Kottayam district

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Kottayam District
Illikkal Kallu (ഇല്ലിക്കൽ കല്ല് ).jpg
Kottayam district
Location in Kerala
Coordinates: 9°35′42″N 76°31′52″E / 9.595°N 76.531°E / 9.595; 76.531Coordinates: 9°35′42″N 76°31′52″E / 9.595°N 76.531°E / 9.595; 76.531
CountryIndia
StateKerala
Established1 July 1949
RegionCentral Travancore
HeadquartersKottayam
Government
 • CollectorM. Anjana I.A.S[1]
Area
 • Total2,208 km2 (853 sq mi)
Population
 • Total1,974,551
 • Density890/km2 (2,300/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialMalayalam, English
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-KL
Vehicle registrationKL-05,KL-33,KL-34,KL-35,KL-36,KL-67
Websitewww.kottayam.gov.in

Kottayam is one of fourteen districts in the state of Kerala, India. Kottayam district comprises of six municipal towns: Kottayam, Changanassery, Pala, Erattupetta, Ettumanoor, and Vaikom. It is the only district in Kerala that does not border the Arabian Sea or any other states.

The district is bordered by hills in the east, and the Vembanad Lake and paddy fields of Kuttanad on the west. The area's geographic features include paddy fields, highlands, and hills. As of the 2011 census, 28.6% of the district's residents live in urban areas, and it reports a 97.2% literacy rate.[2] In 2008, the district became the first tobacco-free district in India.[3]

The district's headquarters are based in the city of Kottayam. The towns of Pala and Kidangoor are located in the center of the district.

Hindustan Newsprint Limited and Rubber Board are two central government organizations located in the district. The headquarters of two religious communities in Kerala are also in the Kottayam District: Nair Service Society and the Indian Orthodox Church.

History[edit]

The name Kottayam is a combination of the words "kotta" and "akam" in the local language of Malayalam, meaning "interior of a fort".

The current Kottayam district was previously part of the state of Travancore. Earlier, the Travancore state consisted of two revenue divisions: the southern and northern divisions, both under the administrative control of a "Diwan Peshkar" for each. Later in 1868, two more divisions—Kollam and Kottayam—were constituted. A fifth division Devikulam was added, but it only lasted for a short period, and was then joined with Kottayam. At the time of the integration of the state of Travancore and Kochi in 1949, these revenue divisions were renamed as districts and the Diwan Peshkars gave way to district collectors, paving the way for the birth of the Kottayam district in July 1949. The cities included were Kottayam, Muvattupuzha (including present-day Kothamangalam), Thodupuzha, Changanasserry, Vaikkom, Meenachil, Devikulam and Peermade taluks.[4]

Kottayam has been involved in a number of political movements, including the 'Malayali Memorial' movement. The movements goal was more representation for Travancoreans in civil service.[5]

Vaikom Satyagraha, a protest against caste discrimination, took place in Kottayam district. The district also participated in the protests for responsible government in Travancore, which ended with the overthrow of Sir C. P. Ramaswami Iyer, the Diwan of Travancore.[citation needed]

Communities[edit]

The two major religious communities in the Kottayam district are Hinduism and Christianity. The Nair Service Society's headquarters are located in the district's town of Perunna, Changanaserry. The Mannam memorial, created in memory of social reformer Mannathu Padmanabha Pillai, is also located there.

The headquarters of the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church (Malankara Church/Indian Orthodox Church), is located in Devalokam, Kottayam. It is the official headquarters of the Malankara Metropolitan and the Catholicos of the East.

The Madhya Kerala Diocese of the Church of South India has its headquarters in Kottayam.

The Knanaya Christian community (both the Catholic and Jacobite factions) also has its headquarters in Kottayam district.

Climate[edit]

There are no distinct seasons in Kottayam, as it has a tropical climate like that of the rest of Kerala. Humidity is high and rises to about 90% during the rainy season. Kottayam gets rain from two monsoon seasons, the south-west monsoon and the north-east monsoon, and accumulates an average rainfall of around 3600 mm per year. The south-west monsoon starts in June and ends in September, and the north-east monsoon season is from October to November. Pre-monsoon rains from March to May are accompanied by thunder and lightning; the highest rainfall during this period in Kerala is received in Kottayam. December, January, and February are cooler, while March, April, and May are warmer. The highest temperature recorded in Kottayam was 38.5 °C on 6 April 1998, and the lowest was 15 °C on 13 December 2000.[6]

