Kotor

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Kotor
Котор
1 kotor montenegro panorama 2016.jpg
Flag of Kotor
Flag
Coat of arms of Kotor
Coat of arms
Kotor is located in Montenegro
Kotor
Kotor
Coordinates: 42°25′48″N 18°46′12″E / 42.43000°N 18.77000°E / 42.43000; 18.77000
Country Montenegro
Municipality Kotor Municipality
Founded 5th century BC
Settlements 56
Government
 • Mayor Vladimir Jokić (DCG)
 • Ruling coalition DCG-DF-SDP-URA
Area
 • Municipality 335 km2 (129 sq mi)
Population (2003 census)
 • Total 5,341
 • Density 68/km2 (180/sq mi)
 • Municipality 22,947
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 85330
Area code +382 32
ISO 3166-2 code ME-10
Car Plates KO
Website Official

Kotor (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Котор, pronounced [kɔ̌tɔr]) is a coastal town in Montenegro. It is located in a secluded part of the Gulf of Kotor. The city has a population of 13,510 and is the administrative center of Kotor Municipality.

The old Mediterranean port of Kotor is surrounded by fortifications built during the Venetian period. It is located on the Bay of Kotor (Boka Kotorska), one of the most indented parts of the Adriatic Sea. Some have called it the southern-most fjord in Europe, but it is a ria, a submerged river canyon. Together with the nearly overhanging limestone cliffs of Orjen and Lovćen, Kotor and its surrounding area form an impressive and picturesque Mediterranean landscape.

In recent years, Kotor has seen a steady increase in tourists, many of them coming by cruise ship. Visitors are attracted both by the natural beauty of the Gulf of Kotor and by the old town of Kotor. Kotor is part of the World Heritage Site dubbed the Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor.

Geography[edit]

It is located in a secluded part of the Gulf of Kotor.

Climate[edit]

Kotor has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa).

Climate data for Kotor
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 9
(48)
10
(50)
13
(55)
16
(61)
21
(70)
24
(75)
28
(82)
28
(82)
24
(75)
19
(66)
14
(57)
10
(50)
18
(64.3)
Average low °C (°F) 2
(36)
2
(36)
4
(39)
7
(45)
10
(50)
14
(57)
17
(63)
16
(61)
14
(57)
10
(50)
6
(43)
2
(36)
8.7
(47.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 151
(5.94)
135
(5.31)
121
(4.76)
115
(4.53)
86
(3.39)
66
(2.6)
42
(1.65)
59
(2.32)
104
(4.09)
151
(5.94)
194
(7.64)
174
(6.85)
1,398
(55.02)
Average precipitation days 13 13 13 13 11 10 7 7 8 11 14 13 133
Source: weather2travel.com[1]

History[edit]

Entrance of old town Kotor with post-World War II sign "What belongs to others we don't want, what is ours we will never surrender."

Roman era[edit]

Kotor, first mentioned in 168 BC, was settled during Ancient Roman times, when it was known as Acruvium, Ascrivium, or Ascruvium (Ancient Greek: Ἀσκρήβιον) and was part of the Roman province of Dalmatia.[2]

Middle Ages[edit]

The two towns named as Kotor in Medieval Bosnia, at the beginning of the 15th century: Middbosnian in Central Bosnia and Kotor at Boka Kotorska.

Kotor has been fortified since the early Middle Ages, when Emperor Justinian built a fortress above Acruvium in 535, after expelling the Ostrogoths. This town was named as Kotor in 9th century.[3] According to this source, in appointing the future town of Kotor, at the time the Hungarians often burst into the Bosnian Kingdom and that are repeatedly ravaged the territory of the Bosnian town of Kotor, which is the second book of Geography Gerard Rudniger marked as Vesekatro, "which is close to Banja Luka". It is possible that the vase derives from the notion of vassal (lat.vassallus, vassus = servant, from vassal of king of the Franks, and later other European rulers, who gets possession of the king as "leno" or feud) and possessive adjective cataro(= katar). One can not exclude the possibility that the Vasekatro was a refuge and/or settlement of Katars because they have the same root of vase Latin term for the noun vase (vasis, pl. vāsa, vasōrum = vessel, war machine), and guarantor, or endorser (= văs, vădis).

