Census 2011 census India 2011
  27. ^ "Languages of Rajasthan". Rajasthan Tourism. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  28. ^ "Instrumentation Ltd Kota: Official website". Retrieved 2016-05-08. 
  29. ^ "Distict and Session Court, Kota: Official Website of District Court". Retrieved 2016-06-04. 
  30. ^ a b "Major Hospitals in Kota". Justdial. Retrieved 2016-05-24. 
  31. ^ "Hospitals in Kota, Rajasthan". Discovered India. Retrieved 2016-05-24. 
  32. ^ "Hospitals in Kota". MediFee. Retrieved 2016-05-24. 
  33. ^ "Economy of Kota". kotaonline.com. Retrieved 2015-05-06. 
  34. ^ a b Aabshar H Quazi (29 April 2016). "JEE (Main) 2016 results: Kota institutes excel again". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 4 June 2016. 
  35. ^ "Top 3 in IIT entrance exam from Kota institute". The Times of India. 13 June 2016. Retrieved 2 July 2016. 
  36. ^ "Metro Plus Delhi / Arts & Crafts : Let's go Kota". The Hindu. 2005-04-02. Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  37. ^ Radhika Rajamani (2003-03-12). "A piece of 'tradition'". The Hindu. Retrieved 2016-04-20. 
  38. ^ Ritu Jain and Victoria Singh. "Kota doria - unique summer weave". Kota Heritage Society. Retrieved 2016-04-20. 
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  41. ^ "Kota Super Thermal Power Plant". RVUN. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  42. ^ Aarti Dhar (12 August 2014). "Rawatbhata acheives nuclear power production feat". The Hindu. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  43. ^ "Jawahar Sagar Hydel Power Station". RVUN. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  44. ^ "The Sunday Tribune - Spectrum". Tribuneindia.com. Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
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Further reading[edit]

  • Tod James Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan: Or, The Central and Western Rajpoot States of India Published 2001 Asian Educational Services ISBN 81-206-1289-2 pp. 407–690

External links[edit]