The Kottayam district experienced intense red rainfall in 2001, during which the rain was colored red, yellow, green, and black.[7]

Tourism and wildlife[edit]

Kottayam has a network of rivers, backwaters, ancient religious places, and hill stations. Local tourist places include:

House Boat in Kumarakom
  • Vembanad Lake is home to traditional cargo boats called Kettuvallams, which are modified into cruise boats and houseboats.[9] Pathiramanal is a small island located in the Vembanad Lake, and is only accessible by boat.[10]

Accessibility[edit]

Kottayam is linked by major roads and rail to other prominent cities in Kerala, and also by waterways allowing for waterborne travel. The Kottayam Kumali, Ettumanoor-Ernakulam, Kottayam-Pathanamthitta, Thiruvalla-Kidangoor Central Kerala Bypass, and MC road are the major roads in the district. The nearest airport is the Cochin International Airport. SWTD operates ferry services from different parts of the Kottayam district. The ferry service from Vaikom to Thavanakkadavu in the Alappuzha district is the longest. India's first solar ferry service boat, 'Adhithya', operates from Vaikom.[citation needed]

Agriculture[edit]

Kottayam has a mountainous terrain as well as low-lying areas very close to sea level. Depending on the location, different varieties of food and cash crops are cultivated. Rice is the principal crop extensively cultivated in low-lying regions like Vaikom and Upper Kuttanad. The district occupies third place in the production of rice in Kerala behind Palakkad and Alappuzha. Though it is the staple food of the people, the area under cultivation is dwindling due to more lucrative cash crops like rubber plantations for which Kottayam significantly contributes to the overall rubber production in India. Kottayam is India's largest rubber producer. Rubber trees provide a stable income for farmers and the climate is ideal for rubber plantations. Though the highlands are more suitable, cultivation has spread to almost all regions. Other crops cultivated include tapiocas, coconuts, peppers, and vegetables. To enhance rubber productivity, the government of India has set up a Rubber Board as well as a rubber research institute in Kottayam.[13][14]

Industry[edit]

The district lacks refineries, ports, and an airport, which are needed for major industries.[citation needed]Aside from two public sector companies, Hindustan Newsprint at Velloor and Travancore Cements at Nattakom, industries in the district consist mostly of small and medium-size operations. These mainly include the publishing and processing of rubber or latex, and manufacturing of rubber-based products.

Confined mostly to the Vaikom area of the district is an industry of coir processing and making coir products.[citation needed] Consisting of more than twenty cooperatives, it employs around 20,000 people.[citation needed] In the hand-loom sector, eight cooperative societies employ 2,100 persons. The district's forests include varieties of softwood and other varieties of timber providing the raw material for several small enterprises in the production of plywood, packing cases, splints, veneers, and furniture.[citation needed]

The first printing press in Kerala, C.M.S. Press, was established in 1821 by Rev. Benjamin Bailey, a British missionary. Malayalam-English and English-Malayalam dictionaries were published in Kottayam in 1846 and 1847. The only cooperative society of writers, authors and publishers (SPCS) for publishing books and periodicals was established in 1945. Kottayam is home to a number of books and periodicals, and is the center of publishing business in the state.[citation needed] Publishing houses like Malayala Manorama, Mathrubhumi publications, Labour India Publications Ltd, Mangalam Publications, Deepika, D. C. Books, V Publishers, Vidhyamitram, Kerala Kaumudi daily and Kerala Kaumudi Flash are also publishers in the district. The city of Kottayam hosts several book exhibitions every year.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901450,615—    
1911488,040+0.80%
1921585,478+1.84%
1931775,069+2.84%
1941942,899+1.98%
19511,132,478+1.85%
19611,313,983+1.50%
19711,539,030+1.59%
19811,697,442+0.98%
19911,828,271+0.75%
20011,953,646+0.67%
20111,974,551+0.11%
source:[15]

According to the 2011 census Kottayam district has a population of 1,974,551,[16] roughly equal to the nation of Slovenia[17] or the US state of New Mexico.[18] This gives it a ranking of 234th in India (out of a total of 640).[16] The district has a population density of 896 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,320/sq mi).[16] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–11 was 1.32%.[16] Kottayam has a sex ratio of 1040 females for every 1000 males,[16] and a literacy rate of 97.21, the highest in the state and 4th highest in India.

Religion[edit]

Religions in Kottayam District
Religion Percent
Hindus
49.81%
Christians
43.48%
Muslims
6.41%
Others
0.3%
Distribution of religions
Source: 2011 Census.