The noblemen of the Bosnian Kotor, called Nendor, Miroslav, and Vuksan, along with some others, when he heard that the walls a new town on the sea, and they went with all his assets of high value in gold and silver to a known location, since the Bosnian Kingdom was rich in minerals of precious metal (gold, silver etc). When, according to Mihajlo Solinjanin (in the description of Dalmatia), arrived in Risan, announced their intention to raise the fortress in which to be sure. When they learned citizens of the settlement Ascrivium, urged that the planned cost of investing in the construction of a current city, "and that combined live as true friends and citizens".

"Bosnians, who are usually like, not accepting this proposal immediately but a few days later said, that they are willing to comply with their request, but under the condition that the new city called the name of their homeland, Kotor. These are not accepted by Ascrivians, or later (says Solinjanin), under the influence of its bishops are agreed to throw the draw, and so they decide what name to call the city. And Draw outbursts in favor of Kotor's Bosnians."[3]

The city (probably Ascrivium) was plundered by the Saracens in 840. Kotor was one of the more influential Dalmatian city-states of romanized Illyrians throughout the Middle Ages, and until the 11th century the Dalmatian language was spoken in Kotor. The city was part of Byzantine Dalmatia in that period.

In 1002, the city suffered damage under the occupation of the First Bulgarian Empire, and in the following year it was ceded to Serbia by the Bulgarian Tsar Samuil. However, the local population resisted the pact and, taking advantage of its alliance with the Republic of Ragusa, only submitted in 1184, while maintaining its republican institutions and its right to conclude treaties and engage in war. It was already an episcopal see, and, in the 13th century, Dominican and Franciscan monasteries were established to check the spread of Bogomilism.

During the Nemanjić dynasty-era, the city was autonomous. 1371 it came under suzerenity of Hungarian king who ruled Croatia and Hungary, and 1384. it became part of Bosnian banate under ban/king Tvrtko. Until 1420 it was independent. The city acknowledged the suzerainty of the Republic of Venice in 1420. In the 14th century, commerce in Kotor competed with that of the nearby Republic of Ragusa and of the Republic of Venice.

Venetian and Ottoman rule[edit]

Venetian fortifications of Kotor

The city was part of the Venetian Albania province of the Venetian Republic from 1420 to 1797. It was besieged by the Ottomans in 1538 and 1657. Four centuries of Venetian domination have given the city the typical Venetian architecture, that contributed to make Kotor a UNESCO world heritage site.[4]

Maritime Gate in the city walls.

In the 14th- and 15th centuries, there was an influx of settlers from the oblasts of Trebinje (the region around forts Klobuk Ledenica and Rudina) and the Hum lands (Gacko and Dabar) to Kotor.[5] The Italian name of the city is Càttaro. Under Venetian rule, Kotor was besieged by the Ottoman Empire in 1538 and 1657, endured the plague in 1572, and was nearly destroyed by earthquakes in 1563 and 1667. It was also ruled by Ottomans at brief periods.[6]

Habsburg and Napoleonic rule[edit]

Napoleonic coins were minted in 1813 in Kotor

After the Treaty of Campo Formio in 1797, it passed to the Habsburg Monarchy. However, in 1805, it was assigned to the French Empire's client state, the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy by the Treaty of Pressburg, although in fact held by a Russian squadron under Dmitry Senyavin. After the Russians retreated, Kotor was united in 1806 with this Kingdom of Italy and then in 1810 with the French Empire's Illyrian Provinces. Kotor was captured by the British in an attack on the Bay led by Commodore John Harper in the brig sloop HMS Saracen (18 guns). To seal off Kotor, residents along the shore literally pulled the ship in windless conditions with ropes. The Saracen's crew later hauled naval 18-pounder guns above Fort St. John, the fortress near Kotor, and were reinforced by Captain William Hoste with his ship HMS Bacchante (38 guns). The French garrison had no alternative but to surrender, which it did on 5 January 1814.