According to the 2011 Indian Census, Hinduism (49.81%) is the majority religion in Kottayam, with a significant Christian (43.48%) population. The Muslim population constitutes 6.41% of the district.[citation needed]

Kottayam, Thiruvalla, and Chengannur are the railway stations for pilgrims heading to the Hindu holy site of Sabarimala.

The pilgrim centers in Kottayam include a number of Hindu temples, Christian churches and Muslim mosques, including:[19]

Hindu temples[edit]

Vaikom temple is known as the Kasi of the South

Churches[edit]

St. George Orthodox Church, Puthuppally
St. Thomas Syro-Malabar Catholic Cathedral, Pala
St Mary's Jacobite Orthodox Church, Manarcaud
Kappalottam festival at Marth Mariam Kuravilangad Church

Mosques[edit]

  • Thazhathangady Juma Mosque—One of the ancient mosques in India.
  • Thangalppara in Kottayam—The mausoleum of Sheikh Fariduddin, and a Muslim pilgrim centre.[21]

Notable persons[edit]

Politics[edit]

K. R. Narayanan, the former President of India is from Kottayam district. Currently, Kottayam is represented in the Lok Sabha by Thomas Chazhikadan of Kerala Congress (Mani).

MLA's by constituency[edit]

Sl. No Constituency Member Party Alliance
1 Pala Mani C. Kappan NCP   LDF
2 Kaduthuruthy Monce Joseph KC(M)   UDF
3 Vaikom C. K. Asha CPI   LDF
4 Ettumanoor K. Suresh Kurup CPI(M)   LDF
5 Kottayam Thiruvanchoor Radhakrishnan INC   UDF
6 Puthuppally Oommen Chandy INC   UDF
7 Changanassery C. F. Thomas KC(M)   UDF
8 Kanjirappally N. Jayaraj KC(M)   UDF
9 Poonjar P. C. George KJ(S)   NDA

Towns and villages in the district[edit]

Major Tier-I towns[edit]

Major Tier-II towns[edit]

Other villages[edit]

Education[edit]

The first college in Kerala state and the second established under British rule in India was the C.M.S. College (Grammar School) (1840) in Kottayam.[22]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "About District Collector - Kottayam District, Government of Kerala - India". Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  2. ^ "2011 Kottayam Census" (PDF). p. 15,16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 November 2019.
  3. ^ "Kottayam district to be declared tobacco-free - KERALA - The Hindu". The Hindu. 16 February 2020. Archived from the original on 16 February 2020. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
  4. ^ K. M. Mathew, ed. (2006). Manorama Year Book. Malayala Manorama. p. 116.
  5. ^ "History | Kottayam District, Government of Kerala". Retrieved 8 January 2019.
  6. ^ http://www.kerala.gov.instatistical/panchayat_statistics2001/ktm_shis.htm[permanent dead link] Climate of Kottayam
  7. ^ Ramakrishnan, Venkatraman (30 July 2001). "Coloured Rain: A Report on the Phenomenon" (PDF). BBC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 May 2006. Retrieved 23 September 2019.
  8. ^ http://www.forest.kerala.gov.in/index.php/kottayam
  9. ^ "VEMBANAD LAKE | Kottayam District, Government of Kerala | India".
  10. ^ "VEMBANAD LAKE | Kottayam District, Government of Kerala | India".
  11. ^ "ILAVEEZHAPOONCHIRA | Kottayam District, Government of Kerala | India".
  12. ^ "Vagamon,Wagamon, Vagamon hill station, Vagamon Heights, Vagamon Hideout".
  13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 3 January 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  14. ^ "naturemagics.com - Diese Website steht zum Verkauf! - Informationen zum Thema naturemagics". ww1.naturemagics.com. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  15. ^ Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901
  16. ^ a b c d e "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
  17. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 1 October 2011. Slovenia 2,000,092 July 2011 est.
  18. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2011. New Mexico - 2,059,179
  19. ^ "District Profile".
  20. ^ "St.Mary's Jacobite Syrian Cathedral, Manarcad".
  21. ^ "Thangalppara, Muslim pilgrim centre, Kottayam".
  22. ^ CMS College CMS website.
  23. ^ "Amal Jyothi College of Engineering". ajce.in. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  24. ^ "Government College Kottayam".
  25. ^ "Kendriya Vidyalaya, Rubber Board, Puthuppally". Archived from the original on 13 March 2008. Retrieved 1 June 2008.

External links[edit]