It was restored to the Habsburg Monarchy by the Congress of Vienna. Until 1918, the town, then known as Cattaro, was head of the district of the same name, one of the 13 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in the Kingdom of Dalmatia.[7]

In World War I, Kotor was one of three main bases of the Austro-Hungarian Navy and homeport to the Austrian Fifth Fleet, consisting of pre-dreadnought battleships and light cruisers. The area was the site of some of the fiercest battles between local Montenegrin Slavs and Austria-Hungary. After 1918, the city became a part of Yugoslavia and officially became known as Kotor.

World War II[edit]

Between 1941 and 1943 the Kingdom of Italy annexed the area of Kotor which became one of three provinces of the Italian Governorate of Dalmatia - the Province of Cattaro had an area of 1,075 km2 (415 sq mi) and population of 128,000.[8]

Main sights[edit]

UNESCO World Heritage Site
Kotor, part of the Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
20090719 Crkva Gospa od Zdravlja Kotor Bay Montenegro.jpg
Location Montenegro
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iii, iv
Reference 125
UNESCO region Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1979 (3rd Session)
Extensions 1979-2003

Kotor has one of the best preserved medieval old towns in the Adriatic and is a UNESCO world heritage site.[4] It is home to numerous sights, such as the Cathedral of Saint Tryphon in the old town (built in 1166), and the ancient walls which stretch for 4.5 km (3 mi) directly above the city. Sveti Đorđe and Gospa od Škrpijela islets off the coast of Perast are also among the more popular destinations in the vicinity of Kotor.

Culture[edit]

Square of Arms

Kotor hosts several summer events, such as the Summer Carnival or Bokeljska Noć. Together with Budva, and the small town of Tuzi, near Podgorica, the city hosted the Federation of European Carnival Cities (FECC) World Carnival City Congress in May 2009.

Demographics[edit]

Kotor is the administrative centre of Kotor municipality, which includes the towns of Risan and Perast, as well as many small hamlets around the Bay of Kotor, and has a population of 22,601.[9]

The town of Kotor itself has 961 inhabitants, but the administrative limits of the town encompass only the area of the Old Town. The urban area of Kotor also includes Dobrota (8,819) and Škaljari (3,807), bringing the population of Kotor's urban area close to 13,000 inhabitants. The total number rises to around 15,000 if the neighbouring hamlets of Muo, Prčanj and Stoliv are included. The entire population of Kotor Municipality was 22,947, as of the 2003 census.

Demographics[edit]

Ethnic composition of the municipality in 2011:[9]

Ethnicity Number Percentage
Montenegrins 11,047 48.88%
Serbs 6,910 30.57%
Croats 1,553 6.87%
other/undeclared 3,091 13.68%
Total 22,601 100%

According to documents from 1900, Kotor had 7,617 Catholics, and 7,207 Orthodox Christians. Kotor is still the seat of the Catholic Bishopric of Kotor, which covers the entire gulf. In 2011, 78% citizens of Kotor were Orthodox Christians, while 13% were listed as Roman Catholic.

The ethnic composition of the settlements (2003)[edit]

Relative ethnic majority:

Montenegrins
Populated place Total Montenegrins Serbs Croats Undecided Others
Bigova 114 8 97 2 3 4
Bratešići 52 11 30 1 - 10
Bunovići 1 - 1 - - -
Čavori 2 2 - - - -
Dobrota 8.169 4,428 2,067 535 801 338
Donji Morinj 261 68 161 11 7 14
Donji Orahovac 257 104 124 7 17 5
Donji Stoliv 336 95 84 54 70 33
Dragalj 32 1 31
Dražin Vrt 59 35 23 1
Dub 248 52 160 5 23 8
Glavati 160 51 79 1 29
Glavatičići 69 2 67
Gornji Morinj 16 4 11 1
Gornji Orahovac 36 4 28 4
Gornji Stoliv 10 10
Gorovići 44 14 30
Han 60 3 54 1 2
Kavač 443 168 90 111 44 30
Knežlaz 26 11 15
Kovači 81 26 48 6 1
Kolužunj 7 5 2
Kostanjica 127 49 34 7 16 21
Kotor 1,331 630 309 116 197 79
Krimovica 55 4 49 1 1
Kubasi 24 22 2
Lastva Grbaljska 428 145 256 1 18 8
Ledenice 32 14 15 3
Lipci 36 23 8 1 4
Lješevići 150 12 132 4 2
Mali Zalazi 0 - - - - -
Malov Do 11 11
Mirac 80 73 6 1
Muo 677 327 119 137 47 47
Nalježići 147 43 95 3 5 1
Pelinovo 71 4 63 2 2
Perast 349 146 101 29 32 41
Pištet 0 - - - - -
Pobrđe 119 48 70 1
Prijeradi 25 7 14 2 2
Prčanj 1,244 591 267 186 117 83
Radanovići 663 110 437 3 83 30
Risan 2,083 1,056 613 48 262 104
Strp 45 13 2 13 1 16
Sutvara 325 58 253 1 10 3
Šišići 94 16 67 11
Škaljari 4,002 2,181 738 315 279
Špiljari 8 8
Trešnjica 0 - - - - -
Ukropci 2 2 - - - -
Unijerina 20 8 11 1
Veliki Zalazi 0 - - - - -
Višnjeva 128 40 63 20 5
Vranovići 133 26 94 1 6 6
Zagora 48 3 40 4 1
Zvečava 7 4 3
ukupno 22,947 10,741
(46,80%)
7,094
(30,91%)
1,762
(7,67%)
2,165
(9,43%)
1,185
(5,19%)

Transport[edit]

Kotor is connected to the Adriatic Motorway and the rest of the coast and inland Montenegro by Vrmac Tunnel. Inland is reachable by detouring from Adriatic motorway at Budva or Sutomore (through Sozina tunnel). There is also a historic road connecting Kotor with Cetinje, which offers spectacular views of Kotor bay.

Tivat Airport is 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) away, and there are regular flights to Belgrade, Moscow and Paris and dozens of charter planes land daily on Tivat airport during the summer season.

Podgorica Airport is 65 kilometres (40 mi) away, and it has regular flights to major European destinations throughout the year.

Twin towns[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Kotor Climate: Monthly Weather Averages - Montenegro". Weather2travel.com. Retrieved 2016-12-29. 
  2. ^ Jackson, Hamilton (2010). The Shores of the Adriatic (Illustrated Edition). Echo Library. p. 269. ISBN 978-1-4068-6761-9. Retrieved 21 February 2011. 
  3. ^ a b Orbin M. (1601). Regno degli Slavi hoggi corrottamente detti Schiavoni. Historia di Mavro Orbini raveseo Abbate Melitense. 3. Dalmatia, Croatia, Bosna, Servia & Bvulgaria/Kraljevstvo Slavena/Kingdom of Slavs (translation in 1968.). Pesaro/Beograd: Girolamo Concordia/Srpska književna zadruga. 
  4. ^ a b "Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor". Unesco World Heritage Convention. Retrieved 5 December 2016. 
  5. ^ Tošić, Đuro. Trebinjci i Zahumljani u srednjovjekovnom Kotoru, work in Istraživanja, 2005, br. 16, pp. 221-27.
  6. ^ "Kotor - Town in Montenegro - Sightseeing and Landmarks". Thousand Wonders. Retrieved 2016-12-29. 
  7. ^ Die postalischen Abstempelungen auf den österreichischen Postwertzeichen-Ausgaben 1867, 1883 und 1890, Wilhelm KLEIN, 1967
  8. ^ Rodogno, Davide (2003). Il nuovo ordine mediterraneo. Turin: Bollati Boringhieri. 
  9. ^ a b "Montenegrin 2011 census". Monstat. 2011. 

External links[edit]